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MODERN AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

I.

1. Give a physical description of Italy. 2. Define plateau, delta, steppe, bight, lagoon, glacier. What is the profile of a country? 3. How many degrees apart from each other are the two polar circles? What is the breadth (in degrees) of the torrid zone? What is the shortest distance in degrees of longitude between Madras (80° E. from Greenwich) and San Francisco (122^° W.)? 4. Describe the chief physical features of the State in which you live. 5. Describe the Andes, and one of the three great river systems of South America. 6. Name the rivers connected with the lakes of Switzerland and of Northern Italy, and give their source, course, and end. 7. The Vosges, the Jura, the Carpathians; Mt. Everest, Mt. Chimborazo, Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Mt. St. Elias. Give their position. 8. To what powers belong the Azores, Corsica, Malta, Heligoland, Algeria, Batavia, Manilla, Sydney, Havana? 9. Constantinople, Alexandria, Gibraltar, New York, New Orleans, Hamburg, — show the convenience or importance of the position of each.

II.

1. What is meant by the' terms "latitude" and "longitude "? 2. Give the approximate longitude, reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich, of London; New York; Cape Horn; the Cape of Good Hope; Melbourne; Shanghai; the Sandwich Islands. 3. Name and give the position, with reference to the various countries, of the principal mountain chains of Europe. 4. Name and give the position and direction of the principal mountain ranges of North and South America. 5. Describe the principal rivers of North America, giving an approximate statement of the position of their sources, the direction in which they run, and their lengths. 6. Describe the principal rivers of Europe, in the manner indicated in the preceding question. 7. Name the principal islands of the East Indies, and state to what political powers they belong. 8. Name the West India Islands, and state to what powers they belong. 9. Describe the position of France with reference to the adjacent countries, rivers, mountains, and seas. 10. What are the advantages of London with regard to its geographical position? of St. Louis? of Chicago? of San Francisco? 11. What are the principal exports of England? of the United States? of Russia ? of Central America? 12. State approximately the population of the most important states of Europe.

III.

1. Where is Manilla? Through what waters and across what countries would you pass in travelling from Manilla to New York, (a) entirely by water, (6) partly by water and partly by land? 2. Explain what is meant by latitude and longitude. What is the longitude of the point in the northern hemisphere directly opposite Washington? (Assume longitude of Washington 77° W.) What is the latitude and longitude of the point in the southern hemisphere directly opposite Cambridge? The latitude of Cambridge is 42° 23' N, the longitude 71° 7' W. 3. Mention the different bodies of water surrounding the British Islands, and the rivers flowing into each. 4. Give as precisely as you can the position of the following mountains, and state, where possible, to what range each belongs : — Washington; St. Elias ; Hecla; Elburz; Pike's Peak; Dwalagiri; Chimborazo; Shasta; Orizaba. 5. Enumerate the States and Territories through or by which the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers flow. 6. State the principal conditions which determine the head of navigation on a river. Name the town or city at the head of navigation on two rivers in the United States, and on one in Europe. 7. State what you know about the Gulf Stream.

IV.

1. State as precisely as you can where the following rivers rise and empty, their general directions, and the countries or states which they cross or bound: — Amazon; Rhine; Connecticut; Volga; Indus; Ohio; Obi; St. Lawrence. 2. Explain the terms latitude and longitude. Given the longitude of Melbourne as 145° E. when referred to Greenwich, what would be its longitude when referred to Washington? (Washington lies 77° west of Greenwich.) 3. Describe the coast of Asia from Behring's Strait to the Strait of Malacca, mentioning the peninsulas, the seas, the mouths of important rivers, and the islands lying near the mainland. (Draw a map comprising these particulars, if you prefer.) 4. What is meant by the snow line? Name some countries in which the snow line is very high. 5. Mention the principal islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and state to what political power each belongs. 6. Bound France, and give the name and position of four of its chief cities. 7. Name and give the position of the principal mountain ranges of North and South America. 8. Bound Pennsylvania. What mountains cross the State? What are its principal rivers? How does it rank with the other States as to area? as to population?

V.

1. What is the breadth of the north temperate zone in degrees? in miles? 2. What is the length of the longest day at the North Pole? at the Arctic Circle? at the Equator? Account for the differences. 3. What countries of South America are on the Pacific coast? Which one has no coast line? 4. Through what waters would a vessel pass in sailing from Sevastopol to St. Petersburg? 5. In what zone does Australia principally He? What is the chief river of Australia? What gulf on the north? What important islands and groups of islands to the north and east? 6. Give the position of the following cities as precisely as you can, naming in all cases the river or other body of water on or near which the city lies:—Cayenne, Constantinople, Detroit, Lyons, Madras, Omaha, Palermo, Para, Sitka, Zanzibar. 7. Bound Illinois. What is its capital? Give the name and position of three other important cities. What are its chief rivers, and in what direction do they flow? 8. Upon what three circumstances is the climate of any region chiefly dependent? 9. To what states or countries would you go for caoutchouc? coffee? olives? opium ?' pepper? rice? silk? sugar? tapioca? turpentine? 10. Write what you can about coral islands and reefs.

VI.

1. What is meant by the relief of a country? the profile? What are the principal features of relief in North America? 2. Bound the three principal river basins of South America. 3. In what direction are the Bahamas from the Bermudas? the Azores from Oporto? Honolulu from San Francisco? Pekin from Yedo? 4. Through or near what countries, islands, important cities, and bodies of water does the Tropic of Cancer pass? 5. Name and give the situation of the English colonies in Africa. 6. Bound Italy. What is its largest city? Name its principal mountains and rivers. If there is anything peculiar about any of the rivers, mention and explain it. 7. Where are the following gulfs and bays: — Finland, Bothnia, Aden, Bengal, Lyons, Chesapeake? Name the important rivers, if any, which empty into each. 8. What are the principal productions and exports of Russia ? France? Cuba? Japan? Peru? 9. How do the forms of government of the five principal nations of Europe differ? 10. Write what you can about the trade winds.

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