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EXAMINATION PAPERS

OF OCTOBER, 1874.

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.

N. B. - When you name a place or country, state its position. You may omit

one of the first three subjects given below, and one of the last three.

1. Point out some of the causes of the greatness of Sparta and of Athens.

2. Write in the order of time (with such dates as you remember) the principal events in the Peloponnesian War, and show the chief results of that war.

3. Amphictyonic Council, Ephors, Archons; Areopagus, Pnyx, Agora. Define or describe these.

4. The death of Demosthenes and the death of Cicero.
5. The life of C. Julius Cæsar.
6. Laws that are landmarks in Roman history.

MODERN AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

1. State, in detail, what you know about the form and dimensions of the earth. Define the mathematical and geographical terms which occur in your statement.

2. What is the length in miles of a degree of latitude ? Where are the degrees of latitude and of longtitude equal in length ? How do the degrees of longitude differ in length among themselves ?

3. State accurately the zone or zones in which each of the six continents lies.

4. Name eight of the most important of the West India Islands, and draw a map to show their relative position. To what country does each belong?

5. Describe as fully and precisely as possible the position of the following cities, stating in what part of the state or country, and near what river or other body of water, each one lies : Belgrade, Bogota, Bombay, Brest, Carlsruhe, Dantzic, Frankfort (in Europe), Montevideo, Montreal, Odessa, Singapore, Tripoli. Which of these names suggests some physical feature of the neighboring region, or some fact of historical interest connected with the settlement of the city ?

6. What strait or channel lies between Wales and Ireland ? Wales and the southern part of England ? Ireland and Scotland ? Borneo and Celebes ? Patagonia and Terra del Fuego ? Labrador and Greenland ? Labrador and Newfoundland ?

7. Why are there large cities at higher latitudes in Europe than in America ?

8. In sailing from New York to Liverpool, at what season of the year would

you expect to see icebergs? How far south are icebergs ever seen in the North Atlantic?

9. Describe the drainage systems of North America, and name the highlands which bound each of its important river basins. Are there any portions of this continent which have no outlet for their waters to the sea ?

GREEK COMPOSITION.

After the death of Cyrus, the Greeks being despondent (dnopéw), Xenophon called together (ovykadéw) the soldiers, and told them that he had seen a vision (évút viov); in order that he might encourage (Dappúvw) them and cause them to cease (naúw) thinking (évovuéouai) what things they had already suffered (Táoxw) and were still to suffer, he told them that if they would obey (Teidopal) him, he would bring them all through in safety (diao5w) to their native land.

GREEK GRAMMAR.

(All Greek words must be written with the accents.]

1. Give the general rule for accenting nouns (the accent of the nominative singular being known). How is accent affected by the quantity of the penultimate and final syllables ?

2. Decline the nouns μούσα, νήσος, and ελπίς in the singular ; and Baoileús, in the plural.

3. Compare the adjectives άξιος, αληθής, μικρός, αγαθός. 4. Decline the pronouns éyás and otis throughout.

5. Give the principal parts of γράφω, ίστημι, λαμβάνω, οράω, τίθημι.

6. Inflect the imperfect active of tiuáw and the present optative passive of piéw in the contract forms). Inflect the second aorist optative active of ίστημι.

7.* What uses of the article o are found in Homer which are not found in Attic Greek ?

8.* Explain the genitive absolute and the accusative absolute, and give an example of the correct use of each.

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9.* Explain the difference in the meanings of ποιήσαι in βούλεται τούτο ποιήσαι and φησί τούτο ποιήσαι.

10.* Give the names of the most common metrical feet of two and of three syllables, and show the quantity of the syllables in each (by - and -). Explain the Elegiac distich.

* Candidates for ADVANCED STANDING will omit 7, 8, 9, and 10, and will answer the following:

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11. Explain the Attic use of the substantive pronoun of the third person (oll, oi, etc.), and give an example.

12. Explain the regular use of the future infinitive. What objection can you make to any of the following expressions : βούλεται τούτο ποιήσειν, - ελπίζει τούτο ποιήσειν, - υπέσχετο τούτο

ποιήσειν, - δεί τούτο ποιήσεις! !

13. Why is εί τούτο ποιήσοι, έλθοιμι άν incorrect ? Write a sentence in which εί ποιήσαι shall be correctly used.

14. Explain the Iambic trimeter of Comedy, showing how it differs from that of Tragedy. Explain also the Trochaic tetrameter catalectic and the Anapæstic System.

GREEK PROSE.

[Those offering Greek Reader, take 2, 4, 5. Those offering Anabasis (four

Books), and Herodotus (Book 7th), take 1, 2, 5. Those offering the whole Anabasis, take 1, 2, 3.]

TRANSLATE :

1. (Anab. II. III. 11.) Και ενταύθα ήν Κλέαρχον καταμαθείν ώς έπεστάτει, εν μέν τη αριστερά χειρί το δόρυ έχων, εν δε τη δεξιά βακτηρίαν· και εί τις αυτώ δοκoίη των προς τούτο τεταγμένων βλακεύειν, έκλεγόμενος τον επιτήδειον έπαισεν άν, και άμα αυτός προσελάμβανεν εις τον πηλόν εμβαίνων» ώστε πάσιν αισχύνην είναι μη ού συσπουδάζειν.

Explain the mood of δοκoίη.

2. (Anab. ΙΙΙ. ν. 8, 9; Reader, p. 26.) 'Απορουμένοις δ' αυτούς προσελθών τις ανήρ Ρόδιος είπεν. 'Εγώ θέλω, ώ άνδρες, διαβιβάσαι υμάς κατά τετρακισχιλίους οπλίτας, αν εμοί ών δέομαι υπηρετήσητε και τάλαντον μισθόν πορίσητε. Ερωτώμενος δε ότου δέοιτο· 'Ασκών, έφη, δισχιλίων δεήσομαι» πολλά δε ορώ ταύτα πρόβατα και αίγας και βούς και όνους, ά αποδαρέντα και φυσηθέντα ραδίως αν παρέχοι την διάβασιν. Explain the mood of δέοιτο. αποδαμέντα, in what voice, mood, .

, , tense, and from what verb?

3. (Anab. VΙΙ. ΙΙ. 18.) 'Επει δ' εγγύς ήσαν αυτού, επιτυγχάνει πυροΐς ερήμους και το μεν πρώτον ώετο μετακεχωρηκέναι που τον Σεύθην. 'Επει δε θορύβου τε ήσθετο και σημαινόντων αλλήλοις των περί Σεύθην, κατέμαθεν ότι τούτου ένεκα τα πυρά προκεκαυμένα είη το Σεύθη προ των νυκτοφυλάκων, όπως οι μεν φύλακες μη ορώντο, εν τω σκότει όντες, μήθ' όπου είεν, οι δε προσιόντες μη λανθάνοιεν, αλλά διά το φώς καταφανείς είεν.

4. (Reader, p. 99, 15; Plato, Apol.) εγώ μεν γαρ πολλάκις εθέλω τεθνάναι, εί ταύτ' έστιν αληθή· έπει έμοιγε και αυτό θαυμαστή αν είη ή διατριβή αυτόθι, οπότε εντύχοιμι Παλαμήδει και Αίαντι τω Τελαμώνος και εί τις άλλος των παλαιών διά κρίσιν άδικον τέθνηκεν, αντιπαραβάλλοντι τα έμαυτού πάθη προς τα εκείνων, ως εγώ oίμαι, ουκ αν αηδες είη. Και δη το μέγιστον, τους εκεί εξετάζοντα και ερευνώντα

. ώσπερ τους ενταύθα διάγειν, τίς αυτών σοφός έστι, και τις οίεται μεν έστι δ' ού.

5. (Herod. VΙΙ. 37; Reader, p. 124, 12.) ώρμημένω δε οι και ήλιος εκλιπών την εκ του ουρανού έδρην αφανής ήν, ούτ' έπινεφέλων εόντων, αιθρίης τε τά μάλιστα, αντί ήμέρης τε νύξ εγένετο. ιδόντι δε και μαθόντι τούτο το Ξέρξη επιμελές εγένετο, και είρετο τους Μάγους, το εθέλοι τροφαίνειν το φάσμα. οι δε έφραζον, ως “Έλλησι προδεικνύει και θεός έκλειψιν των πολίων, λέγοντες ήλιον είναι Ελλήνων προδέκτορα, σελήνην δε σφέων. πυθόμενος δε ταύτα ο Ξέρξης περιχαρής έων έποιέετο την έλασιν.

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