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thus elicited, and seen to be required to fix what is already known, is then likely to be remembered. It may then be written down on the black board. Perhaps each new lesson may properly introduce some four or five-not more-of such words, hitherto unfamiliar, and it is a good plan to require these words to be written, and to give as a homelesson the question, “ Wbat use did we make of these words ?”

He should like to add a word or two on the subject of recitations, both for upper classes and for pupil teachers; it was often his duty to express an opinion on the choice which the teachers had made. He did not like to sanction the choice of a mere fragment from Scott, or any other narrative poem, anless something was known of the whole story of which it formed a part. Nor did he think it wise as a rule to select passages from second-rate authors. The conditions a well-chosen passage should fulfil were these :--It should have a unity of its own, or its relations to the whole book to which it belongs should be understood. It should be musical and interesting. Its language should be elevated somewhat above that of ordinary life, and should contain some images and allusions, the investigation of which would widen the range of the lcarner's thoughts. It should be a choice specimen of good English, and chosen with a view to improve the taste, and to abide pleasantly in the memory in after years. With regard to the explanation of words, some young teachers made the mistake of supposing that all that was necessary was to get out from the dictionary the meanings of all the harder words. And so we hear a child recite from the Prisoner of Chillon

" But he the favourite and the flower

Most cherished since his natal hour," and find on asking that a sort of spelling-book synonym can be readily given for “cherished ” and for “natal,” but that the learner does not know who he means. The truth was that it was by conversation about the whole meaning and drift both of the poem and of particular passages, and by brief and varied paraphrases of the several sentences, that such recitations could be made of value, and not by committing to memory the meanings of separate words.* Here, again, the effective learning of "literature" as a higher subject presupposed the habit, in all the lower classes, of questioning thoroughly on the meanings of the words in every reading lesson-a practice which, though not mentioned in the Code, was indispensable for promoting the intelligence of the scholars, and enabling them to make a right use of books hereafter. The general principle to be kept in view in relation to every advanced subject taken up in an elementary school was that it was not to be regarded as a showy fringe or finish to be attached to a garment of inferior fabric, but a finer sort of thread, to be interwoven with the whole texture of the school course. In conclusion, he added that, although he had offered these desultory hints, he should, especially in this first experimental year, feel disposed to sanction any plan which teachers had considered carefully and wished to adopt-whether it conformed exactly to his own views or not. He also suggested that it would be well to prepare the plan carefully before his visit-have it written out on foolscap- in order that it might, when signed by the Inspector, be preserved for reference in the coming year.

* See Major's Poetry for Repetition; 12 subjects, id. each,


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model Answers to First Year Certificate Questions,

Christmas, 1879. "From which of the sources of the English language are the following words derived. Give also the signification of each :- Interlunar,' 'forecast,' atheists,' gangrene,'' harbinger,' sincere,' 'hero,' 'murderer,' 'enchant,' 'profane,' 'priest,'' witness.'

“Interlunar," derived from Latin. Belonging to the time when the moon is invisible (a short time before and after new moon).

“Forecast,” derived from Danish. The prefix is also Anglo-Saxon. To foresee, predict.

* Atheists, "derived from Greek. Those who disbelieve the existence of a God.

“Gangrene,” derived from Greek. The mortification of some part of a living animal body.

'Harbinger,” derived from Anglo-Saxon. A forerunner; one who goes on beforehand in order to give notice of the arrival of some person or thing.

“Sincere,” derived from Latin. Formerly signified pure. It now means honest, without disguise or dissimulation, true.

“ Hero,” derived from Greek. A man distinguished by lofty actions, especially those requiring great courage or endurance.

“Murderer,” derived from Anglo-Saxon. One who unlawfully kills a human being with premeditated malice.

“Enchant,” derived from Latiu through French. To charm, to overcome by charms or spells, to delight exceedingly.

“Profane,” derived from Latin. Irreverent; also, not sacred, secular.

"Priest,” derived from Anglo-Saxon; but originally, perhaps, from Greek. One who ministers in sacred offices. (This word is used in several significations. Sometimes it is held to mean one who is set apart to offer sacrifices.)

“Witness," derived from Anglo-Saxon. One who bears testimony; also, one who sees something performed.

School Wethod and management.

(Continued from December Number.) The following general rules in teaching arithmetic may be of use:Rule 1.-Begin each lesson with mental arithmetic. Rule Il.-Let these problems lead up to particular subject in hand.

Rule III.-Suit these and the work following to the capacities of the individuals in class.

Rule IV.-Construct your problems always so as to teach, and to keep up numeration and notation.

Rule V.--Train your class that it may be depended on to work the same rule at once without copying; occasionally dividing them into A's and B's, or 1, 2, and 3's, as a mere matter of discipline. But these children cannot be kept under a glass shade all their life, therefore should be taught to be honest ander temptation; it can be done, for it is done.

Rule VI.--Never let an individual be idle, and never let one be doing what he can readily do without effort, and never let one be trying what you know he is incapable of; if a boy has finished before others, give him another problem. If there be no effort required, there is not merely loss of time, but disgust and spiritlessness. If you have told a boy capable of raising only 40 lbs. to lift 41 lbs., you have given him the impossible to solve.

Throughout teaching arithmetic constant appeal should be made to the actual and concrete, as to balls, beads, sticks, cubes, bricks, dots, strokes, marbles, peas, shot, bobbins, fingers, chair legs; sides of cubes, books, and slates in infant school; as well as coins, all pieces in actual use; weights (either weights themselves borrowed, or pictures, or diagrams, or models of these to show relative sizes); measures, representations of which can be given as above, a foot rale, a yard measure, black-board divided into halves, one-thirds, one-fourths, one-fifths, onesevenths, one-eighths. A line similarly divided should be constantly appealed to.

The science of quantity is based on the axiom that one and one are two; this is a “self-evident truth,” not to be proved by logic.

Some writers and teachers insist that addition should be carried on at first by mere counting, and afterwards by splitting up one of the two numbers; thus, 6+5 = (by counting) 6+1+1+1+1+1= 11; or, 6+5 = 11; 6+2+3=ll; or, 6+4+i=ll, &c.

The objection to this is -(1) Time is lost.

(2) The analysis is utterly unnecessary, if only the previous lessons have been properly graduated ; indeed, the opposite process, that of combining several figures together, as of recurrent I's in a column of figures, should be aimed at. Most infant teachers for first lesson in number teach the cardinals in order, say up to 20; this can be of no practical utility to the child of five years old, and it has a practical objection—(1) Names are given for notions which the child cannot grasp; for instance, 10 is to this child a mere sound, with no concrete representation. (2) It practically gives rise to guessing; the child has a greater supply of names than demand for them within its actual power of adding up, and so acts like a spendthrift, and will say 2 + 2

13, 14, &c. The cardinals should be learned from their actual use, value, and function; thus five should not be named until it is wanted to express the sum of 3+2 = 5, &c. Another very useful way of fixing both the order and use, as well as the mode of expression (or writing down numbers up to a hundred), is by appealing to number of page of the book, and the number of the house in the street they live in; this carries them up to ninety-nine.

No attempt should be made in infant schools to give any notion of our decimal notation; so far from recommending, as some writers do, the putting the tens' figures in large form, as, "ten times as high and as broad as units' figure;” the child should know nothing of "units” and “tens."

The absurdity of the above recommendation becomes grotesque when we reflect that it logically requires a Brobdignagian hundred's figure, a hundred times as high, and a hundred times as broad as the Lilliputian unit; moreover, these ninepins are only set up to be knocked down, the

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large tens' figure by and bye is changed to a smaller. The decimal basis of number may be assumed until we have passed the limit 999. As soon as we overstep this limit, we should draw a line down the slate or black-board, marking off the thousands from the hundreds on the right; the new ground to be broken up now consists wholly and solely of that on the left of this line, and the work should be done exactly as it was with the numbers on right of line, without any naming whatever of "uuits,” “ tens,” and “hundreds.” The same remark will apply to the “millions' columns,” introduced by means of second vertical line; the question then arises, when will you give a child notions (if at all) of the decimal basis ? In teaching addition (see remarks on subtraction), children are sometimes left too long before they are taught to add up more than two numbers; there is no reason why 2 + 2 + 3, &c., should not be taught before 11 + 9, &c.; and if these three numbers are thus taught, interesting little problems can be made. In giving such problems as 2 + 3 + 2, we have concrete representations; the teacher should be logical, and use the illustrations logically, 2 cows + 3 cows + 2 cows, not 2 cows + 3 sheep + 2 goats. (Similarly, at later stages, such absurd problems violating laws of quantity should not be given as £3 2s. 8d. £4 7s. 9d., for as icches multiplied by inches = square inches, so pence multiplied by pence = square pence if anything.) Any tricks in mental arithmetic wbich the teacher knows should, if simple, be given to the class ; thus 2 + 3 + 4, and 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9, are a series of which the sum is the middle term (average) maltiplied by number of terms. So, again, exercises in addition, simple or compound, of any number of figares, can be rapidly given, the answers of which are told at sight. Thus,

Here, any first line is taken; the next line is made of 1472

= 1000. figures which added to the top line figures make 853

ciphers; thus 7 + 3 = 10, 5 + 4 + 1 = 10, 8+1+1 976

= 10; so all these six figures can stand in the mind = 1000. 24

as a thousand. Similarly the next couple is built up, 101

and the third, and so on. Underneath these couples 221

a single or double proof line” are added; thus in

example, answer 2000 + two proof lines = 2322. 2322

We have only to add proof lines, and prefix the

number of thousands; so in compound addition, see following example:-

465 , 16 111
534 1 3 0

= £1 } £1000
7 S16 8

2 1 3 4
10 11 6



= £1


£1020 11 6 Multiplication.-In doing such sums as 96549 x 8942, instead of multiplying by 4, double 2's line; for 8, double 4's line; and for second 8, copy the preceding. In multiplying by 25, add two cyphers, and divide by 4. In compound multiplication, instead of using 10 x 10 + &c., see if multiplier will split up into factors; remember also in finding factors that 107 = 12 x 9 –1, i.e., subtraction should be used as

much as addition. (So, 9,999 articles at £19 19s. 11 d. each = 10000 x 20 – £19 19s. 11 d. 9999 farthings.) Be sure the smallest lot of figures is used as multiplier. Note that the proper limits to multiplication table are not from 2 x 1 to 12 x 12; this is too much and too little ; . we should begin with 0 x 0 = 0, 0xl= 0, &c. Next follows 1x0= 0, &c. When these are all written down in full it, will be seen that we can do with half of table. If the table be represented in full by a square, a diagonał line from north-west to south-east corner cuts off the necessary from the unnecessary part.

(To be continued.)

Sketches in English Historij. GEORGE III.—(Continued from December Number). In 1790 the French Revolution became the great parliamentary, and the leading popular topic. Difference of opinion on this subject produced a convulsion in the state of parties, and an exasperation of feeling among the leading politicians, almost without a parallel. The chief rupture occurred between Fox and Burke, who had for many years regarded each other with brotherly affection. They differed in their views; Fox eulogised the Revolution, and Burke most bitterly condemned it. In his subsequent parliamentary career, Fox energetically opposed the war with France. Pitt led the cry against French principles, the majority of the nation was clamorous for war, and hostilities were at length commenced against revolutionized France. In 1801, Pitt carried his favourite project of an union with Ireland, notwithstanding the opposition of Charles James Fox and Henry Grattan; and during the discussions on that subject, he held out hopes to the Irish Catholics that their political disabilities would be speedily abolished. The king, however, was averse from concession, and the people, at the same time, were anxious for peace. Finding himself, therefore, incapable of performing his promise to the Catholics, he accordingly resigned his office, and supported his successor in office, Mr. Addington, until the renewal of the war with France, when the Premier resigned, and Pitt was again appointed to take the reins of government, on the 12th of May, 1804, when he prosecuted the war with all the vigour in his power. But his spirits and health, already impaired, were fatally affected by the disastrous effects of affairs on the continent: his constitution now rapidly declined, and he became so lethargic, that the awful intelligence of his approaching death had scarcely any effect upon him. His death took place on the 23rd January, 1806. His last words, according to an assertion made by Mr. Rose in the House of Commons, were, “Oh, my country!”

In person Pitt was tall, slender, well-proportioned, and active; he had blue eyes, a rather fair complexion, prominent features and a bigh capacious forehead. His aspect was severe and forbidding, his voice clear and powerful; his action dignified, but neither graceful nor engaging; his tone and manners, although urbane and complacent in society, were lofty and often arrogant in the Senate. On entering the

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