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scribe the Alps. Give the name, course, and exit of each of the great rivers which rise in them. 4. State the divisions, in the order of their situation, belonging to the Peloponnesus, with the position of five principal towns. 5. Give the history and geography of the battle of Marathon. 6. Who was (or were) victorious, and over whom, at (1) Salamis; (2) Plates ; (3) Mantinea; (4) Chseronea;

(5) Arbela; (6) the Caudine Forks; (7) Luna ; (8) Actium? 7. Name the principal events in the life of Julius Caesar, and such dates as you can call to mind. 8. Name the Twelve Caesars, so called. Also the Five Good Emperors, sometimes so called. 9. Themistocles. 10. Describe the administration and policy of Pericles. 11. Give an account of the Athenian expedition to Sicily.

X.

1. Athens and Sparta; compare and contrast them. 2. The death of Socrates. 3. Give the position of the following places, and tell what has made them famous: (1) Marathon; (2) Salamis; (3) Plataea; (4) Mantinea; (5) Arbela;

(6) Chaeronea; (7) Pydna. 4. Who gained and who lost the battles fought at the following places: (1) Cannae ? (2) Luna ? (3) Pharsalia? (4) Philippi? (5) Actium? 5. Greenwich is in longitude 0°, and in north latitude 51 J°: what are the longitude and latitude of the spot on the earth's surface opposite, or antipodal, to Greenwich? 6. Describe or bound the basin of the Mississippi River. 7. The institutions of Lycurgus and the laws of Solon. 8. The chief ties which bound together the Grecian world. 9. Epaminondas. 10. Give the chief rivers of France, with their ancient oames.

XL

1. Give the general course of (1) the Nile; (2) the Rhine; (3) the Danube ;- (4) the Elbe; (5) the Volga; (6) the St. Lawrence; (7) the Susquehanna; (8) the Amazon. 2. (1) What number of degrees represent the greatest possible latitude? (2) The greatest possible longitude? (3) Except at the equator, which is the greater, a degree of latitude or a degree of longitude? (4) Give, in degrees, the width of the torrid zone. (5) Which way from the north pole are London and New York? (6) What island near Africa is crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn? 3. Which of the Mediterranean islands preserve substantially their ancient names? 4. What are the modern names of (1) Lugdunum? (2) Massilia? (3) Eboracum? (4) Eubcea? (5) Corcyra? (6) the Sequana ? (7) the Iberus ? (8) the Padus? 5. (1) Plataea; (2) Sphacteria; (3) Syracuse; (4) iEgospotami: give the geographical situation of these places, and say (in a sentence or two for each) what occurred there in the Peloponnesian War. 6. Where, and over whom, did Alexander the Great gain his greatest victories, and what were the general results of his conquests? 7. Which took place first, (1) the fall of Carthage or the captivity of Jugurtha? (2) the battle of Actium or the battle of Philippi? (3) the death of Pompey or the death of Caesar? (4) the death of Antony or the death of Cicero? (5) the fall of Corinth or the fall of Jerusalem? 8. Describe the city of Athens. 9. Contrast the empire, government, and policy of Athens with those of Sparta, giving such instances and illustrations as may occur to you.

XII.

1. (1) What are the principal river basins of France? (2) Give the general course of the rivers. (3) Through what waters must you pass in going from London to Canton? 2. The latitude of Boston is about 42° N.; its longitude is about 71° W. (1) What city in Europe has nearly the same latitude ? (2) and what are the latitude and longitude of the point opposite, or antipodal, to Boston? 3. Point out the principal divisions, rivers, and mountains of Ancient Italy, by means of an outline map, or not, as you please. 4. Where is (1) Mount Athos? (2) Thermopylae? (3) Artemisium? (4) Salamis ? (5) Plataea? (6) Mycale? With the geography of each place, mention some event connected with the history of the place. 5. Name the important battles in the Second Punic War. 6. Give a particular account of the legislation of Lycurgus, Solon, and Cleisthenes.

XIII.

1. Which way from Athens to (1) Corinth; to (2) Marathon; to (3) Delos; to (4) Thermopylae; to (5) the Hellespont; to (6) Crete: from Rome to (7) Carthage; to (8) Carthago Nova; to (9) Cannae; to (10) Neapolis; to (11) Tarentum; to (12) Verona; to (13) Massilia; to (14) Lugdunum; to (15) the Baleares; to (16) Gades? 2. Three statesmen: (1) Themistocles; (2) Pericles; (3) Epaminondas. 3. The expedition of Cyrus the Younger, and the retreat of the Ten Thousand 4. The chief events in the life of Julius Caesar. 5. The rivers of Virginia, — describe them. 6. The principal English colonies; name and situation. 7. Give a brief account of the reforms of Cleisthenes. 8. The Persian invasions, and the principal battles in each, — a short sketch. 9. After these invasions the war languished for several years, until it was finally closed by the Peace of Cimon: what can you relate of the times of that peace? Compare the Peace of Cimon with that of Antalcidas, stating the time and circumstances of the latter. 10. Compare Athens and Sparta. What were the causes and results of the Peloponnesian War? 11. Give some account of Philip of Macedon and of Alexander, and compare the two. 12. The geographical position and configuration of Greece.

XIV.

1. Give a sketch of the life of Themistocles. 2. Describe the battle of Plataea. 3. Describe the administration of Pericles, and illustrate it by events. 4. Write an account of the Sicilian expedition. 5. Give the geographical position of Byzantium, Dyrrachium, Aquileia, Tarentum, Saguntum, Cannae, Massilia, Eboracum. 6. What is the difference between a parallel and a meridian? How far, in degrees, is each polar circle from its pole? What is the greatest possible latitude? longitude? 7. The basin of a river is the entire area or territory watered or drained by the river and all its branches: what European states lie, wholly or in part, in the basin of the Rhine, and what States of our Union are, wholly or in part, in the basin of the Mississippi? 8. Name a fact in the history of each of the following places, and give the situation of each: Marathon, Salamis, Plataea, Mantinea, Chaeronea, Arbela, Cannae, Syracuse, Zama, Pharsaha, Philippi, Actium. 9. What most notable service was rendered to his country by Leonidas, Thrasybulus, Marius, Demosthenes, Cicero 1

XV.

1. Where were Corinth, Thessalonica, Philippi, Ephesus, Sardis? 2. Four important ancient battles : two from Grecian and two from Roman history. Name the victorious and the vanquished party, and show the importance of the battles. 3. The expedition of the Younger Cyrus against Persia, and that of Alexander. 4. The position of the Alps and the Apennines; the rivers that rise in them. 5. Any four English colonies; the chief Spanish colony; the great French dependency in Africa. To what power do the Azores belong? 6. Where are Batavia, Van Diemen's Land, New Orleans, San Francisco? What historical inferences do you draw from their names? 7. The statesmanship of Themistocles. 8. The Athenian power at the beginning and at the end of the Peloponnesian War. 9. The Athenian and the Spartan polity, character, influence.

XVI.

1. Give the latitude of the tropics and of the polar circles. What makes them good boundaries for zones? Define arctic and antarctic according to their derivation. 2. The longitude of St. Petersburg is 30° east from Greenwich: give the longitude of two places, one 120° east, and the other 120° west, from St. Petersburg. 3. What is meant in geography by watershed and basin? What is the relation of the Po to the Alps and Apennines, and of the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains and Alleghanies? 4. Point out four towns in this country named after foreign towns, and give the situation of the former and of the latter. 5. Candia: its situation and ancient name. Mont Blanc: in what country is it? 6. Waterloo, Sebastopol, Gettysburg, Sadowa: where? 7. Saguntum, the Trebia, Lake Trasimenus, Cannae, Zama: geographically and historically. 8. The Rubicon, Pharsalia, Philippi, Actium: geographically and historically. 9. The Acropolis of Athens. 10. Where is Syracuse? Give an account of the failure of the Athenian expedition to Sicily. 11. What revolutions took place in the government of Athens between 477 and 403 B. C.? By whom were they effected?

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