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coil with disgrace upon the head of the ciple of reasoning which subverts society assailant. That Christians have ever per while it attacks religion,is infinitely absurd. secuted Christians, is a moral anomaly But the objection strangely exaggerates which cannot be accounted for on the the statements on which it rests, and principles of the religion which they thus totally keeps out of sight the most imgrievously malign, and which openly portant fact, which, if admitted, must condemns their spirit and conduct. completely neutralize its force. It is true

While Christianity is thus exonerated that there have been divisions and perfrom the charge of creating the divisions secutions among Christians; but the oband exciting the persecutions which have jection assumes that there has been taken place, and been perpetrated with nothing else, and that the church of the alleged sanction of its authority, the Christ has been stained with crimes, objection comes to us in another form, while it has been redeemed by no virtues, and we are reproached for maintaining a an assumption as false as it is disingenufaith inefficacious and powerless, which ous. In every age of Christianity, there bas not only failed to produce good moral has been among its sincere disciples the effects upon those who profess to embrace bond of perfectness--one faith, one bapit, but has left them to the unrestrained tism, one God and Father of all. turbulence and malignity of their evil As to persecution, in the proper sense passions. We might reply to this ob- of the term, till the third century, Chrisjection, by showing that it includes within tians were its victims, and not its agents. itself a tacit concession in favour of the They suffered but did not retaliate. One Christian system, since it acknowledges, of the first converts to the principles of that, if human conduct were universally the gospel had been a ferocious bigot, consistent with this Divine system, a an unrelenting persecutor. By its incorrect and exalted morality would as fluence his character and disposition universally prevail. Unless it can be were totally changed. He who breathed proved that men are mere machines, in- threatenings and slaughter against others, stead of moral agents, this objection is whose only crime was sublime virtue devoid of all relevancy and force. Moral he whose principal delight was in makpower is distinguishable from physical ing havoc of the church, disturbing impulse. The one leaves the judgment domestic privacy, entering into houses and the will to decide for themselves and haling men and women to prison, without compelling the result; the other, and who punished them oft in every applied to an intelligent agent, would synagogue, compelling them to blasdestroy its responsibility as a moral pheme,--no sooner embraced Christianity being, and thus entirely change its na- than he became the exemplar and teacher ture. We might further weaken this of a morality peculiarly adapted to the objection, by proving that the kind of wants of universal society, and breathing reasoning on which it is founded is never the purest, the most refined and elevated resorted to but when religion is the sub- philanthropy. To his pen we are inject of attack. When was it ever objected debted for the admirable delineation of against philosophy, that all who profess charity or love, which is, in fact, the pure it are not philosophers? But the argu- essence of the gospel, and which idenment on which we would lay the greatest tifies its progress with the triumph of the stress, because it is altogether conclusive, kindly affections over all that is irascible against the imputation of the inefficacy and malignant in human nature; which of the Christian religion, is, the consider- places humanity on the basis of Divine ation that it applies with equal force to principle--the only one that will ever secure all the systems of civil and moral go- "peace on earth and good-will to men." vernment that have ever obtained among That this principle was mightily operamankind; and the inference is, that a prin- * See the Social Test, in our October Number.

tive while Christianity retained its pure | purple, dyed in the blood of so many and simple character, and before it was Christian martyrs, was embroidered with superseded by another gospel, invented the sign of the cross, the ominous pledge by human pride and maintained by the that the sword of the world's master was arm of secular power, ecclesiastical his- at the service of every dominant party in tory furnishes the most abundant proofs. the church--then, and not till then, perThe heresiarchs and leaders of sects secution was welcomed as the coadjutor were powerless while their conflicts were of that religion, which, through ten reigns logomachies, and their fulminations the of devastation and blood, it had been noisy breath of fanatical zeal ; but when employed to exterminate. bishops became princes, and the pagan

(Concluded in Supplement.)

LITERARY FORGERIES. We deeply regret, that in our last num- son, indeed, to believe that this “Publius ber, through an unhappy inadvertency, Lentulus" ever existed, as has been ably wé published an article (p. 585) purport- shown by Dr. Edward Robinson, in the ing to be addressed by a “ Publius Len- American Biblical Repository for April, tulus to the Senate of Rome,” and 1832. We would not willingly, by any containing a minute description of the literary inadvertency of ours, give curSaviour's person.

Our reason for this rency to the pious frauds of antiquity; regret is, the fact that the document in nor would we aid the lurking infidelity of question appears to be one of the many the age, by tempting the enemies of literary forgeries of a bygone age, and Christianity to say—-"See! these Chrishas no sound marks of historical authen- tians bring forth false witnesses, well ticity pertaining to it. There is no rea- known to be such !"

Poetry.

SONNETS
On the departure of three Chinese youths for their

own country, after their conversion to Christianity
in this.
BY THE REV. J. D. HULL, EPISCOPAL MINISTËR,

HUNTLY.

I.
STRANGERS and pilgrims from a distant

shore,
Now leaving us on your return, adieu !

Your faces, grown familiar to our view, And happy looks, we shall behold no more! Ye trusted us, and ye will not deplore

Your confidence: nor some whom here

a new

II.
0! with what other feelings will ye view
Your native land, than those ye own'd on

leaving !
Error no more her subtle meshes weaving
O’er your freed minds: ye all things in
Light will behold: what once ye fancied

true,
Now false as the infernal fiend perceiv.

ing.-
For the unnumber'd masses round you

grieving
Shackled with fetters heaven alone can hew
Asunder, how will ye admire the grace
Vouchsafed yourselves! - that rescued

you as brands
From endless burnings ! while, as still

expands Your spiritual eye, 'midst your own race,

ye knew

Ever forget, as they will never you ;
Their brethren now in Him ye both adore
A treasure you have found, more precious far

Than all the riches of your orient clime!
The sun of Truth, the bright and morning

Star,
Has risen on your hearts, with bliss sub-

Mantled in darkness, strangers seem e'en Than when ye disembark'd on Britain's shore !

J. D. H.

lime; And ye, impatient, are the light to spread : The Lord through you bis beams on mil

lions shed

more

648

Review of Books.

Posthumous Works of the Rev. THOMAS | as fresh, as vivid, and as complete an im.

CHALMERS, D.D., LL.D. Edited by the pression as he could ; and in using his pen Rev. William HANNA, LL.D. HORÆ to aid in this, his object was far more to seBIBLIC.E QUOTIDIANX; Daily Scripture cure thereby a faithful transcript of that Readings. By the late Thos. CHALMERS, | impression, than either critically to examine, D.D., LL.D. In Three Volumes. Vol. I. or minutely to describe, the mould that pp. 462.

made it. His own description of these Constable, Edinburgh; Hamilton and Co., London.

• Horæ Biblicæ Quotidianæ' was, that

they consisted of his first and readiest We think it a peculiarly happy circum. thoughts, and he clothed these thoughts in stance that the Memoirs of Dr. Chalmers, what, to him at least, were the first and and the editorial labours connected with the readiest words." publication of his “ Posthumous Works," Yet, notwithstanding these considerations, have fallen into the hands of one in every so simply and truthfully thrown out, it would way so capable of doing justice to the un. | be a great mistake to conclude that these dertaking. Irrespective of the considerations / scriptural readings are anything like com. of relationship, and of well-known mental mon-place productions. They bespeak, in superiority, the tone and temper of Dr. every page, the power of the writer's mind, Hanna's preface to the “ Horæ Biblicæ and the warmth of his generous heart. Quotidianæ" have convinced us that the They are most improving exercises, which deceased exercised a wise discretion in se the humblest and the most advanced may lecting his son-in-law as his biographer and read with nearly equal advantage. We have the editor of his unpublished manuscripts. made trial of them, and have found them

The history of the two series of Biblical most refreshing and invigorating. compositions now in process of publica No great difficulty has arisen in the mind tion, is simply as follows:- Under impulses, of the editor, as to the propriety of giving we doubt not, of growing devotion and in these scriptural readings to the public; becreased attachment to the living Oracles, cause Dr. Chalmers, while living, did not Dr. Chalmers entered upon their prepara- | take any pains to conceal them from the tion in October, 1841, and continued to | gaze of his friends, many of whom were prosecute his task with unbroken regularity | permitted to look at them, and to examine until death arrested his toils. Whatever their contents. But as it respects the sab. might be the pressure of his engagements, bath.readings, or “Horæ Sabbaticæ," great or wherever he might be called to sojourn, perplexity bas been felt as to the path of he never omitted his daily portion of scrip duty. “The · Quotidianæ' volumes," obtural reading, nor his written comment on serves Dr. H., “lay where access was not the passages read. He never aimed, in forbidden--they were showa occasionally to these exercises, at elaborate comment, or a familiar friend; but to no eye-not even close critical investigation; but rather at that of his nearest relative, were the "Sabincreasing his attachment to the word of baticæ' ever exposed. Whilst no difficulty, God, by daily continuous perusal of its hal. therefore, was felt as to the publication of lowed contents. “These writings," ob the one, a difficulty has been felt as to the serves Dr. Hanna, “ were not intended to publication of the other. It was a region be the vehicles of learned research,—they --that secret chamber of his innermost were not intended to constitute an elaborate thoughts and emotions—which lay very exposition. He had no intention of draw. deeply buried from the public eye-which ing up, for the use of others, a regular he never voluntarily exposed-which he commentary on the Holy Scriptures. The sensitively guarded against access and invathought of others—the idea of publication, sion. Ought that veil which be drew so was not in his mind when he began to write. carefully around it to be lifted off ? Ought He used the pen in this instance for his own that to be exposed to the public eye which private benefit alone. Seeking to bring his he would himself have so sensitively sbrunk mind into a close and as full contact as from presenting to it? This is a question, possible with the passage of the Bible which in some of its applications, of exceeding was before him at the time, he recorded the difficulty ; but yet surely these are the thoughts suggested, the moral or emotional highest and best reasons for lifting up that effects produced, that these thoughts might veil-at least so far, that those who have the less readily slip out of his memory- seen him only as he walked in all the cothat those effects might be more pervading lossal proportions of his loftier and more and more permanent. His great object was radiant manhood among his fellow-mento take off from the sacred page as quick, or heard him only as the full-toned swell of

his marvellous oratory rose high above the cluded in the deep things of God,' for the highest pitch to which human eloquence is kdowledge of which we are wholly dependant wont to reach--should see him also, as he on Divine revelation. Mere human science bowed in simple, sincere, profound, humi. man understands by the exercise and inves. lity, when alone, in the presence of God-tigation of his reason ; 'for the things of a should hear him, also, as in tones so low, so man knoweth the spirit of a man that is in deep, so earnest, he breathed out his con- him :' but the knowledge of the personality, fessions, and desires, and aspirations into divinity, agency, and operations of the Holy the ear of the Holy One."

Spirit is distant and remote, and can only be If our judgment is of any value to the re- attained from the inspired word. For the spected Editor, we would express it as our things of God knoweth no man, but the conscientious impression that he has not only Spirit of God.' There is even a reluctance done right, but displayed high moral cou- to receive the great truths of the living rage and virtue, in overstepping all prima oracles which relate to the Holy Spirit. facie scruples, and, looking simply at the The natural man receiveth not the things good likely to be effected in thousands of of the Spirit of God:' for they are foolishclosets, while the secret communings with ness to him: neither can he know them, beGod of such a man as Dr. Chalmers are

cause they are spiritually discerned.' How deeply and prayerfully pondered. There is necessary is it, then, that this subject should nothing in them that may not meet the be studied under a profound sense of our public eye; though it was quite natural dependance upon God, to guide us to a that Dr. Chalmers should, while living, con- knowledge of the truth!" In such a spirit ceal his more immediate converse with God. the work has been conceived and prosecuted.

We are sincerely delighted at the sight of The title of it might have been-and we do such a volume from the pen of Chalmers ; not know but the author might do well to and we believe that it may be equal in value adopt our suggestion, in the room of the to the most splendid of all this great and more lengthy one he has put forth-tbe good man's productions.

“Scripture Doctrine of the Holy Spirit.” We can conceive no exercise more profitable

to students of Divinity-not only in the The Holy Spirit : His Personality, Dic colleges of the Church of Scotland, to which

vinity, Office, and Agency in the Regene- Dr. Dewar bas seen fit to adhere, notwith. ration and Sanctification of Man. By standing the separation from it of very D. DEWAR, D.D., LL.D., Principal of many of its best and ablest men, but in all Marischal College and University, Aber

the schools of the prophets of every orderdeen, and Professor of Ecclesiastical His.

than sedulously to study it in connection tory in the said University. Small 8vo.

with the Bible itself. We earnestly com

mend the book to them. They will not Ward and Co.

make it a substitute for the Scriptures ; but

it will be of material assistance to them in By the publication of this work, Dr. the classification of passages, and in the It appears at a time when it is much needed, we must confess that we labour under a and is executed in a manner well adapted to painful impression, that the work of the secure the aims of the writer.

Holy Spirit does not occupy that place in Much the larger portion of the book is the minds of thoughtful people, and in the occupied with the discussion of the agency preaching of the pulpit, which it ought to of the Spirit in regeneration and sanctifica. I do. Far be it from us to write in a Castion. To that, indeed, the first part is only sandra strain concerning the present aspreliminary. “I have briefly," writes Dr. pects of religion, or to depreciate the chaDewar, “considered the doctrine of the racter of the ministry among us. There is, Holy Spirit, as it relates to bis personality, we believe, in the service of the church at divinity, and office, in the economy of re- the present day, an amount of talent, elodemption, because clear and scriptural no- quence, learning, and earnestness, such as tions of these topics have an influence on no previous era could boast of. But we do our views of his operations as they relate, not have the corresponding signs following. either to particular persons in their regene- There are more of the persuasive words of ration, implanting in them the principles of man's wisdom." No sane man can regret spiritual life, beginning and carrying on the this. Every preacher is bound to bring forth work of sanctification; or, as, bearing on from the storehouses of his information and the felicity and prosperity of the church." ability the best words and thoughts which he All the topics are treated soberly, solidly, can by possibility command. There is much, and with an unreserved deference to the very much, that we rejoice in, in the present teachings of Scripture. “The subject," it ministrations of the sanctuary, but they are is well observed, in the preface, " is in. / not, somehow, as they ought to be, "in

pp. 332.

demonstration of the Spirit and of power." , church. Take away," in the words which he We fear that a principal cause of this lies in quotes from Dr. Owen, “the dispensation the fact that the work of the Holy Spirit of the Spirit, and his effectual operations in has been thrown down, by a variety of all the intercourse that is between God and causes, we do not say from the prominent, man; be ashamed to avow or profess the but from the conspicuous, position that be- ' work that is attributed to him in the gospel, longs to it in the exbibition of the truth. and Christianity is placked up by the roots."

A style of preaching, highly elaborate, aiming to be philosophical, dealing with the gospel in all its beautiful adaptationsits Passages in the Life of an ENGLISH harmonies with the mind of man, the course! HEIRESS: or. Recollections of Disrupof Providence, and the general principles of

tive Times in Scotland. 12mo. pp. 436. moral administration-has come to be popu. ! lar. We have listened to sermons of this

• Richard Bentley, order from the lips of masters, and been Of the facts beautifully narrated in this delighted. There has been suggested to us volume the author gives the following ac. the reflection.-Angels probably often look count: “ If they have any valde, it is as a at the gospel in this way; but if they were faithful record of personal experience. In here to speak as dying men to dying men the early chapters I have not introduced a to hold up Christ to individuals little accus. character which I had not familiarly known, tomed in the mass to the exercise of their and scarce an incident which did not occar minds on continuous trains of thought in real life. But although these characters, they would certainly preach in a different as living realities, are in so far identified manner. Again, the recoil from Antino. with their several parties, it by no means mianism has carried many to nearly an op follows that they are so with the events posite extreme. That took the Christianity narrated in the concluding chapters. Those of the churches, and swaddled it into a events were of public interest-and it is greater incapacity for exertion than an In only names in connection with tbem con. dian papoose; but now a semi-Pelagianism spicuous enough to have become the prounwinds the ligaments, and leaves the child perty of the bistorian, with which a writer to its own immature helplessness. The of the present day has any right to meddle. gospel is proclaimed as a system of truth To drag forward, even under a fictitious and the dispensation of the Spirit ; but the guise, those who were concealed behind the latter proposition is hardly considered as in- scenes, would savour of private scandal, and volving anything more than the former. This be at once indelicate and improper. is just as reasonable as it would be to treat | “But while avowing that I hold the inof the mission of Christ without reference to! dividuals whose characters I have chosen to the Father who sent him, or of the atonement delineate, to be true representations of at without fixing the mind on the person of Christ | least large sections of their parties, I grant who rendered it. This false and pernicious it possible that the experience of others may mode of exhibiting the scheme of salvation have differed from mine. The moderate has found its wildest consummation among evangelical parties in the Church of Scotthe New Lights of Scotland, groping, despite land, as it formerly was, might be not in. their name, amid a gross darkness, and so aptly compared to the sides of a parallel perversely overlooking the corrupt condition ruler drawn asunder and placed upright. of humanity, as to declare that the gospel | The one side ascends much higher, the other has but to be presented to the mind, in descends greatly lower than the other, order to constrain the closing with its offers. while there is a middle, though not very Let this school attain a wide prevalence, considerable region, where a real parallelism and hold on its course for a few years, and exists. Thus it is no wonder that one whose its disciples will surely be found in the case | lot may bave fallen in this latter sphere, of those whom Paul met with at Ephesus, should doubt the fidelity of pictures whose who said, “ We have not so much as heard originals he has not seen. Is it just, then, wherber there be any Holy Ghost."

it may be asked, to draw representations In these circumstances we hail the ap. from two extremes? The reason is this pearance of the work before us. We cor that only in connection with their peculiar dially concur with Dr. Dewar, that "such parties could these extremes possibly have a is the prominent and all-important place being. Moderate opinions cannot produee which the doctrine relating to the Holy the piety, zeal, and unbending principles of Spirit and bis operations holds in the system the higher section of evangelicals ; nor in of Divine truth, that if it be disregarded, connection with the latter could the lover overlooked, or pushed from the foreground section of moderates be suffered to exist. where inspired teachers have left it, into the The equalization in the middle is but the shade, we may anticipate a rapid decline of effect of that balance of human character vital religion within the pale of the Christian which nature always produces; the extremes

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