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force may, with great ease, produce earthquakes; and if encreafed, it may convulse the globe; it may (by only adding figures enough to the calculation) destroy the solar system, and even the fixed stars themselves.” These reveries generally produce nothing; for, as I have ever observed, encreased calculations, while they seem to tire the memory, give the reasoning faculty perfect repose.
However, as earthquakes are the most formidable ministers of nature, it is not to be wondered that a multitude of writers have been curiously employed in their consideration. Woodward has ascribed the cause to a stoppage of waters below the earth's surface by some accident. These being thus accumulated, and yet acted upon by fires which he supposes still deeper, both contribute to heave up the earth upon their bosom. This he thinks accounts for the lakes of water produced in an earthquake, as well as the fires that sometimes burst from the earth's surface upon those dreadful occasions. There are others still who have supposed that the earth may be itself the cause of its own convulsions. · When, say they, the root or basis of fome large track is worn away by a fluid underneath, the earth sinking therein, its weight occasions a tremor of the adjacent parts, Tometimes producing a noise, and sometimes an inundation of water. Not to tire the reader with an history of opinions instead of facts, some have ascribed them to electricity, and some to the same causes that produce thunder.
It would be tedious, therefore, to give all the various opinions that have employed the speculative upon this subject. The activity of the internal heat seems alone sufficient to account for every appearance that attends these tremendous irregularities of nature. To conceive this distinctly, let us suppose, at some vast distance under the earth, large quantities of inflammable matter---pyrites, bitumens, and marcasites--disposed, and only waiting for the aspersion of water, or the humidity of the air, to put their fires in motion: at last this dreadful mixture arrives; waters find their way into these depths through the perpendicular fiffures, or air insinuates itself through the same minute apertures : instantly new appearances ensue; those substances which for ages before lay dormant, now conceive new apparent qualities ; they grow hot, produce new air, and only want room for expansion. However, the narrow apertures, by which the air or water had at first admission, are now closed up; yet, as new air is continually generated, and as the heat every moment gives this air new elasticity, it at length bursts, and dilates all round; and, in its struggles to get free, throws all
above above it in similar convulsions. Thus an earthquake is produced, more or less extensive according to the depth or the greatness of the cause. , .
But before we proceed with the causes, let us take a short view of the appearances which have attended the most remark. able earthquakes: by these we shall see how far the theorist corresponds with the historian. The greatest we find in antiquity is that mentioned by Pliny, in which twelve cities in Asia Minor were swallowed up in one night : the tells us also of another, near the lake Thrasymene, which was not perceived by the armies of the Carthaginians and Romans, that were then engaged near that lake, although it shook the greatest part of Italy. In another place he gives the following account of an earthquake of an extraordinary kind--- .
“ When Lucius Marcus and Sextus Julius were consuls, there appeared a very strange prodigy of the earth, (as I have read in the books of the Ætruscan discipline) which happened in the province of Mutina---two mountains shocked against each other, approaching and retiring, with the most dreadful noise; they at the same time, and in the midst of day, appeared to cast forth fire and smoke, while a vast number of Roman knights and travellers from the Æmilian way, stood and conti, nued amazed spectators. Several towns were destroyed by this shock, and all the animals that were near them were killed.”
In the times of Trajan, the city of Antioch, and a great part of the adjacent country, was buried by an earthquake.--About three hundred years after, in the times of Justinian, it was once more destroyed, together with 40,000 inhabitants ; and after an interval of fixty years, the same ill-fated city was a third time overturned with the loss of not less than 60,000 souls. In the year 1182, most of the cities of Syria, and the kingdom of Jerusalem, were destroyed by the same accidente In the year 1594, the Italian historians describe an earthquake at Puteoli, which caused the tea to retire two hundred yards from its former bed.
But one of these most particularly described in history is that of the year 1693, the damages of which were chiefly felt, in Sicily, but its motion perceived in Germany, France, and England---it extended to a circumference of 2600 leagues ; chiefly affecting the sea coast and great rivers; more perceiva able also upon the mountains than in the vallies. Its motions were fo rapid, that those who lay at their length were tossed from side to side, as upon a rolling billow. The walls were dashed from their foundations; and no less than fifty-tour cities,
with an incredible number of villages, were either destroyed or greatly damaged. The city of Catanea, in particular, was utterly overthrown. A traveller, who was on his way thither, at the distance of some miles, perceived a black cloud, like night, hanging over the place. The sea, all of a sudden began to roar, Mount Ætna to send forth great spires of fame, and foon after a shock ensued, with a noise as if all the artillery in the world had been at once discharged. Our traveller, being obliged to alight instantly, felt himself raised a foot from the ground; and, turning his eyes to the city, he with amazement faw nothing but a thick cloud of dust in the air. · The birds few about astonished; the fun was darkened; the beasts ran howling from the hills; and though the shock did not continue above three minutes, yet near 19,000 of the inhabitants of Sicily perished in the ruins. Catanea, to which city the describer was travelling, seemed the principal scene of ruin; its place only was to be found; and not a footstep of its former magnificence was to be seen remaining.
The earthquake which happened in Jamaica, in 1692, was yery terrible, and its description sufficiently minute.--.« In two minutes time it destroyed the town of Port-Royal, and sunk the houses in a gulph forty fathoms deep. It was attended with a hollow rumbling noise, like that of thunder; and in less than a minute three parts of the houses, and their inhabitants were all funk quite under water. While they were swallowed up on one lide of the street, on the other the houses were thrown into heaps; the fand of the street rising like the waves of the sea, lifting up those that stood upon it, and immediately overwhelming them in pits. All the wells discharged their waters with the most vehement agitation. The fea felt an equal share of turbulence, and, bursting over its mounds, deluged all that came in its way. The fiflures of the earth were, in some places, so great, that one of the streets appeared twice as broad as formerly. In many places, however, it opened and closed again, and continued this agitation for some time. Of these openings two or three hundred might be seen at a time---in some of which the people were swallowed up; il others the earth, closing, caught them in the middle, and thus crushed them instantly to death. Other openings, still more dreadful than the rest, swallowed up whole streets, and others, more formidable still, spouted up whole cataracts of water, drowning such as the earth had fpared. The whole was attended with the most noisome stench; while the thundering of the distant falling mountains, the whole sky overcast with a duíky gloom,
and the crash of falling habitations, gave unspeakablc horror to the scene. After this dreadful calamity was over, the whole island seemed converted into a scene of desolation; scarce a planter's house was left standing; almost all were swallowed up ---houses, people, trees, shared one universal ruin; and in their places appeared great pools of water, which, when dried up by the sun, left only a plain of barren sand, without any veitige of former inhabitants. Most of the rivers, during the earthquake, were stopped up by the falling in of the mountains; and it was not till after some time that they made themselves new channels. The mountains seemed particularly attacked by the force of the flock; and it was supposed that the principal feat of the concussion was among them. Those who were javed got on board ships in the harbour, where many remained above two months, the shocks continuing during that interval with more or less violence every day.”
As this description seems to exhibit all the appearances that usually make up the catalogue of terrors belonging to an earthquake, I will suppress the detail of that which happened at Lisbon in our own times, and which is too recent to require a description. In fact, there are few particulars in the accounts of those who were present at that desolation, that we have not more minutely and accurately transmitted to us by former wri. ters, whose narratives I have for that reason preferred. I will therefore close this description of human calamities with the account of the dreadful earthquake at Calabria, in 1638. It is related by the celebrated Father Kircher, as it happened while he was on his journey to visit Mount Ætna, and the rest of the wonders that lie towards the south of Italy. I need scarce inform the reader, that Kircher is considered, by scholars, as one of the greatest prodigies of learning.
(To be continued.)
(Concluded from voli ii. p. 352.) TIENCE the apostle, quoting the Old Testament, (Psalm
1 xl. 6. in the Septuagint, « A body hast thou prepared me,” Heb. x, 5.) points us thereto, in the same manner as Solomon does, 2 Chron. vi. 18.--.
כי האמנם ישב אלהים את האדם על הארץ :
But will God in truth (i. e. in antitype) inhabit the human nature upon the earth? Yes, says the prophet Isaiah, (chap. vii. 14 ) Behod, a virgin jhall conceit'e, and bear a sn, and shall call his name Iinmanuel. This is also declared by Mat. thew (chap. i. 33 ) to be a tact which had taken place at Bethlehem. The church also, commemorating the great anxietv of David, respecting the habitation of Jehovah, cries out in extaly, « Behold, we have heard of it (i. e, this habitation) at Ephratah (Bethlehem). Comp. Mich. v. 2. This dwelling-place, no doubt also, the prophet turns our attention to, Isaiah, lxvi. 1. I hus faith the Lord: The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool; where is the house that ye build into me? and where is the place of my rejt, &c.---But to this (man) will P'IN I cause expectation, or hope, (namely, he who is the feed of the woman) unto the '958 afflicted one, &c. John also bears the same record, chap. i. 14. “ And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt, (or tabernacled) among us; and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. Having sufficiently proved from divine authority, that He is the scope, meaning, and truth of the temple, (as the dwelling-place of the Deity, or God manifeft in the flesh, 1 Tim. iii. 15.) with all its apparatus, nothing can be more clear, than that he is also the spirit of all the lacrifices, whether we consider them as 757 burnt-offerings, nison sin-offerings, D'Ows trespass-offerings, or spbw peaceofferings. In him likewise we must look for the meaning of all the things which were in the worldly (anctuary, viz. 777120 the candlestick, the mystery of which was “ the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world,” filling the temple of God, the body of Christ, both natural and m; ítical, with fulness of light. Solomon made ten such candlesticks, i Kings, vii. 49.) which was saying in figures what Paul does in words, that all the fulness of the Godhead, or light, dwelt in Chrift, and was by him communicated to the church; “ of his fulness have we all received,” John, i. 16. Col. i. 19; for vaw is fulness, and ywy ten (all). The table, the shew.bread ---the golden pot that had mannd, as holding out to us the Father's gift of the true bread, even the true bread which came down from heaven, the bread of life---Aaron's rod that bud. ded, and bloomed blossoms, and yielded almonds ; denoting him who was raised from the dead, and thus declared to be the son of God with power; fee Numb. xvii. 8---10. comp. with Heb. ix. 3,4,---The tables of the covenant, the divine law