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How chang'd the fcene from that in former days!
Thus, far the Christian---nor the hero less,
* Although the author had not then been made acquainted with that more benevolent scheme of the Universal Restoration, he had discovered some der fect in the jarring systems here alluded to; and recollects that Mr. Tuppen complained of his having made the sailor too much of a Latitudinarian.
t As the author had, at the time this poem was written, but just left the fea service, perhaps his notions were rather more warlike than they are at present; for now he happens to think that a true disciple of the Prince of Peace cannot, with propriety, be a Man of Blood. However, for a person who had been trained up to the trade of war, and could turn his hand to no pther trade, some excuse can certainly be made..
S. WHITCHURCH. Bath, Dec. 5, 1798.
MONTHLY. MONTHLY OCCURRENCES.
French in any quarter. They have ADMIRAL Nelson has declared all | been defeated in several very fevere A the ports of the Ligurian Repub battles, loft several thousand men, lic to be in a Itate of blockade; and and an immenfe quantity of artillery. that all Ligurian vessels taken by the Rome has been retaken by the French ships of the coalesced powers Thall be ---and their vitorious armies are on deemed good and lawful prizes. their march to Naples, which city, it is
By the accounts received from Ja-l said, is in a state of great disturbance, maica by the packet, we are so ry to and very favourable to the French.. learn that the yellow fever is rnaking! 5. Letters from Otranto, of the confiderable ravages in that island. | 24th of November last, announce the The packet is now under quarantine, commencement of hoftilities between some of the people belonging to her the Ottoman Porte and the French having died in the passage. There is | Republic. The country called Sully a great prospect of the best harvest in Macedonia is in a state of infura they have had these twelve years. I rection against the Pacha of Jenaina.
27. The British fhip Medusa, of, and the inhabitants, already organised co guns, laden with flores, was, on into Nacional Guards, begin to wear the 22d of December lait, in a vio- the French cockade. They have lent gale of wind, driven on shore in been furnished with arms, cannon, Rose Bay, near Gibraltar. The crew and warlike stores, from Corfu. Musí was happily saved; but it was appre- tapha, Pacha of Lions, has declared hended the ship and car20 would be in favour of the cause of liberty, and loft.
has become a French general. The 28. In the Paris Journals we find inhabitants of Beirceftro, and several letters from Bruslels, dated the 12th other provinces, are animated witir Ink, which say, " The war waged by the fame views, and have followed the insurgents still continues with the the example of Sully, greatest obstinacy; much blood is ì. The Ambuscade, a Britisli friThed on both sides; but hitherto the gate, lias been captured by a French insurgents have gained no permanent thip, about the faine size. They were advantage. Their successes have engaged upwards of three hours, when been merely temporary, and follow-| the fore-mast of the Ambuscade, falled with a new defeat. General Be- ing over, dropped on the enemy's guinet has set off to Paris in order to thip, which made a kind of bridge, and give an account to government of the line was boarded. The French ship atate of our departments. The Com- was full of troops. mune of Bruslels is to remain in a 10. A letter from Stockholm, dated ftate of siège, until it has paid the Dec. 8. states, That a rupture is foon whole of the contributions in arrear, expected to take place between the and uncil the first class of the levy | courts of Sweden and Petersburg. It has obeyed the law which requires its is said, the latter endeavoured to preincorporation with the armies. vail on the former to renounce the lyf
Jan. 1, 1799. The Dublin mails tem of neutrality, and to declare 3which arrived yesterday brought in- gainst France, which the Swedish catelligence of the class of attornies, binet would not consent to. If a war and several other public bodies, havo | should break out among the powers of ing pafled strong resolutions against the the north, it will be almost impoflibie Union. Accounts of pillage and mur- | for Denmark not to declare herfelf, der still continue to fill the journals particularly if Sweden claiins the exdaily, and fears are pretended to be ecution of existing treaties. Thus no entertained of the rebellion being re- | part of Europe would avoid this newed. The Castle gates are shut dreadful scourge. every night, and every precaution tim II. Poslwan Og!u, it appears, still ken for refilting an attack.
continues to be victorious He has ta3. The last accounts received from ken a great number of transports in the feat of war in Italy represent the the Danube, and waggons load d with Neapolitans as unable to relist the. ' Itores for the Ruílian army.
14. The 14. The inhabitants of the Me of St... A new revolution has been effected Pierre, near Sardinia, who were carri- in the Cisalpine Republic. On the 16th ed off by a Tunisian corsair, have been ult. the French general published two set at liberty. The Bey of Tunis has ordinances, the one annulling the Act formally, disavowed the enterprise, of Reform, made by Gen. Brune-on and ordered the captain of the cor- o&. 19, the other convokes the Prin fair's head to be cut off.
| mary Assemblies to deliberate upon 16. Accounts received from Buona- the constitution as it. was previous to parte, by way of Paris, represent that that epoch. A new Directory was apgeneral to be in a prosperous situation. pointed and installed by the French He has, in various instances, obtained general and ambaslador, who have ex. advantages over the Arabs, and has a pelled several members from the leprospect of being firmly established in gillative body, the hall of which was Egypt. What gave rise to the report constantly occupied by French troops. of the death of Buonaparte was an in 23. A great fermentation is said to furrection which took place in Cairo, exist at Venice against the Emperor's in which, it is supposed, 500 French government; many persons are arand General Dupuis were massacred. relted daily, and the prisons are so The French in return destroyed seve- full of state prisoners, that the goral thousands of the inhabitants. vernment have been under the necel
18. The Senate of Hamburg have fity of sending 180 to Hungary to incurred the displeasure of the French. make room for others. The latter insist upon the release of Russian frigate has been lost in the Irislimen arrested in that city. At the Black Sea. the desire of the English Resident, 24. The French are busily employthe foriner declare they will wait the ed in strengthening the fortifications decision of his Prussian Majelty. The | at Mantua, and in placing it in condi, French Minister has notified, that a | tion to suitain a long siege. perseverance in a refusal to set the Lord Stanhope has published a very arrested persons at liberty will be spirited Address to the People of considered by the French governinent | Great Britain and Ireland, in which as a declaration of war.
he exhorts them to resist an Union 21. The guild of merchants of Dub | between the two countries by every lin, at their quarterly meeting, on the | means in their power. 15th, among other matters respecting 1 25. On the oth of Dec. the Conthe talked-of Union, unanimously re- gress of the United States was openfolved, “ That whoever shall propose ed with a speech from the President, and support such a measure, is, in our in which he urged the necessity there opinion, an eneiny to his country, to was for the molt formidable preparatiour connection with Great Britain, I ons of offence and defence, in order to and to the constitution which we have shew the French they were not to be fworn to defend.”
frightened out of their just demands, 22. On the 10th ult, the Einperor Some disturbances have broke out of Russia was installed Grand Master in many parts of Flanders in conseof Malta, with the usual solemnity, quence of the new law for railing at Petersburg.
| 200,000 mnen.
- CORRESPONDENCE. ' OUR Friend who began to answer the questions on Atonement and Pardon, (see No. XXIII.) has apologised for not going on, from want of time; and has promised to continue the fubicct in our next.
Received--Continuation of Eslay on Punitive Justice.--Miscellaneous Articles from Clio.--Answer to Heterodox Queries by W.A.--Differtation on the Precise Time of Christ's Preaching to the Spirits in Prison, by J. W.-Poem on Young Women, by J. T.--Practical Uses of Election.--Philomathi, .. Tyro, &c.
Our Readers are requested to correct No. XXIV. in the following places--Page 373, last line, for 1728, read 1798. P. 374, for « your 2 ist Number of respectable,' &c. read 21st Number of your,' &c. P. 375, 1. s. for radical read medical. P. 377,1, 12, for their read there. P. 385,1. 11. for purufe read pursue.
(Continued from p. 8.) ITAVING given the theory of Volcanoes, we have in
some measure given also that of Earthquakes: they both seem to proceed from the same cause, only with this difference, that the volcano is spent in the eruprion, that of an earthquake spreads wider, and acts more fatally by being confined ---the volcano only affrights a province---earthquakes have laid whole
volcanoms in ruinove taken for
Philosophers have taken some pains to distinguilh between the various kinds of earthquakes, such as the tremulous, the pulsative, the perpendicular, and the inclined; but these are rather the distinctions of art than of nature---mere accidental. differences arising from the situation of the country, or of the cause. If, for instance, the confined fire acts directly under a province or a town, it will heave the earth perpendicularly upward, and produce a perpendicular earthquake: if it acts at a distance, it will raise that tract obliquely, and thus the inhabit. ants will perceive an inclined one. .
Nor does it seem to me that there is much greater reason for Mr. Buffon's distinction of earthquakes : one kind of which he supposes to be produced by fire, in the manner of volcanoes, and confined to but a very narrow circumference; the other : kind he ascribes to the struggles of confined air, expanded by: heat, in the bowels of the earth, and endeavouring to get free: for how do these two causes differ? Fire is an agent of no Vol. III.
power whatsoever without air. It is the air which, being at first compressed, and then dilated, in a canon, that drives the ball with such force---It is the air struggling for vent in a volcano that throws up its contents to such vast heights---In Thort, it is the air confined in the bowels of the earth, and acquiring elasticity by heat, that produces all those appearances which are generally ascribed to the operation of fire.. When, therefore, we are told, that there are two causes of earthquakes, we only learn, that a greater or smaller quantity of heat produces these terrible effects ; for air is the only active operator in either.
Some philosophers, however, have been willing to give the air'as great a share in producing these terrible efforts as they could, and, magnifying its powers, have called in but a very moderate degree of heat to put it in action. Although expe. rience tells us, that the earth is full of inflammable materials, and that fires are produced wherever we descend---although it tells us that those countries where there are volcanoes are most subject to earthquakes, yet they step out of the way, and so find a new solution. These only allow but just heat enough to produce the most dreadful phenomena ; and, backing their assertions with long calculations, give theory an air of demonstration. Mr. Amontons has been particularly sparing of the internal heat in this respect, and has shewn, perhaps accurately enough, that a very moderate degree of heat may suffice to give the air amazing powers of expansion.
It is amusing enough, however, to trace the progress of a philosophical fancy let loofe in imaginary speculations. They run thus---“ A very moderate degree of heat may bring the air into a condition capable of producing earthquakes; for the air, at the depth of 43,528 fathoms below the surface of the earth, becomes almost as heavy as quicksilver. This, howe ever, is but a very slight depth, in comparison of the distance to the centre, and is scarce a seventieth part of the way: the air, therefore, at the centre must be infinitely heavier than mercury, or any body that we know of. This granted, we shall take something more, and say, that it is very probable there is nothing but air at the centre. Now let us suppose this air heated by some means, even to a degree of boiling water : a3 we have proved that the density of the air is here very great, its elasticity must be in proportion; an heat, therefore, which, at the furface of the earth, would have produced but a slight expansive force, must, at the centre, produce one very extraordinary, and, in short, be perfectly irresistible. Hence this:
i · force