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descendants of barbarians, who formerly | weights, coins, and measures, result in dwelt in Crete, and afterwards passed the same conclusion. He has shown that over to the continent. That this view is the systems of weights and measures the correct one, and has received the prevalent in Babylon, Syria, Phænicia, support of Greek and Roman authors, Judea, Egypt, Sicily, Italy, and RomeMovers (1841), Bertheau (1842), and in all the countries of the ancient world Lengerke (1844) abundantly prove. in fact, form one great whole. He has,

From the book of Genesis we learn moreover, proved most satisfactorily that that the first attempt at centralization the meteorology of all ancient nations is took place in the fertile plains watered to be traced up to Babylon as its source. by the Euphrates and Tigris. “In the | This profound work of Boekch’s, says earliest records,” says Heeren, “of the Grote, “exhibits the diffusion of instituhuman race, the name of Babylon ap- tions originating in the very ancient civilpears as the primeval seat of political ization of Babylon, to the neighbouring society, and the cradle of civilization.” countries whose period of settled ordiThis we should expect from the wonder- nances and commerce was more recent." ful fertility of these plains, and from It has generally been considered that their contiguity to the higher regions western nations obtained their knowledge first inhabited by Noah and his sons after of astronomy from the Babylonians. Rethe deluge. Such being the case, we cent investigations have served to estafeel induced, both by Scripture and the blish the fact, that the Chinese owe their probability of the case considered in knowledge of this science to the same itself, to conclude that the germs of people. civilization first quickened into growth Thus, then, in the history of science, in these plains, and were afterwards as well as in the Bible, Babylon appears transferred to other regions. The re- as the centre of civilization. searches of modern scholars remarkably Archæology has, of late, done much in confirm this idea.

support of revealed truth. Many works Lepsius and Saalschütz, in their ad- have been recently published, not merely mirable researches into the origin of in Germany, but in England and Amealphabetic writing, have shown that it rica, in which it is plainly asserted that probably belongs to a period before the the late origin of the Pentateuch is evidispersion ; that the alphabet of the In-dent, since alphabetic writing was undians had a common source with that of known in the time of Moses. A fer the Semitic tribes; that the square cha- | interesting extracts on this subject will racter, adopted by the Hebrews during show the impudent ignorance of such the captivity, was marked by more ori- an assertion. “The antiquity of the ginality than any other ; that the har- | invention of writing," says Lepsius,* "is mony between the Semitic alphabet and placed beyond the reach of controversy; the Egyptian hieroglyphics is more inti- not only by the age and demonstrable mate than is generally imagined ; and genuineness of the Egyptian documents, that the Phænicians and Hebrews, in but also by the pictorial representations migrating eastward from the country of of writing materials on the earliest of their common origin, retained their their monumental remains." A papyrus knowledge of the art of writing as well document is now in existence bearing a as that of speaking. These views are in date long prior to the time of Abraham. a measure sustained by the celebrated Chevalier Bunsen, in his Ancient Egypt, scholar De Wette. He regards it as informs us, that "the Egyptians had “more probable” that the first sources writings and books in the earliest period of writing are to be sought among the in which we have monuments. The pen Babylonians.

and inkstand appear on the monuments The researches of Boeckh into ancient * Preface to the " Book of the Dead," p. 17.

of the fourth dynasty, the oldest in the tive portions of the New Testament, and world."

Bailie (1844) the places of the ApocaNo wonder, then, that Ewald, in his lypse. Thus Akerman shows, from coins, late work on Israelitish History, de- that the town-clerk (Acts xix. 35) was clares, speaking of the nations of Western a personage of great importance. The Africa, that “writing, among these na- dignity and duties of the Asiarchs (chief tions, always appears more ancient than men of Asia, Acts xix. 31), and the any history can disclose.

So meaning of the title Neocoros, assumed much is evident, that it was enjoyed by Ephesus, (Acts xix. 35, translated by the Shemitish nations long before a "worshipper,") have recently been adMoses appeared," p. 69.

mirably explained by means of coins and The recent discoveries of Nineveh inscriptions. Kranse's Neocoros (1845) have brought to light one interesting fact exhausts the subject. among many. Notwithstanding the men- In Biblical Criticism much has also tion made of battering-rams by Ezekiel, been accomplished of late. Tischendorf our works on Ancient History and An- has recently printed the New Testament tiquities regard the ancients as having and fragments of the Septuagint, from been indebted to the Macedonians and | Ephraim's Rescript—the celebrated CoCarthaginians for these military engines. | dex C of biblical critics; regarded as the Mr. Ledyard has within a few months oldest manuscript extant of the sacred past discovered several representations in writings. Chemical science has rendered which this machine is portrayed. this most important and venerable work

Mention is more than once in the Bible legible. The editor has an Appendix on made of a bow of brass, rendered by our the disputed passage, 1 Tim. iii. 16, in translators "a bow of steel.” They and which he asserts that Oxós, God, is, inmore recent critics have been misled dubitably, the correct reading; the medial from ignorance of Egyptian Antiquities. line which distinguishes the theta from Recent experiments have proved that the the omicron having been by him disEgyptians, by an alloy of copper, were

tinctly traced. in the habit of making their most hard Much difficulty has been felt by critics, and elastic weapons. An ancient Egyptian arising from the differences which exist sword has been found to contain 85 parts between the Septuagint and the Hebrew of copper, 14 of tin, and 1 of iron. The text. Two works of standard authority stone-cutters' chisels in the British Mu- have recently made their appearance on seum, taken from the granite quarries of this subject. Thiersch, anxious to ascerSyene are of the same materials. Nor tain whether the derivation in question was this confined to the Egyptian. An was such as to warrant the belief that it antique sword, found in France, a short could have originated from competent time since, produced 88 parts of copper, MS. authority, applied himself, for two and 12 of tin. “Such alloys, copper years, to the study of the Hebrew and with a small mixture of tin, were an- Greek Pentateuch. The conclusion to ciently employed as weapons and tools which he comes is, that “the Alexanin the place of steel.”—Enc. of Chemistry, drian translators proceeded evidently in 1844.

making their version on principles which Much interesting and valuable inform- allowed them an almost arbitrary latiation has recently been obtained from tude, and that in the exercise of this they ancient coins and inscriptions. The can reasonably be supposed to have made splendid works, “Trésor de Numisma. the changes which appear in their vertique," and Boeckh's "Corp. Inscript.," sion, without seeking the origin of them leave us but little to be desired on these in a different Hebrew text."* The other subjects. From these sources, Akerman

* See an article by Prof. Hackett, which aphas lately (1846) illustrated the narra- | peared in the last number of the Bibliotheca Sacra. work to which we referred, is that by Dr. Hebrew proper names have recently Frankel (1841.) He, in point of fact, had much light thrown upon them by agrees with Thiersch.

Kosagarten, in his “Prænomina of the The late investigations of Peyron, Arabs,” and by Ewald, in a recent adTattam, Parthey, and Meiar, in the mo- mirably-written essay. dern Egyptian languages, have thrown Much attention has of late been paid much light upon Scripture. For instance, to Chronology. Seyffarth's “ Chronologia Meiar (1846) well explains the name Sacra” (1846) is pre-eminently valuable, given to Joseph, Gen. xli. 45, as meaning and surpasses every other work on the “the support of life," and the Egyptian subject. This author advocates the era word in Gen. xli. 43, translated in our of the world, which accords with the version “ bow the knee," as though from Septuagint. An admirable treatise on the Hebrew, as signifying “bow thyself the date of Christ's birth has lately apdown,” being the Egyptian imperative peared from the pen of Wieseler. From with the pronoun of the second person. | four data given in the gospels, he deterThis same author, with Gesenius and mines, with great critical sagacity, the Bunsen, consider the word Pharaoh as period of that event. The conclusion to compounded of the masculine article p, which he comes is as follows: "In reand ouro, king; thus supporting the opin- spect, therefore, to the month and day ion of Josephus.

of Christ's birth, we are brought to the Lassen, Bohlen, and others, have em-'| conclusion that the day must be left unployed much learning in illustrating the decided, and that of the months, the close Bible from Persian and Indian sources, of December, together with January and and from oriental inscriptions. Thus, the | February, should be taken into considerword translated “lieutenant," Est. iii. ation, of which, however, December has 12, &c., has lately been found in an in the least, January a greater, and Februscription in ancient India. Its proper | ary decidedly the greatest probability in orthography is “ks'atrapa," i.e., warrior its favour.” He had before determined of the host; hence our word “satrap." the year to be 750, U. C. The name Cyrus appears now to be an Well has it been said by Professor appellation meaning "the sun.” Com Ritter: “God's truth is not the exclusive pare the Indian title of dignity surja, property of a single science; it must which denotes the same. The images penetrate and pervade all sciences, if mentioned Lev. xxvi. 30, &c., were un- | they would claim to have any participaknown until the discovery of several tion in it."

F. B. Punic and Palmyrene inscriptions, when Extracted from the Canada Protestant it appeared that they were pillars or Herald for April. images of the sun.

PICTURES FROM LIFE.

No. IV.
THE RACE-COURSE.

“I sum up half mankind,
And add two-thirds of the remaining half,
And find the total of their hopes and fears,
Dreams, empty dreams. The million flit as gay
As if created only like the fly,
That spreads his motley wings in the eye of noon,

To sport their season, and be seen no more.”—COWPER. It was at an early hour, on a brilliant altogether devoted to the pleasures of the morning, the third Wednesday in May, world, called unexpectedly, and under 1839, that a gay and dashing young man, the influence of great and joyous ex

citement, at the residence of an intelli- | Why, I thought you would have accepted gent and respectable acquaintance in the invitation with enthusiasm. Come, London, of nearly the same age, but, come! say you will make one of our happily, of very dissimilar tastes and number, and let us have a joyous day.” habits, and dashed into his apartment, “I am perfectly sincere and serious, before he bad taken breakfast, while he ex- George, I assure you. I act from princlaimed, at once, without allowing himself ciple in all these matters, and I could not time to inquire after the health of his deviate from my settled convictions. If friend, “Well, my dear fellow, I have you go to Epsom you must visit the broken in upon you by times this morn- downs without me." ing, and in an unusual manner; but I “ Really, William, you are so scrupuam going out soon to-day, with a party lous, and so very nice,-so particular of friends, and I want you to accompany and fastidious in everything, -that I us, and you must not say nay. We have know not how to meet you; but, come, engaged a splendid carriage and four, do away with your scruples for once, and and shall leave London in style. We go let me see that you are willing to unite with out of Pall-mall precisely at ten o'clock." us in enjoying a little innocent pleasure.”

“Well, but George, you have not yet “ George, you mistake me, or do told me where you are going at this early me injustice. If you term my views part of the day, and in the brilliant man- scruples, they are, at least, conscientious ner that you have been representing. scruples; if, as you state, my sentiments Are you intending an excursion into the are nice, and pertinaciously maintained, country for the day, to have a few hours they have, at least, this good quality, rural enjoyment, and freedom from the that they have been carefully formed, heat, bustle, and turmoil of the city ?” and are the result of thought, discrimina

“Oh! no, my dear fellow-we are tion, and of close and somewhat extended going into the country, certainly; but our observation." object is not a mere rural excursion, or "Well, my friend, I have not time, mere rural pleasure. We have a higher nor have I the disposition, this morning, aim. We have other game to bring to enter into any argument with you on down. We are off for Epsom. You the subject; for I am all excitement. are aware that the races commenced But, really, I do feel surprised that you yesterday, and that this is the principal can so calmly, and without regret, lose a day; it is the great Derby day ;-all the day's pleasure, and high pleasure, too, world will be at Epsom to-day. Who when offered to you with so much frankwould be at home in empty London on ness and cordiality." the day when the Derby stakes are run "Pleasure, George, pleasure? Pleafor? I would rather lose a hundred sure at Epsom on the Derby day? Pleapounds than be absent from the downs. sure on Epsom race-course? I tell you I expect it will be brilliant sport. We ingenuously, it would be no pleasure to shall all enjoy ourselves, I am

It would, instead of pleasing me, You will accompany us, I hope?" grieve and sadden my spirit."

"No, George, you must not expect William, my dear fellow, you must me to join your party to-day. Indeed, it be joking! What! no pleasure at Epsom is impossible. I have a great aversion to -no pleasure on the race-downs-no races and the race-course, and, with my pleasure in witnessing the contest on the views and convictions, I cannot accom- Derby day? I cannot understand you pany you as you wish."

-I cannot believe you. To me it is "What, my dear fellow, do you mean? quite a luxury—a delicious pleasure-an Are you in jest or in earnest? Not the extraordinary enjoyment! When I anlatter, I am persuaded. Not join a select ticipate it, it makes the blood thrill in my party to go to Epsom on the Derby day? | veins ;-I am all enthusiasm. You can

sure.

me.

never have been, William, at Epsom, espe- | less have I watched the foremost on their cially on the Derby day. If you had, you return to the grand stand, and observed would say it is a glorious scene. How the tremendous struggles of two or three often have I observed it, and been de- of the fleetest and most powerful to reach lighted with it. When proceeding towards the winning-post first, as though they Epsom, how have I been struck with the were determined to conquer, or fall down sight on every hand. The crowds moving lifeless on the course! How have they out of London,—the roads lined with been spurred and stimulated, when within passengers, — hundreds and thousands a comparatively few yards” distance of of carriages, and vehicles of all descrip- the goal, until, by a last and desperate tions, rolling rapidly along, in one con- effort-as though sensible that everything tinuous course, from the humble, light- depended on it—one of the noble creaspringed cart to the splendid six-in-hand. tures suddenly and fearfully plunged How have the inns and turnpike-gates forward, winning some thousands of been besieged ;—what a development of pounds by half a quarter of a length! life and enthusiasm,-—what a display of i have seen many spectacles, William, property,—what an exhibition of beauty! but never have I beheld one by any Why, William, on the Derby day, the means so pleasurable and so exciting as road itself to Epsom is, to me, full of that which is witnessed on Epsom racecharms. I never saw anything like it course on the great Derby day! I really so varied, so animated, so exciting! and cannot understand you, I must say again, then, when we arrive at the course, what when you tell me it would be no pleasure a scene opens upon us! What multi- for you to be present to behold such a tudes collected !-what multitudes con- scene. I am convinced you would be tinually pouring in!-what perfection of delighted. Lay aside, then, for once, arrangement !—what a display of elegance your preconceived notions, and join us and beauty! Why, to see the grand this morning." stand, with its galaxy of nobility and "No, George-I am quite firm, and splendour, always gave remarkable im- resolved not to go. I see that you are pulse to me. Then, to view the sleek, very fond of the race-course, and, I must graceful, and noble animals which were acknowledge, I am sorry to observe it. to contend for the magnificent stakes, I think the taste is bad-radically bad. moving impatiently about, with their I consider that the dangers associated jockies on their backs, why, it is worth with the race-course—I mean, especially, going a hundred miles just to see them, the moral dangers—are pre-eminently William! And then, when the bell rung, great, and almost innumerable. You the course was cleared, and arrangements have spoken to me of the pleasures of were made for starting, was it not to me the races, and of your pleasures in attendbeautiful—most beautiful? What an ex- ing them; but, I assure you, I regard citing moment! How intense the anxiety, those pleasures to be essentially pernicious and yet how thrilling the pleasure! Now and ruinous—like the apples of Sodom, all is arranged. What order—what ex- of which we read, fair and attractive citement-what hopes and fears! The without, but full of dust. The pleasures horses are placed. Everything is ready of the race-ground! where is their genuThe signal is given. Off they go! twenty ineness !-- where their intelligence! or thirty beautiful creatures—the perfec- where their solidity ?—where their purity! tion of form, elegance, and agility. With Will they bear examination? Do they what fleetness they hurried by—every commend themselves to a virtuous, belimb and muscle in full play—with nos- nevolent, and rightly-constituted mind! trils distended, and veins ready to burst. Are they associated with the happiness How have I followed them with my eye, of man? Are they in unison with simple and with what solicitude, almost breath- and pure tastes ? — with kindness and

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