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said unto them : behold, they know what I said. And when he 22 had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by, struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the highpriest so? Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear 23 witness of the evil : but if well, why smitest thou me? (Now 24 Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high-priest.) And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said there- 25 fore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. One of the servants of the high-priest 26 (being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off) saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him ? Peter then denied again : and im- 27 mediately the cock crew.

Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment : 28 and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment-hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. Pilate then went out unto them, and said, 29

judicial customs to question the pris- tious judgment, by entering a house oner himself.

of the Gentiles, or mingling with 22, 23. With the palm of his hand. them, and, therefore, incapacitated Or, with a rod. The original is in- from engaging in the exercises of definite. This cruel insolence could their religion. They thought more only have occurred by the permission of ceremonial uncleanness, than of and under the well-known, though the defilement of heart, produced by secret approbation of the presiding indulging and acting out unjust and officer. - If I have spoken evil. Some murderous dispositions against the interpreters construe this declaration most innocent and benevolent being. with reference to the doctrine or Such is the mischief, which clings former preaching of Christ. See ver. also to the skirts of our age, of ex19, 20, 21. But it is more natural and alting forms, and professions, and obsimple to understand it of the reply servances, and, it may be, devotional he had just made to the high-priest. raptures, and the glow of piety, to “ If my answer is improper, show such a height as to lose sight of and wherein it is so, but if not, why the undervalue that moral principle, which blow ?”

is the basis of true character, the 24, 25. Now Annas, 8c. This heart and essence of all acceptable verse is parenthetical, and properly service to God or man. relates what had taken place before, over. Referring, not simply to the between ver. 13 and 14. They said paschal lamb, which had already been therefore, &c. Instead of therefore, it eaten the evening before, Mat. xxvi. is better to read then or now.

17, 19; Mark xiv. 12; Luke xxii. 7, 28. Hall of judgment. Prætori- 15, but to the subsequent days of um, in Latin or Greek; Pilate's house unleavened bread. or palace. — Lest they should be de 29. Pilate then went out unto them. filed. Mat. xxvii. 6. They would be Out of condescension to their scrurendered unclean, in their supersti- pulousness. It was not unusual to

The pass

30 What accusation bring ye against this man? They answered and

said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have 31 delivered him up unto thee. Then said Pilate unto them, Take

ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews there

fore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death : 32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, sig33 nifying what death he should die. Then Pilate entered into

the judgment-hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, 34 Art thou the King of the Jews ? Jesus answered him, Sayest 35 thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? Pilate

answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation, and the chief-priests, 36 have delivered thee unto me. What hast thou done? Jesus

answered, My kingdom is not of this world : if my kingdom were

have tribunals of justice erected in execution, was preferable on one acthe open air, or under a portico, in the count, because it left the body free warm countries of the east. What from the mutilation, produced by beaccusation, &c. Pilate takes up the heading, stoning, and other kinds of case from the beginning, without re- punishment. gard to any sentence passed by the 33-35. It was at this moment, Sanhedrim.

that the Jews, finding they must spe31, 32. Take ye him, &c. As the cify their charges against the MesJews did not declare the ground of siah, accused him of political crimes. their proceedings against Jesus, but Luke xxiii. 2, 5. This accounts for haughtily replied to the Roman gov- Pilate's question to Jesus—“Art thou ernor, that the very fact, that they the king of the Jews ?”. Or did brought the prisoner before him, was others tell

thee of me.

He inquires sufficient evidence against him; Pi- the source of the accusation, by way late gives them an ironical reply, of reminding Pilate that the testi“ Well, then you may dispose of him mony of enemies was sụspicious, and yourselves ;” all the time knowing, that he should be on his guard not what they knew also, that they had no to be unjustly biased in his decision. jurisdiction over such a case. It is - Am I a Jew? The Roman virtunot lawful for us, &c. At what period, ally replied, that as he was a foreignor under what restrictions, the Jews er, he knew nothing about Jewish were debarred from taking cogni- quarrels; he only knew the fact that zance of passing sentence of execu the prisoner had been brought before tion in capital cases, under the Ro- him, and he demanded the nature of man government, is unknown; but his offence. the fact stands here, distinctly ac 36. My kingdom is not of this knowledged by themselves. --- Signi- world. You need be under no apfying what death, i. e. by being

de- prehensions from me. I have nothlivered up to the Gentiles, and cru- ing to do with civil governments or cified. Mat. xx. 19; Luke xviii. 32; political parties, as such; for my John iii. 14, xii. 32, 33. As Jesus kingdom is a moral and spiritual one, was to rise again, crucifixion, though established in the hearts and conthe most terrible mode of capital sciences of mankind, and interferes

of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews : but now is my kingdom not from hence. Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus an- 37 swered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth, heareth my voice. Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had 38 said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all. But ye have a custom that I should 39 release unto you one at the passover : will ye therefore, that I release unto you the King of the Jews? Then cried they all again, 40 saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

CHAPTER XIX. The Conclusion of the Trial, the Crucifixion, and the Burial of the Messiah. THEN Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. And the 2 neither with Jew nor Roman. “This 38. What is truth? Not so much a answer of Jesus is very remarkable; question, which the Roman wished it became the foundation of his re or expected to have answered, if we ligion, and the pledge of its univer- may judge by his immediately going sality; because it detached it from out, as an exclamation of indifference the interests of all governments.” - or contempt. “Truth! what is truth Fight. It is one of the features of to me? or, What has truth to do with the governments of the world, that this case?” The proud and arbitrary they are maintained by physical Pilate had, by his crooked policy and force, but my kingdom is not indebt- violence, so perverted himself as to ed to the sword for its existence. My have little sympathy left for so abdisciples do not fight, even to prevent stract a cause, as that of truth, or my being taken by my enemies. little faith to respond to its power.

37. Thou sayest, &c. Meaning, What was truth to such a nature, but Yes, I am a king; and he then pro- the mere shadow of a shade, - empty ceeds to give a sublime description air,—not a solid, eternal, rock reality! of his regal character. “For this I find in him no fault at all. The end was I born, and for this cause course pursued by the Jews to blackcame I into the world, to bear wit- en the character of our Lord, only ness to the truth, and every true man seemed to manifest more gloriously is my subject;” since, as the com his stainless virtue; as aromatic submentators remark, the phrase heareth stances, to use Bacon's figure, when my voice, means, when translated bruised and crushed, shed their odors out of the oriental idiom into our in greater sweetness and abundance. own language, obeys me, or, is a sub 39, 40. See Mat. xxvii. 15 - 26, ject of my kingdom. Glorious king and notes thereon. of a glorious empire! Thy triumphs have been extending from land to

CHAPTER XIX. land, and they shall, in due time, fill Most of this chapter is parallel the whole earth.

with parts of Mat. xxvi., Mark xv

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soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and 3 they put on him a purple robe, and said, Hail, King of the Jews! 4 and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went

forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to 5 you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came

Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. 6 And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man ! When the chief

priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying,

Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, 7 and crucify him: for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered

him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he 8 made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore heard 9 that saying, he was the more afraid; and went again into the

judgment-hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Je10 sus gave him no answer. Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest

and Luke xxiii., and will there be not succeed. Their ferocious pasfound to be explained and illus- sions were too deeply stirred to be trated.

calmed by the sight of the bleeding, 1. Scourged him. Pilate caused this thorn-crowned sufferer. They even terrible punishment to be inflicted broke forth into fierce cries against on Jesus, not, as it would seem, by their unoffending victim. — Take ye way of preparation for crucifixion, him, &c. As if to remind them, that but to move the Jews by the sight if Jesus was put to death, the reof the sufferer to compassion, that sponsibility would rest with them, or they might give up their wicked pur- that in reality they had no power of pose of destroying the innocent their own to destroy him. Ver. 4,5. This, then, was one of the 7. We have a law, &c. They could Roman's unsuccessful steps to re- refer to no law but that against blaslease his prisoner.

phemy. Deut. xviii. 20; Mat. xxvi. 5. Behold the man! As if to say, 65. Foiled in their political charge, See how harmless is he, how incapa- the Jews return, at this point of the ble of defending himself

, how much proceedings, to the religious accuto be commiserated for what he has sation. suffered! Relent, then, from further 8, 9. He was the more afraid. The harassing one, who is at once so in- reason of his apprehension was probnocent and so much to be pitied. ably, that he might, in doing violence

to Jesus, be laying a sacrilegious “ Behold the man! by all condemned, Assaulted by a host of foes,

hand on some great being in disHis person and his claims contemned, guise; for, according to the heathen

A man of sufferings and of woes. mythology, the gods sometimes de“ Behold the man ! though scorned below,

scended to mingle, incognito, in the He bears the greatest name above ; affairs of men. Hence the earnest The angels at his footstool bow, And all his royal claims approve."

question of Pilate — “Whence art

thou?” — as if to ascertain, if possi6. But the expedient of Pilate did ble, the origin of his prisoner.

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thou not unto me? knowest thou not, that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? Jesus answered, 11 Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin. — And from thenceforth Pilate sought to 12 release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Cesar's friend. Whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Cesar. When Pilate therefore heard that 13 saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment-seat, in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about 14 the sixth hour : and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

10, 11. Knowest thou not, &c. place in Pilate's breast. He had a Piqued that Jesus did not treat him jealous master, the dark, gloomy, unwith the same supple and flatterin scrupulous Tiberius, who then sat attention, which he had been accus on the throne of the Cesars, and tomed to receive from his own cour- spread his web of tyranny over the tiers, Pilate reminds him, by way of whole world, so that none who were menace, that his life was suspended suspected persons, if we may credit on his will

. — Given thee from above. Tacitus and Suetonius, could escape This phrase may mean, either that being entangled in it. An unfavorthe Roman derived his power from able report of Pilate's conduct at the God, as our version intimates; or, imperial court, might cost him his that he had obtained possession of province, or his life; and what exJesus' person by means of others, or emplifies remarkably the swift-folfrom another quarter, i. e. the Jews, lowing retribution of Heaven, is, that or the Sanhedrim. The latter is such a representation, from the Jewpreferable, for it connects better, as ish people too, did, in after years, observed by Coleridge, with the next deprive him of his government and clause. Pilate would have had no his liberty, and the miserable man jurisdiction over Jesus, had it not perished by his own hand, in exile, been given him by his enemies; there in the barbarous region of Gaul. fore they who delivered him up were When, therefore, the Jews impugned the most sinful.

his loyalty to the emperor, the appeal 12, 13. The rough Roman seems was too much for his wavering sense to be touched by this magnanimous of justice; he broke through the interpretation, or palliation of his slender trammels that still held him, conduct by Jesus, and is more de- and pronounced the awful sentence. sirous than ever to release him. But - Pavement Gabbati i. e, acat this critical moment, another cry, cording to its derivation, raised. The more appalling to the governor's tribunal of the procurator was placed heart, than any he had yet heard, on a tessellated stone floor, or paveburst from the excited mass, that ment of Mosaic work. rolled like a boisterous sea around 14, 15. The preparation of the his palace: “ If thou let this man go, passover, i. e. of the paschal Sabbath. thou art not Cesar's friend." They Ver. 31. — Sixth hour. Mark reads knew well where to touch the tender third. This discrepancy has been

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