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able advances advantage agricultural already amount bank become benefit called capital carried cause circumstances cloth commodities competition condition consequence considerable considered consumed cost cultivation demand depend desire diminished economy effect employed employment enable England equal exchange exist expense exports fact fall farmer foreign France gain give given greater ground hands human important improvement income increase individual industry interest kind labour land least less limited linen lower manufacture means ment mode natural necessary never notes object obtained operations paid persons political population portion possession practical present principle produce profit proportion purchase quantity question raise reason receive rent respect rise saving society soil sufficient supply suppose things tion trade unless wages wealth whole
Página 76 - One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on is a peculiar business; to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which in some manufactories are all performed by distinct hands,...
Página 454 - It is scarcely necessary to remark that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement. There would be as much scope as ever for all kinds of mental culture, and moral and social progress ; as much room for improving the Art of Living, and much more likelihood of its being improved, when minds ceased to be engrossed by the art of getting on.
Página 128 - If, therefore, the choice were to be made between Communism with all its chances, and the present state of society •with all its sufferings and injustices; if the institution of private property...
Página 484 - First, the levying of it may require a great number of officers, whose salaries may eat up the greater part of the produce of the tax, and whose perquisites may impose another additional tax upon the people.
Página 556 - THE ONLY CASE IN WHICH, ON MERE PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, PROTECTING DUTIES CAN BE DEFENSIBLE, Is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country. The superiority of one country over another in a branch of production, often arises only from having begun it sooner. There may be no inherent advantage on one part, or disadvantage on the other, but only a present...
Página 556 - ... continued for a reasonable time, will sometimes be the least inconvenient mode in which the nation can tax itself for the support of such an experiment. But the protection should be confined to cases in which there is good ground of assurance that the industry which it fosters will after a time be able to dispense with it ; nor should the domestic producers ever be allowed to expect that it will be continued to them beyond the time necessary for a fair trial of what they are capable of accomplishing.
Página 171 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him a nine years' lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Página 123 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Página 484 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Página 460 - In the present stage of human progress, when ideas of equality are daily spreading more widely among the poorer classes, and can no longer be checked by anything short of the entire suppression of printed discussion and even of freedom of speech, it is not to be expected that the division of the human race into two hereditary classes, employers and employed, can be permanently maintained.