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into--What was found in them-And what was the construction of any masonry they may have exhibited ?
11. Are there any artificial or natural caverns apparently employed either as sepulchres or as granaries, or hiding-places ?
12. Are there any trees, wells, or springs, which are of superstitious interestAvd at what distance are they from the present church?
13. Is there any ancient trackway or road in the parish—What are its materials, construction, and direction, whether winding on the sides of hills or nearly in a straight line?
14. Have any bones of man been found, and to what compass-point was the upper part of the skull directed ? or the bones of inferior animals, or any wedge or hatchet-like objects of stone or metal—any shields, spears, swords, or other weapons-arrow-heads, or knives of bone and flint-pottery, bone pins, rings, beads, bracelets, collars, coins, been discovered under or near any such modu. ments as above designated, or in other localities ?—At what depth beneath the surface have any interments been found—were the bodies buried upright, or with the face downwards and was the grave lined with stones, or how formed?
II.-Roman REMAINS. 1. Is there in the parish any kind of road said to have been formed by the Romans or their immediate successors, or any traces of such—And what are the materials and mode of its construction ?
2. What name and history do the peasantry attach to it?
3. What is its general direction by compass-And what are the names of those parts of the parish, whether hamlets, farms, or fields, which it traverses ?
4. Have any ancient sculptured stones, or the foundations of any edifice, been discovered near it?
5. Are there any regular elevations of earth, or enclosures called ancient camps, and does any ancient road or causeway terminate at such enclosures ?
6. Is there any spot traditionally said to be a ballle-field-and have any intrenchments, bones, warlike instruments, &c., supporting such tradition, been found thereon or in the vicinity ?
7. Have any fragments of urns of glass or pottery,--any lamps, coins, buckles, pins, or bracelets, brooches, rings, seals, keys, cubes of clay for mosaic pavement, or small figures of men or animals, been discovered in the parish, and in what precise localities?
8. Are there any walls faced with small-squared stones, either in regular or irregular courses, and divided horizontally at certain distances by bricks peculiarly shaped, and are such buildings in straight or curved lines? Of what quality and composition is the mortar or any cement on them?
9. Have there been found any inscribed stones or portions of columns, or statues of bronze or marble ?
10. Have any coffins of stone, lead, or baked earth been found, either singly or in groups-And in what direction of the compass were the heads laid-If such coffins still exist, and have any ornaments or inscriptions, it would be desirable to take rubbings or impressions from them, by means of soft paper and leather dressed with black lead and oil, or by rubbings taken with heel-ball. The same modes of producing facsimiles are applicable to all objects, whether engraved, or sculptured in low relief.
11. Have any ancient coins or seals been found ?- If so, ascertain the metal of which they are composed, and procure impressions in sealing wax from the various kinds of them, noting precisely in what locality, and with what other ancient objects, they were found.
12. In whose possession were, or now are, any such remains as above enumerated ?
No. III.- EccLEsiASTICAL REMAINS (Erlernally.) 1. What ECCLESIASTICAL Edifices or conventual remains are there in the parish ?
2. Is there an old church, and of what general plan is it, whether cruciform, with or without aisles, tower, ancient porch, or vestry? Is the east end flat, or circular, or multangular, and in what precise direction of the compass are the chancel and the nave built ?
3. What are its extreme dimensions, and the general thickness of the walls ?
4. Of what materials is it-Are there any brick, such as are commonly termed Roman, about the doors and windows, or in the body of the walls ?
5. Are the buttresses flat or graduated, and how are they ornamented and terminated-Are they placed at regular distances ?
6. Are there any remains of a rood-loft staircase ?
7. Are the parapets plain or embattled-Have they pinnacles, gable crosses, or gurgoyles for the escape of water-Are the walls ornamented with sculptured bands, as continuations of the dripstones, or with moulded strings under the windows, or elsewhere-Has the gable of the nave or either aisle any bellturret ?
8. Ilow many door-ways are there ? are any now stopped up, and are their heads semicircular or pointed, whether of lancet or equilateral form, or struck from two or four centres, or of ogee form, or flat ?
9. Are the doorway mouldings round or angular-plain or ornamented-and of what architectural style ?
10. Has the chancel any low narrow doorway, and of what form is its head ? Do any of the doors themselves appear ancient, and of what form is their iron. work?
11. Of what shape are the window.arches especially those at the east and west ends of the church ?
12. Have they dripstones—Are the mullions and transoms of the windows plain or moulded-Is the tracery of their heads in straight or flowing lines ?
13. Are there any niches for images Or water-stoups externally?
14. Are there any covered gates (lich-gates) to the church-yard-Are there any crosses in the church-yard or village-Are there any tombs in the churchyard, remarkable on account of their form, date, or any other interesting circumstance connected with them ?
15. What are the form and position of the tower—How many stagez has it, and is it embattled — Has it a beacon-turret, or spire, and of what shape ?
16. Is there any tree of remarkable size or age in the church-yard ?
(Internally.) 17. Are the pillars cylindrical or angular-simple or clustered—Are their bases or capitals sculptured, and in what architectural style ?
18. Are the pier-arches semicircular or pointed-plain or moulded ? 19. Are there any half-pillars (responds) attached to any of the walls ?
20. Is there a triforium or gallery over the aisles-And if so, what kind of openings has it ?
21. Are there any windows in the upper walls of the nave or chancel(Clerestory windows?)
22. Are the jambs and heads of the doorways and windows ornamented, and how? Have they any paintings on them ?
23. Are the walls adorned with moulded strings, sculptured bands, or stone panelling-niches—corbels, or brackets ?
24. Are there any sedilia in the chancel-Have any of them had a perforation at the back, as if for confessional purposes ?
25. Is there a piscina hidden or apparent-plain or ornamented-Has it a shelf-Is there any closet-like recess or aumbry in the walls, and where ?
26. Is there any one window more lowly-silled than the other windows and in what part of the church is it?
27. Are there any small passages through the chancel walls, below the level of the windows, communicating either with the church-yard, or with an aisle, directly or diagonally ? Hagioscopes or Confessionals ?
28. Are there any chantry or rood-screens, or stairs, or the remains thereof?
29. Are there any inscriptions or paintings on the walls, ceiling, or roof-Is their design diapered or heraldic ?
30. If there be any ancient stained glass, state of what character are its subjects, and what the prevailing tint of its ground--and take tracings therefrom on thin paper, noting their colouring, especially if heraldic.
31. Of what description is the ceiling-Of stone, and groined-or flat and of wood, or lath and plaster-if the internal part of the roof be visible, how is it supported—And are any of the timbers carved or painted ?
32. Of what does the pavement consist ?—If of large slabs on which are, or have been, brasses, armorial bearings, or figures drawn by incised lines, or with inscriptions prior to the 17th century, or if there be any figured tiles, heraldic or otherwise, procure rubbings or tracings from them.
33. Of what pattern is the carved wood-work of the altar-piece, pulpit, lectern, screens, rails, communion-table, or seats, church-chest, or poor-box? If unusual, take impressions from it on damped paper.
34. Of what material and form is the font-Is it ancient-Are there any sculptures on it, and what? Has it a cover, plain or ornamented ?
35. Does the communion plate bear any inscription, armorial bearings, or ornaments worthy of notice ? Are there any ancient hangings, embroideries, or altar coverings ?
36. How many bells are in the tower-Are any of them inscribed with Gothic letters ?
37. Are there any altar-tombs, monumental effigies, ancient armour, banners, or achievements, older than the 18th century ? To whom do they relate ? If they are decorated with arms, describe them, or take tracings from them.
38. In what state are the parochial registers ?-What is the date of the earliest entry-what information do they contain in reference to remarkable occurrences, or family history? Are there any vestry books, sexton's books, or parochial documents and accounts, which supply information respecting the building or repairs of the church, and other local details.
No. IV.-MILITARY AND Civil REMAINS. 1. Is there any ancient Castellated building in the parish? What is its natural position, and its ground plan, as to fosses, (wet or dry,) walls, ballia, mounds, towers, keep, chapel, kitchen, lodgings for the garrison, well, &c.
2. What old domestic edifices are there, whether mansions, halls, granges, or farm-houses ? What are their general ground-plans, and their elevations, as to gables, parapets, dormer windows, roofs and chimneys, oriel windows, porches, and doorways?
3. In what style are any ancient gardens belonging to such edifices laid out, as to pieces of water, terraces, vases, statues, clipt hedges, &c. ?
4. What parks are there, and in what style are they planted ? are the clumps of trees right-lined masses ? and are they said to represent the formation of troops in any battle? or do the avenues radiate from a centré ?
It is desirable also to notice any peculiar circumstances regarding wakes, feasts, or other local customs; any traditions, the general character of the inbabitants, and local dialect.
The Editor begs to remind his readers that he is not responsible for the opinions
of his Correspondents.
ON MYSTICAL INTERPRETATION. My Dear Sir,-Your reference to the pamphlet which I published about four years ago, on the subject of the Oxford Tract, No. 89, induced me to look for a few thoughts which I put on paper very soon afterwards, as the beginning of a second letter on the subject. The circumstances which led to my not prosecuting the design at that time, are of no consequence; but this beginning seems to me to agree so far with the views and feelings which you have expressed, that you may perhaps be willing to give it a place in your pages. í send it without altering a word, that I may not, in any part, be suspected either of merely repeating ideas which you have just expressed, or alluding to other recent events; but, I have added one or two notes.
I am, &c.,
S. R. MAITLAND.
There is no doubt that I might have said a great deal more in my former letter ; those who agree, and those who disagree with me, will probably concur in wishing that I had done so-but beside what I might truly say, of a great press of occupation, and of my wish to avoid prolixity, I may add, that my object was not so much to argue out a subject, as to call attention to a fact. Not so much to point out how and why the cultivation of a particular style of interpreting (if we must so abuse the word) is injurious, as to show to what an extraordinary extent, and by what arguments, it is defended by the writers of the Tracts for the Times. It is no new invention. It has always had those who have more or less admired and adopted it, though I do not know that I have ever seen any writers who have gone so far, or avowed such dangerous principles in its defence; and I cannot help thinking, that those who really consider the Bible as the word of Truth, and as addressed by infinite Wisdom-not, I grant, to the captious and curious, the wise of this world and the disputer, but still to the understanding of men humbly and reverently trying to understand it, will feel, that so to use the Scriptures is unlawful, and a sin against Him by whom they are given for our instruction.
Let us, however, return to the consideration of No. 89, and see what the author proceeds to state as the very first “symbolical exposition." It is the statement respecting Moses to which I have already called your attention, and which represents him as offering a type of Christ during the conflict of Israel with Amalek. In my former letter, I merely protested against what is clearly and undeniably an addition to, if not contradiction of, the word of God, for, on that occasion, I wished only to notice what was mont obvious, and, I should
have thought, most indefensible ; * but, for a reason which will presently appear, I would now add some other observations.
In the first place, how are we to get that which lies at the foundation of the type, the cruciform figure ? Surely it is all but directly contrary to the Scripture history. He who reads that history finds that when Moses first received his commission to deliver Egypt (Exodus, iv. 2), he had a rod in his hand; and, after its miraculous transformation into a serpent, he was told, “ Thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs" (v. 17); and, accordingly, when he returned into Egypt, he took it (now dignified with the title of “the Rod of God'-v. 20) with him. I need scarcely say how this rod was used during the plagues of Egypt,t or at the dividing of the Red Sea, I or, what has nearer connexion with
* The passage of my pamphlet referred to, and without which what follows may be scarcely intelligible, is at p. 9. Having made an extract from the tract, No. 89:
“ St. Barnabas has the following passage : ‘Israel being attacked by the aliens, with a view, amongst other things, of signifying to the people that their transgressions were the cause of their being given over to death, the Spirit speaks inwardly to Moses, to form a type of the Cross, and of Him who was to suffer : that if men refuse to trust in him, they will have no peace for ever. Moses therefore places one shield on another in the middle of the mound; and being thus posted high above all, he stretches out his hands, and so Israel began again to be victorious : afterwards, when on the contrary he let down his hands, again they were slaughtered. Wherefore?. That men might know there is no chance of salvation, except they put their trust in Him. And in another Prophet he says, ' All the day long I have stretched forth my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people.'—p. 17.”
I added the following observations:
“On this I may briefly remark that here we have—perhaps in rather a small way, but yet worthy of notice for the sake of illustration--one of those injurious effects which I have long observed to flow from this allegorical mode of interpretation. It leads men to tamper with the Word of God; and either by addition, suppression, or some tortuous proceeding or other, to make it agree with their imagination. • People little know what they do,' says the author of the tract,' when they deal contemp. tuously with anything, he it in Scripture or in common life, under the notion that it is too slight or insignificant for the ordering of the Most High.'. To this I heartily subscribe. Let me add my belief that the Scripture narratives were so given by inspiration, that people little know what they do when they add to them circumstances which may appear minute and trivial. It may perhaps be said that St. Barnabas (allow me so to speak for the sake of brevity, without prejudice to the question whether the apostle was really the author of the epistle) knew by inspiration, or had learned by tradition, or had imagined in the lawful use of his poetical gift, that Moses placed one shield on another, though nothing of the kind is intimated in the book of Exodus. Well and good; if it is a new revelation, let him tell us so; if it is tradition, let him give it as such, if it is poetry, let there be some mark by which people may know it, for it looks like a mere statement of fact. But observe, I entreat you, that it is not brought before us under any such character ; we are not talking about revelations, or traditions, or poetry, but of the interpretation of Scripture-and this, whatever it may be, gently slides in to take its place as Scripture, and to be interpreted with the rest. It is, however, as I have said, a minor instance, and it is not worth while to dwell upon it.”
† “ Thou shalt stand by the river's brink' against he (Pharaoli) come; and the rod which was turned into a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.” (Ex. vii, 15).. Behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters," (r. 17); and see the chapters which follow.
1" The Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward; but lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea and divide it." " And Moses stretched out his hand," &c. (Ex, xiv. 16, 21.)