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15 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him.

Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief16 priests answered, We have no king but Cesar. Then delivered

he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Je

sus, and led him away. 17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place 18 of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha : where they

crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and 19 Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the

And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE 20 KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews :

for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and 21 it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the

chief-priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the 22 Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered, , 23 What I have written, I have written. Then the soldiers, explained on the supposition, that the "I looked once more, and, as the virtue spread

Forth from thy robe of old, so fell a ray two evangelists used different meth

Of victory from thy mien; and round thy ods of computing time; or that the

head, terms are indefinite, meaning, as ex

The halo, melting spirit-like away,

Seemed of the very soul's bright rising born, pressed here, about those hours, be

To glorify all sorrow, shame, and scorn." fore the one and after the other. But the truth probably is, that third was 21, 22. The priests were apprethe original word in John, as it is hensive, that the inscription would found in several old versions and produce a wrong impression upon manuscripts; but that sixth crept in the people at large, and convey the by an error in transcribing, and ob- general idea, that Pilate had crucified tained a footing in most copies. Such the veritable King of the Jews. — is the judgment of Griesbach, Bloom- What I have written, I have written, field, Kenrick, and Norton. - Be- i. e. it shall stand as it is. Pilate hold your King Shall I crucify would not suffer-himself to be dicta

He exhibited the your King ? Pilate appears to have ted to any more. taken a petty satisfaction, after being natural feelings of one who is indig. compelled to act against his con- nant, that he has been overreached science, in taunting the Jews by and made the tool of others. calling Jesus their King, and thus 23, 24. These hardened Roman taking a species of revenge for the soldiers, accustomed to see and to triumph they had gained over him.

cause the most dreadful scenes of 17. And he bearing his cross, &c. human suffering, thoroughly brutalCompare Mat. xxvii. 32, and note. ized by their occupation, sit down

with cool indifference at the very " By the dark stillness brooding in the sky,

foot of the cross, and cast lots for the Holiest of sufferers ! round thy path of woe, And by the weight of mortal agony

clothes of the crucified! How true Laid on thy drooping form and pale meek to nature and reality! how unlikely

brow, My heart was awed; the burden of thy pain to be invented !--The coat was with Sank on me with a mystery and a chain. out seam. The tunic, or inner gar

when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said 24 therefore

among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it whose it shall be: that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his moth- 25 er's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing 26 by whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy Son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And 27 from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, 28 that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Now there 29

ment, was woven whole; a thing thy son!” and when he spoke to neither impossible nor improbable. John: “Behold! thy mother!” The

They parted my raiment, &c. Ps. received version expresses more dexxii. 18. This passage is quoted by liberation and formality, than is jusway of illustration. The words of tified by the circumstances of the the ancient Psalmist were made good case. "Parched with thirst, and alin the present incident.

most in the pains of death, he was 25-27. Now there stood by the able to utter himself only briefly, and cross of Jesus, his mother. History at intervals, and to signify his affechas recorded no event more thrilling tionate wishes with regard to his than this; none more heroic in the mother, by a word or two, which he female sex. Ye mothers, who bend accompanied possibly by a look, or over the dying pillows of your chil- an inclination of the head, or some dren, think of Mary at the foot of the slight movement, such as his concross, and be strengthened, be com- fined and agonizing posture allowed, forted. — Mary the wife of Cleophas. relying upon the quick-conceiving Or Clopas, or Alpheus, for they are all affections of his mother and John, to the same name in meaning: Mat. x. make out his meaning. How pro3; Mark xv. 40. We learn by a com- found must have been the sensibility parison of passages, that this Mary of that heart, whose , filial love the was the sister of Mary, the mother distracting pangs of a most terrible of Jesus. It was not unusual among death could not quench!” Jesus had the Jews for two sisters to bear the no fortune, no gift of affection to be

- Woman, behold thy queath to his friends at death; his son, &c. The disciple, here meant, greatest treasure on earth was his was John. As remarked by Furness, mother, and he gave her to his best in the original, the utterance of Je- beloved disciple. sus appears to be broken and ejacu 28-30. things, &c. Sensible, latory, indicating the physical con- that the objects of his mission were dition of the speaker

- a condition effected. — I thirst. Ps. lxix. 21 of mortal agony: “Woman! behold! The Psalmist is referred to by way


name. —


was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with 30 vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When

Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath day, (for

that Sabbath day was a high day,) besought Pilate that their legs 32 might be broken, and that they might be taken away. Then

came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other 33 which was crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, 34 and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: but

one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith 35 came thereout blood and water. And he that saw it, bare

record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, 36 that ye might believe. For these things were done, that the

of illustration. The torture would turing the already intensely anguishnaturally make him intensely thirsty. ed limbs.

Hyssop. The sponge was raised 34, 35. Blood and water. Indito his mouth on a stalk of hyssop. cating that the heart was pierced; It is finished. Meaning less, per- so that Jesus must have died then, haps, the work in which he had been if not before: for the water no doubt engaged, than the dreadful suffering flowed from the pericardium, –a thin under which he had lingered six membrane, containing lymph, and hours. When nature could endure surrounding the heart, — which rapno more, the spent system sank into idly fills with water when death is the insensibility of death. Our Lord slow and painful; while the blood was crucified on Friday, and hence, spoken of, came from the heart itself. as is supposed, the common super- The mention of the water, therefore, stition connected with that day. in connexion with the blood, shows

31. Should not remain upon the the eye-witness, and agrees perfectly cross. Deut. xxi. 23. As if it were with the anatomy of the human frame. “a sin to leave the body of that His record is true, &c. The reblameless being on the cross one iterated emphasis, which the writer day, whom it had been no sın, but puts upon the fact he has stated, rather an act of the greatest virtue, shows that he deemed it of great to murder the day before.” Mat. consequence. It was so, perhaps, for xxvii. 6; John xviii. 28. Was a two reasons: 1. as authenticating the high day. Because it occurred dur- reality of Christ's death; 2. as coning the great festival of the passover. futing the notions of the Docetæ, or

That their legs might be broken. Phantasmists, a sect of that period This was one of the refinements of who believed that the Messiah only cruelty, practised in the punishment came in appearance, and did not of crucifixion, to consummate the really suffer upon the cross. The pangs of dying by new and strange blood and water marked the tangible, thrillings of pain, produced by frac- physical body. See Introduction to

Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. And again another Scripture saith, They shall look on him whom 37 they pierced

And after this, Joseph of Arimathea (being a disciple of Jesus, 38 but secretly for fear of the Jews) besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus : and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore and took the body of Jesus. And there came 39 also Nicodemus (which at the first came to Jesus by night) and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds' weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in 40 linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where he was crucified, there was a 41 garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore, because of the 42 Jews' preparation-day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

John's Gospel, and notes on chap. i.; vants, carrying costly unguents and 1 John v. 8.

aromatic substances.

The large 36, 37. Abone of him, &c. The Is- quantity which Nicodemus brought, raelites ate the paschal lamb in haste, and by which he testified his afas if on a journey, and, therefore, fection, was not, therefore, incredbroke not its bones. The evangelist ible. quotes the scripture, as illustrative - 40-42. Compare notes, Mat. of the fact that the bones of Jesus xxvii. 59, 60. - A garden. For the were not broken. Ex. xii. 46; Num. place was without the walls of the ix. 12. —They shall look on him, &c. city. - Wherein was never man yet Zech. xii. 10. Another quotation laid. An important statement, showafter the same method of accommo- ing that Jesus could not be condation.

founded at his resurrection with any 38, 39. The eleven disciples were one else. — The sepulchre was nigh thrown into such fear and conster- at hand. The time was so short, as nation, that they could apparently do the Sabbath was about to commence, nothing; but these other friends of that is, at sundown, that the burial Jesus, emboldened and excited by the was hastily performed, leaving someoutrageous conduct of the Jews, and thing to do afterwards, Mark xvi. 1; the death of Jesus, attended by such and the body was laid in a tomb near signs from on high, now come for at hand, in order to avoid the delay ward and devote to their friend, when of carrying it to a distance. Thus, dead, that service, which they had in less than twenty-four hours, Jesus withheld from him when living. - had been betrayed, seized, tried, A hundred pounds' weight. At the crucified, and buried — a concentrafuneral of Gamaliel, the elder, a tion of mighty events. To all hudistinguished Jewish' rabbin, eighty man appearance, his religion perishpounds of spices were used ; and ed with him, and the last ray of when Herod was buried, there was hope was quenched in the tomb of A procession of five hundred ser- Joseph. But to the Sun of right




CHAPTER XX. Jesus is raised from the Dead, and appears to his Disciples. THE first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when

it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken 2 away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Si

mon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith

unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, 3 and we know not where they have laid him. Peter therefore went 4 forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So

they ran both together : and the other disciple did outrun Peter, eousness, as to the natural sun, might become in a measure sanctified by the poet's language apply:

long Christian usage.

- Seeth the “ So sinks the day-star in the ocean's bed,

stone taken away. Or, more And yet anon repairs his drooping head, rectly, saw that it had been taAnd tricks his beams, and with new-spangled

away; for she did not herself Flames in the forehead of the morning sky." see it done, as our received version

intimates. CHAPTER XX.

2. Runneth. The histories of the Compare Mat. xxviii., Mark xvi., resurrection by the evangelists, beand Luke xxiv., and the notes there- tray at every clause their fidelity to

The accounts of the resurrec nature and truth. There is that agition of our Lord by the four evange- tation, that fear, that hope, that joy, lists, contain those slight and not which we should expect. There irreconcilable differences, which we is running hither and thither; the should naturally expect to find in breathless haste of excited, astonishwriters, who drew their information ed persons, who hurry.back and forth from different sources, and from wit- almost beside themselves, with a nesses that were deeply excited and thousand conflicting feelings. The agitated by a variety of emotions at women ran, Mat. xxviii

. 8; Mary beholding such an astonishing spec- Magdalene ran; and Peter and John tacle. John confines his narrative to ran, as if in competition with each what he personally learned from Mary other, ver. 4. There were tears, and Magdalene, or saw himself. For the prostrations of reverence, Mat. xxviii. order of events, see note on Mat. 9, and glad reports carried to the xxviii. 1-10.

absent, and every mark in nature of 1. The first day of the week. The the reality of this stupendous fact, Jewish Sabbath was the last day of that the crucified Jesus had walked the week, corresponding to our Satur- forth from the rent tomb a living day. The disciples of Christ hence- being, bringing life and immortality forth observed the first day of the to light. week, as their Sabbath, or day of

“ Lift then your voices in triumph on high, rest, as the word imports; because

For Jesus hath risen, and man shall not die." Jesus arose on that day from the dead; and they called it, after him, We know not where they have laid the Lord's day. The term Sunday, him. The supposition was, that the or Solis dies, day of the Sun, is de- body had been stolen away. rived from pagan antiquity, but has 4, 6. The other disciple did outrun

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