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THE

HISTORY

OF

THE PERSIAN WARS,

FROM

HERODOTUS.

WITH

ENGLISH NOTES,

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS, AND INDEXES.

BY CHARLES WILLIAM STOCKER, D.D.
FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, AND LATE PROFESSOR OF MORAL

PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

SECOND EDITION.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1843.

POLYHYMNIA.

ARGUMENT OF THE SEVENTH BOOK.

Egypt revolts: 1. Darius names Xerxes for his successor, and dies in the

midst of preparations for war: 2—4. Xerxes is pressed to invade Greece by Mardonius, Demaratus, and others : 5; 6. The revolt is quelled : 7. Xerxes proposes in council an expedition against Greece; Mardonius speaks in approval of the measure, which Artabanus opposes : 8—11. The king, in spite of a dream, changes his determination; the vision appears again to him, and also to his uncle, who now urges the invasion : 12—19. Great preparations ; Athos is dug through: 20–25. Xerxes begins his march. Pythius: 26–31. The Hellespontine bridges are destroyed by a storm, but rebuilt: 32—36. March from Sardis to Abydos. Review of the forces. Conversation between the king and Artabanus, who is left as viceroy: 37–53. Passage over the bridges. March to Doriscus. Numbering of the army: 54–60. Com. manders-in-chief of the forces. The immortal ’band : 82; 83. Generals of the cavalry : 87 ; 88. Triremes : 89. Marines : 96. Commanders of the fleet : 97. Artemisia : 99. Review of the army: 100. Conversation of Xerxes with Demaratus : 101–104. Mascames. Boges : 105–107. March from Doriscus to Acanthus, the fleet coasting along shore: 108–120. There the army and navy separate, and meet again at Therma: 121–127. Xerxes surveys the mouth of the Peneus: 128-130. His heralds return; none had been now sent to Sparta or Athens : 131–133. Discord among the Greeks : 138. The Athenians were the saviours of Greece: 139. Oracles; which Themistocles interprets: 140-143. Preparations of the Greeks: 144-147. Argos declines any alliance : 148–152. Unsuccessful embassy to Gelon: 153; 156–167. Duplicity of the Corcyræans : 168. Crete remains neutral : 169. The Thessalians are necessitated to join the Persians: 171-174. The Greek congress resolves to defend Thermopylæ, and to station the fleet at Artemisium : 175—178. Hostilities commence by sea : 179–183. Nume. rical strength of the invaders : 184–187. A storm : 188–191. Naval manoeuvres : 192—195. Xerxes marches to Trachis. A little band under Leonidas occupies the pass : 196; 198–209. Battle of Thermopylæ. Treachery of Epialtes. Fall of Leonidas. His countrymen sell their lives dearly. The Thebans are made slaves : 210—213; 215—233. Conver. sation of Xerxes and Demaratus: 234-237. The body of Leonidas is mutilated : 238. Demaratus had sent to Sparta intelligence of this invasion : 239.

Herod. Vol. II.

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(1) EΠΕΙ δε η αγγελία απίκετο περί της μάχης της εν Μαραθώνι γενομένης παρά βασιλέα Δαρείον τον Υστάσπεος, και πριν μεγάλως κεχαραγμένον τοϊσι Αθηναίοισι διά την ές Σάρδις εσβολήν, και δη και τότε πολλά τε δεινότερα επoίεε, και μάλλον ώρμητο στρατεύεσθαι επί την Ελλάδα, και αυτίκα μεν επηγγέλλετο, πέμπων αγγέλους κατά πόλις, ετοιμάζειν στρατιών, πολλά πλέω επιτάσσων εκάστοισι, ή πρότερον παρείχον, και νέας τε και ίππους και στον και πλοία. 2 τούτων δε περιαγγελλομένων 3, η 'Ασίη εδονέετο4 επί τρία έτεα, καταλεγομένων τε των αρίστων, ως επί την Ελλάδα στρατευσομένων, και παρασκευαζομένων. τετάρτω δε έτει Αιγύπτιοι, υπό Καμβύσεω δουλωθέντες, απέστησαν από Περσέων. ενθαύτα δή και μάλλον ώρμητο και επ' αμφοτέρους στρατεύεσθαι.

(2) Στελλομένου δε Δαρείου επΑίγυπτος και Αθήνας, των παίδων αυτού στάσις εγένετο μεγάλη περί της ηγεμονίης ως δεί μινό, αποδέξαντα 6 βασιλέα, κατά τον Περσέων νόμον, ούτω7 στρα

1. κεχαραγμένον] ωργισμένον, Ηes. Χen. H. vi, 4, 2; Arr. Al. vii, 14, 16. The expression is applied to animals BF. grinding their teeth with rage. LR. 4. έδoνέετο] App. C.iv, 52 ; Ηerod. The metaphor is rather taken from the vii, 13. WE. roughness of money newly coined, 5. ώς δεί μιν] since it is necessary which was termed asper in Latin ; Suet. for him. It would be more correct, iv, 44; Sen. E. xix, 9. The impres- as Darius is here meant, to use έδει sion on the coin was called χαρακτήρ, it was necessary ;' but as the same Eur. E. 559; BL. compare 572; necessity existed in the case of every κείνη [τόσον, PO R.] μη χαράσσου, M. Sovereign, Herodotus might also have 157. MV. “exasperated

said ως δεί βασιλέα, αποδέξαντα διά3. τούτων περιαγγελλομένων] - these δοχον, &c. SW. 1, 208, 61. orders being sent round. Thu. ii, 10; 6. αποδέξανταεπιτρέψαντος Ευρυshe was the first woman who ever wrote 11. νομιζόμενα] 1. e. νομιζόμενον, letters. LR.

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