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A, and the justifier of him that believes in Jefus, Rom. 11. 26. Therefore, if a finner, whose mouth is stopped, and who has nothing to pay, pleads from the heart the atoning blood of Christ (and supposing he never heard that precious name, if according to his light he implores divine mercy, for the free exercise of which Christ's blood has made way] not only God will not deliver him to the tormentors, but will frankly forgive him all. Luke vii. 41, &c.

Herein then consists the great difference, besween the first and the second covenant. Under the firl, an absolute, unfinning, universal obedience in our own persons is required ; and such obedience we, {in our fallen state,] can never perform. — Under the fecond covenant, this obedience (to the law of inno. cence, payed by, and) in our furety Christ Jesus, when we are united to him by a faith of the operation of God, is accepted instead of our own. For as our dins were transferred upon the Redeemer's guiltless head, lo his merits are brought home to our guilty


kus arsevered all the demands of the FIRST covenant for believers, I indirectly assest, that he has not answered the demands of the second; and that according to the gospel, we must personally repent, believe and cbey to be finally accepted: The covenant of grace insisting as much upon the works of faith, as the covenant of quirks did upon the worls of the law of innocence, in order to our continuance and progress in the divine favour. A doctrine this which is the ground of the minutes, the quinteslence of the Checks, and the downtall of antinomianism. It was only with respect to the covenant of works, and to the law of innocence, that I said in the next paragraph, transposed by Mr. Hill, “ This obec'ience- when we are united to Chrift by a “ faith of the operation of God, 15 ACCEPTED INSTEAD OF OUR v own,” How greatly then does he mistake me, when he supposes I aflerted that the personal, Adamic, and (in one sense) anti-evangelical obedience of Christ, which sprang neither from gospel-faith nor from gospel-repentance, is accepted instead of the personal, penitential, evangelical obedience of believers ! It is just here that the Calvinists žurn aside from the truth, to make void the law of Christ and follow antinomian dotages. Because Christ has fulfilled the Adamic law of innocence for us, they fancy that he has also fulfilled his own evangelical law of gospel-obedience, according to which we must stand or fall, when by our worl's we shall be justified, and by our words we hat! be condemned,

fouls by the powerful operation of divine grace thro' faith, and being thus compleat in Chrif + (with regard to the fulfilling of the first covenant,] we can rejoice in God, who has made him unto us wisdom, righteoufness, fan&tification, and redemprion. [I say, with regard to the fulfilling of the first covenant, to guard against the error of thousands, who vainly imagine that Christ has fulfilled the terms of the second covenant for us, and talk of finished Salvation, just as if our Lord had actually repented of our fins, believed in his own blood, and fulfilled his own evangelical law in our stead ; a fatal error this, which makes christians lawE 3

less, (10) + If I say that penitent believers are compleat in Christ with respect to the firft covenant ; I do not intimate that fallen believers, who crucify the Son of God afresh, may even commit deliberate murder, and remain compleat in him, or rather (as the original means also) filled with bim, Far be the horrid infinuation from the pen and licart of a Christian. I readily grant, that true believers are not less dead to the Adamic law of innocence, than to the ceremonial law of Moses; and that, with respect to it, they heartily fay as David, Enter not into judgment with thy servants, O Lord, for ix thy light shall no man living be justified. But mistake me not, I would not infinuate, that they are lawless, or only under a rule of life, which they may break without endangering their salvation. No; they are under tbe law of Cbrift, the law of liberty, the law of the spirit of life, the royal law of gospel-holiness; and according to this law, they shall all be sewarded or punished in the day of judgment. Altho' this law admits of repentance after a fall, at least during the day of salvation ; and altho' it does not condemn us, for not obeying above our present measure of power ; yet it does not make the leaft allowance for wilful fin, any more than the Adamic law ; for St. James informs a believer, that if be offend in one point, be is guilty of all. And indeed our Lord's parable confirms this awful declaration. The favoured servant, who had the immenfe debt of ten tbousand talents forgiven bin, finned againft Chrift's law only in one point, namely, in refusing to have mercy on his fellow servant, as his Lord had had compassion upon bimi and for that one offence he was delivered to the tormentors, as noturiously guilty of breaking the whole law of liberty and love. If be wbo despised the law of Mofes perished under two or three witneflis, of bow MUCH SORER PUNISHMENT fall be be thougb: worily', wubo despises the law of Christ. This is the ground of the epistle to the Hebrews : but who considers is ? Who believes, that the Son of God will command even the unprofitable servant to be cut asunder ? Wten tbe Son of Man cmerb hall be find faith upon the earth? Lord ! help my unbeliet.

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Jess, represents Christ as the minister of fin, and arms the antinomian fiend with a dreadful ax, to fell the trees of righteousness, and cut down the very pillars of the house of God. ]

From what'has been observed it follows, that bea fore any one can believe sto salvation) in the gospelSense of the word, he must be convinced of sin by the {pirit of God, John xvi. 8. He must feel himself a guilty, loft, and helpless finner, unable to recover the favour and inage of God by his own itrength and righteousness: Acts ii, 37, 38.

This conviction and sense of guilt make the finnet come travelling and heavy laden to Christ, earnestly claiming the rest which he offers to weary souls, Mat. xi. 28. This reft the mourner seeks with the contrite publican, in the constant use of all the means of grace ; endeavouring to bring forth fruit meet for repentance, till the same spirit, that had convinced him of fin, and alarmed his drowsy conscience, convinces him also of righteousness, John xvi. 8, that is, shews him the all-fufficiency of the Saviour's (merits or ) righteousness, to swallow up his [ + former fios, and unrighteousness ; and the infinite value of Christ's meriiorious death, to atone for his [+ past] unholy life ; enabling him to believe with the Heart, and confequently to feel (under the christian dispensation] that he has an interest in the Redeemer's blood and righteousness ; [or, that he is savingly interested in the merit of all that the Son of God suffered, did, and continues to do for us. ]

'This lively faith, this faith I working by love, is that which is imputed for righteousness, Rom. iv. 3, and

that (11) † Without the words former and past, the sentence leaned towards Antinomianism. gave fallen believers room to conclude, that their future or present unholy lives were unconditionally atoned for; contrary to St. Paul's guarded gospel, God has fit forth Chrift 10 be a propitiation, to declare bis rightetusness for the remision of fins THAT ARE PAST. Here is no pleasing innuendo, that the present, or future fins cf laodicean backsiders, « are for ever and for ever cancelled,”

(12) I This is the very doctrine of the minutes and of the checks. Is it not astonishing, that Mr. Hill should defire me to publish my formos, as “ tke befi confutation" of both!

that whereby a foul is born of God (according to the + christian dispensation of the gospel.] : John v. 1. By this faith the chriftian) believer being [itrongly] united to Christ, as a member to the body, becomes entitled to [a much larger Mare in) the benefit of all that our Lord did and suffered ; and in consequence of this strong) vital union with him, who is the source of all goodness, he derives a [degree of power till then unknown, to do good works truly so called : as a graft, which is (strongly) united to the stock that bears it, draws from it new sap, and power to bring forth fruit in [greater] abundance.

[O (13) † The judicious reader will easily perceive, that the additions made to this, and fome other paragraphs of my old fermon, are intended to guard the inferior dispensations of the gospel. Are there sot degrees of saving faith, inferior to the faith of the christian gorpel? And are not those degrees of faith confiftent with the most profound ignorance of the history of our Lord's sufferings, and consequently with any explicit knowledge of the atonement. Altho'mankind in general had some consciousness of guilt, and a confused idea of propitiatory sacrifices ; and altho' all the Jewith sacrifices and prophecies pointed to the great atonement; yet how few, even among the pious Jews, seem to have had a clear belief that the Messiah would put arvay fin by the sacrifice of bimself! How unreasonable is it then to confine the gospel to the explicit knowledge of Christ's atoning sufferings, to which both the prophets and apostles were once fuch ftrangers ! Does not St. Peter intimate that the prophets searcbed, to little purpose, what the Spirit signified, when it teftified before band the fufferings of Christ; since it was revealed to them, that not unto tbemfolves, but unta us, they did minifter the things, which are now reported in the christian gospel ? 1 Peter i. 11, 12:

And how absurd is it to fuppose, that nothing is gospel, but a doctrine, which the first preachers of the christian gospel knew little or nothing of, even while they preached the gospel under our Lord's immediate direction ? Did not John the Baptist exceed in evangelical knowledge, all that were born of women? Were the Apostles much inferior to him, when they had been three years in Christ's school ? Did not our Lord say to them, Blessed are your eyes for they fee, and your ears for they bear ; för verily many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things that ye fet, and have not seen them; and to hear the things that ye hear, and have nice beard them? Again, did he not testify, that in general they had justifying faith, i. e. faith working by love? Did he not say, Now are ye clean thro' the word which I have spoken unto you: deviib you, because you have loved me, and believed that I came forth from


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The Father bimfelf

To thou, that profeffect the christian faith, espe cially.) Thew'me thy faith by thy works, says an Apoftle : that is, thew me that thou art grafted in Chrift (according to the christian dispensation] by serving God with all thy strength; by doing all the good thou canst to the souls and bodies of men with chearfulness; by suffering wrong and contempt with meckness; by fighting earthly joys, mortifying fieshly lofts, having thy conversation in heaven, and panting every hour after a closer union with Christ, the life of all believ

If thou doit not bring forth these fruits, thou art not a Chriftian ; thou art not in Christ a new creature, 2 Cor. v. 17. Thou mayest talk of faith, and fuppose that thou believest; but give me leave to tell thee, that (unless thou art in the case of the Eunuch,




God? Nay, did he not send them two and two, to preach the gospel of the day: The kingdom of beaven is at band: Repent and believe THE GOSPEL? And would he have seret them to preach a gospel to which they were utter Atrangers ? But were they not perfectly ftrangers to what passes now for the only gospel? Had they the leaft idea that their Master's blood was to be thed for them, even after he had said, This is


bloed of the new testament, which is shed for you and for many for the rauission of fins ? When he spoke to them of his fufferings, were not they lo far from believing in the atonement which he was about to make, that they were offended at the very idea ? Is not this evident from the words of Peter, their chief speaker, who began 10 rebuke bim, saying, Be it far from tbee, Lord : This fhall not bappen unto fbee : i. e. We do not yet see the need of thy blood ? Nay, when Chrift had actually shed it, and the atoning work was finished; far from having the least notion about what is called " finished falvation," and

gospel” in our day; did they not suppose that all their hopes were blafted, saying, We trusted that it had been be, wko should have redcenud Ifrael, Like xxiv. 21? Thus the very payment of their ransom, made them despair of redemption : So great was their unacquaintedness with the doctrine of the atonement, notwithstanding their gospelknowledge, which far exceeded that of most patriarchs and prophets ! From these observations may I not conclude : (1) That an explicit knowledge of Chrift’s pason and atonement, is the prerogative of the christian gospel advancing towards perfection ? And (2) that those who make it essential to the everlafing gospel, moft dreadfully curtail it, and indirectly.dooni to hell, not only all the righteous Jews, Turks, and Heathens, who may now be alive; but also almost all the believers, who died before our Lord's crucifixion, and some of the discia ples themselves after his resurrection?

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