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of government, he contends, - to maintain the vast varicty of the sources of education the frame of society; and for this end to extant, from the formidable prominence restrain violence and crime, to protect which squalid ignorance and vice often obperson and property, to enact and adminis. tain, from rash conclusions drawn therefrom, ter the laws needful for the maintenance of and from the absurd supposition that the peace, order, and justice, to sanction public want of education arises solely from the works called for by the general convenience, want of the means of education. Mr. B. as docks, harbours, canals, railways, &c., - has well exposed these sources of error; to conduct the relations of society with and, having done so, institutes an inquiry, other communities,-to provide for the first, as to what proportion of the populapublic safety against external attack,-to ap- tion we may reasonably expect to have in point the officers, raise the taxes, pass the the day-schools of England and Wales ? laws, construct the buildings, &c., requisite and, secondly, as to the number of scholars for these purposes ;"' but he contends that actually in attendance in the day-schools of it is not the duty of government to feed England and Wales? The results brought the people, to clothe them, to build houses out by Mr. B., by these inquiries, are cer. for them, to direct their industry or their tainly well worthy of profound attention, commerce, to superintend their families, to whatever partial defect may attach to them. coltivate their minds, to shape their opinions, They are as follow :or to supply them with religious teachers, Day-school accommodation repbysicians, schoolmasters, books, or news- quired in 1811, so as to allow papers." In support of these views of the every child in England and functions of goveroment Mr. B, argues with Wales to be at school, on the great ability. Some, perhaps, might say average, five years
1,812,292 that the philosophical data on wbich he Add 25,000 a-year for the five years reasous are the least perfect part of this from 1841 to 1840
Scholars In bis third letter our respected friend The Day.schools required for . 1,937,292 shows—" that there is no necessity for the
existing for 1,876,947 proposed interference on the part of govern.
61,3-18 ment to change the character of the educa- In his fifth letter, we have a noble expotion of England, for that the people are able sition of the “power of the voluntary prin. to do for themselves what it is proposed to ciple," or the power of the people to educate compel them to do by Act of Parliament, themselves. Mr. B. shows that the ques. and under the control of public function. tion here discussed involves the interests of aries." This position is maintained by an “freedom, religion, and the progress of able exposure of the exaggerated statements human society.” The case put is this, that which found their way, in 1843, into public no minister could come to parliament-even reports, respecting the then existing defi- admitting the right of parliamentary interciency of the means of intellectual and reli- ference -- to demand public money for gious instruction as far greater than it ac- schools, much less to revolutionize the edutually was. The author's returns “showed cation of the country by a plan like Dr. on a comparison of the years 1801 and Hook's, if the statistics here giren of the 1841, that whilst the population of the dig. present state of education, chiefly by voluntrict had increased in forty years from tary means, be at all approaching to be 975,553 to 2,208,771, or 127 per cent., the
Supposing the number of schools, church and chapel sittings had increased, then, to be deficient, is the deficiency one (almost entirely by voluntary exertions, which the people can supply, and are likely from 311,788 to 994,583, or 219 per cent., to supply for themselves?
Mr. B. urges and that there was thus church and chapel. strongly that the experience of the past room for 45 per cent. of the entire popula- leaves no room for reasonable doubt as it tion." Mr. B. does not deny that more respects the future. He shows that the schools are wanted; he only contends that progress towards a general education of the the deficiency has been sadly overrated, and people is steady and sure, and if not arrested that the means in existence, or to be volun- by 'state intermeddling, will, at no very tarily created, are sufficient to meet the distant period, be fully realized. actual demands of the case.
In the sixth leöter, we have some very The fourth letter contains a searching in. cogent arguments to prove that, whatever quiry into "the alleged deficiency in the may be the alleged inefficiency of our exist. means of education." We do think Mr. ing plans of education, there is little reason B. has effectually demolished many of Dr. to conclude that under government direction Hook's extravagant representations of exist. their efficiency would be materially enhanced. ing defects. Doubtless errors have sprong From 1818 to 1833, 3,400,0001. sterling up on this and other subjects from the great was expended on education; towards which imperfection of our national statistics, from only about one-ninth, 400,0001., was con
tributed by parliamentary grants, during the principle in this country; 4th. Their for. latter halt of the period, and the remainder getfulness of the effect which government by the independent and voluntary efforts of interference must have in paralyzing volun. the people. The present amount of day. tary and independent effort ; 5th. Their ap. schoolaccommodation provides for 1,876,947 parent total oblivion of the immeasurably scholars ; of which aggregate accommoda- superior influence which voluntary and intion provision has been made for 1,100,100 dependent education has on the national scholars since 1818! Such is the ratio of character ; 6th. Their endless differences voluntary effort as to the quantity of educa- | among themselves as to the plan, and even tion ; but some contend that a state system the principle of national education." would greatly improve the quality of the Such is a very imperfect sketch of Mr. education imparted. This plea Mr. B. en B.'s letters, which are creditable alike to the deavours to invalidate by some very cogent head and heart of the writer, and which arguments, the force of which it would be contain an amount both of valuable informa. difficult to evade. We cannot but feel that tion and sound argument, which entitle him education “would improve far more if left to the warmest acknowledgments of the perfectly free, and subject to the most un. Christian public, not excepting even that restrained competition, than if put under the portion of it that may differ from bim in the guardianship of a minister of state."
position he so firmly assumes in opposition The seventh letter discusses the very im. to state education. portant question, “Ought religious and We should like to do equal justice to our secular education to be separated ?" Our | respected and beloved friend Dr. Vaughan, anthor maintains, with great force of reason. | whose able article on “ Popular Education ing, that they ought not. To his opponents in England," which appeared in the British be says: “As the two parts of their case Quarterly, has created a powerful impresgo together, so do the two parts of mine. | sion on the public mind. A more candid, They, asking for state education, necessarily ingenuous, and masterly article, on any exclude religion from the day-schools. I, I great question, we have seldom read. Dr. asking for independent and voluntary educa V. thinks that government may render good tion, necessarily include religion. Relying service in the cause of national education. mainly, though not wholly, on the zeal of But he is no blind admirer of the continental religious communities, I, on that ground, schemes of state education ; he would only as well as on still higher grounds, advocate retain what is good and safe in them, and religious education. At the same time I reject the rest. He thinks, too, that " what impose religion on no one ; for it is my ob. | has been done among ourselves in the cause ject to insist that all shall be left free.' We of primary instruction, by the popular have some doubt here, whether in a modified agency, as distinguished from state agency, state system of education, in this country, || has been sometimes unduly lauded." All religion need be excluded. But we shall exaggeration is deprecated on the one side speak of this hereafter.
and on the other; and should the present la his eighth and ninth letters, Mr. B. l government attempt any scheme for the inexposes the nakedness and defects of the struction of the people which might “ be continental systems of education, on which fatal to our existing educational machinery," so much doubtful praise has been bestowed, he would be “among the first to protest We invite the attention of all our readers to against such a project." This we thoroughly these letters. They are full of information believe. not easily obtained, and dissipate the dreams Dr. V.'s first inquiry is, “ To what extent of some very philanthropic persons. We are the people of this country brought under never wish to see the continental systems, school instruction ?!? From a calm, and even the best of them, introduced into we believe perfectly honest, examination of England.
the “ Summary of Education Returns for Mr. B.'s three last letters are beaded, -1 England and Wales, in 1833," compared " American Schools,"_" State Education with other statistical documents to wbich he destructive of Voluntary Education,”-and has had access, bis conclusions are the
following: “That the population between author endeavours to show, that “the the ages of five and fifteen in the larger and views of state educationists are exceed lesser towns of England, taken together, ingly discredited, by their serious errors on the proportion, from THE WHOLE POPULAthe following important points :-1st. Their Tion found in day-schools, at any one time, ignorance as to the actual amount of educa would be somewhat less than ONE-THIRD; tion in this country ; 2nd. Their credulous that about an equal number would be found reception of the plausible representations receiving Sunday-school instruction ONLY; made of foreign systems, without examining and that the remaining number, consisting their real character ; 3rd. Their extreme of greatly MORE THAN A THIRD OF THE insensibility to the power of the voluntary WHOLE, must be reckoned as not found in
ANY school whatever,-day school, evening. | the present, as our space forbids enlargeschool, or Supday-school.” And again : ment; reserving for another article a friendly " That in England and Wales we have a investigation of the question of state interpopulation, FOUR-TENTUS of which should ference in the matter of education, and a be described as unable to write, and about development of the plan which Dr. V. has a THIRD of which should be described as sketched. We have at present great diffi. unable to read. Of the former class, there culties; but we wish to act candidly between may be some knowing how to hold a pen, enlightened and philanthropic men, who and capable of scrawling letters; of the substantially agree on all the weightier latter there may be some knowing their matters of the law. Such discussions canletters, and capable of reading monosyllables, not fail to benefit us, and must, in the issue, but, we think, that for any useful purpose, do much towards the furtberance of the and in an honest sense, the non-writing and sound and healthy education of the people. non-reading classes in our general popula. Meanwhile we have many apprehensions on tion must be reckoned as above." Such the subject of government interference, lest are Dr. V.'s conclusions from very laborious it should lull the active benevolence of the investigations of the statistical and other in public mind, disturb the educational forces
now in full play, and afford advantage and sober judgment. But his facts and mainly to those who will stereotype the indetails must be read by all who look at his struction of the people with sectarian prinresults. And as his article in the British ciples. Quarterly is now published, by Jackson and Walford, in a separate and cheap pamphlet, we hope that all who take an interest in the CHEAP EDITION OF MR. BAINES'S LETTERS subject of national education will get bold of
ON NATIONAL EDUCATION, it, and peruse it carefully. His second inquiry relates to the quality
We perceive, with pleasure, (see the ador value of the education at present dis
vertisement on our cover,) that a committee pensed. Here we do suspect that the
has been formed for the purpose of raising evidence adduced by government inspectors
a fund to promote the more extensive circuwill go far to show, that there is much in.
lation of Mr. Baines's Letters to Lord John efficient instruction at present dispensed
Russell, by reducing the price of them to among the people. The witnesses are so
the small charge of one shilling. As informanumerous and trustworthy on this subject
tion, at the present moment, is the great that we dare not call them in question ; though doubtless multitudes of schools for
though, for the reason assigned, we should the poor are in a truly healthy condition.
have been glad if the said committee, what. "Here, then," observes Dr. V., "are
ever may be their personal convictions, had England and Wales, with their sixteen
determined to do the same justice to Dr. MILLIONS OF PEOPLE,--with between six
Vaughan. We want to look at both sides and SEVEN MILLIONS unable to write their
of this great question. name, and with not less than FIVE MILLIONS unable to read their mother tongue. This is a startling-an unwelcome statement. It is natural that good men should endeavour
PROVINCIAL. to escape from an admission of its truth. To ourselves it is unwelcome. We would
RE-OPENING OF SABBATH SCHOOLS. not believe it true if we could avoid it. But it is a conclusion which results, not merely The sabbath-school premises connected from the publications of the Registrar with the church and congregation, under the General, nor from any other solitary testi pastoral care of the Rev. H. Birch, Driffield, mony, but from evidence emanating from a Yorkshire, baving been found inconveniently multitude of points, and all converging upon small, as well as having become dilapidated, this issue. We presume, that what our it has been necessary to rebuild and enlarge readers want on this subject is THE TRUTH. them. The premises in length now occupy This, we think, we have now laid before the whole of the ground belonging to the them. This being our solemn conviction, chapel property, and consist of two stories the facts before us are so momentous, that instead of one as before. we dare not attempt to throw any sort of This commodious building was opened for veil over them. We feel bound, rather, to use on Sunday, Dec. 20th, 1846. On this. give them studied note and prominence. In occasion sermons were preached by the Rev. so doing, we are conscious of acquitting our Orlando T. Dobbin, LL.D., when liberal selves rightly in relation to our mother. collections were obtained. On Tuesday land, to humanity, and to God!”
evening, a sermon was preached by the Rev. Most reluctantly we must here stop for B. Beddow, of Barnsley. On Wednesday
evening, a tea.meeting was held in the new
RECOGNITION. premises, the provision of which being gra
The Rev. Patrick Morrison, late of New tuitously supplied, a considerable sum was
burgh, Fife, was inducted on Wednesday, realized for the fund. To many the pleasure the 14th of October, as pastor of the church of these services was enhanced by a great
at Duncanstone, Aberdeenshire. improvement in the psalmody, which was
The Revs. John Hill, of Huntley ; Jobo conducted by a seraphine, the product of Miller, of Inverury; John Rennie, of Culthe self-taught musical genius of one of the salmond; and Alexander Nicoll, of Rhynie, congregation. While others, beholding the took part in the services. realization of their hopes in the completion
The chapel was crowded on the occasion of the building, and desiring that the eternal by a respectable and deeply interested auSpirit would descend and hallow it by his dience. The prospect before Mr. Morrison presence, silently ejaculated, “Let thy work is one of deep interest, in a sphere so long appear unto tby servants, and thy glory unto and so ably filled by his late venerable their children; and let the beauty of the father. Lord our God be upon us, and establish thou the work of our hands upon us, yea, the work of our hands establish thou it."
Rev. Noah Stephens. THE WELSH INDEPENDENT CHAPEL, GREAT On the 30th and 31st of December, 1846, JACKSON STREET, HULME, MANCHESTER. the Rev. Noah Stephens, Brecon College, In connection with the re-opening of the
was set apart to the pastorate of the lodeabove place of worship, after its being
pendent church at Sirhowy, Monmouthclosed for repairs and painting, and the re
shire, where, for several years, the Rev. cognition of the Rev. David Hughes, B.A.,
Richard Jones, now of Manchester, laboured late of St. Asaph, as the pastor of the with great success. church, divine services were held on Friday
At two o'clock the first day, the Rev. evening, Oct. 23, 1846 ; the sabbath-day,
Davies, Rhumny, introduced, and the Rev. Oct. 25; and on Monday, Tuesday, and
- Roberts, Cwmavon ; Llewellyn Rowland Wednesday evenings, the 26th, 27th, and
Powell, Hanover ; and W. Williams, Hir. 28th,
wain, preached. The following ministers officiated on the
At six, the Rev. T. Roberts, Llaunchlyn, occasion :-The Rev. Robert Thomas, of
late of Brecon College, introduced, and the Liverpool; the Rev. D. Price, of Denbigh ;
Revs. T. Griffith, Blaenavon; Benj. Owen, the Rev. W. Griffith, of Holybead; the
Merthyr Tydfil; and J. Stephens, BrychRev. A. Jones, D.D., Bangor; and the Rev.
goed, (the young minister's eldest brother,) S. Roberts, M.A., of Llanbrynmair ; and preached. the Revs. J. Griffin, R. Jones, J. L. Poore,
At seven o'clock the following morning, J. Gwyther, and the Rev. E. Edwards, of
a prayer-meeting was held. At hall-past Manchester.
nine, the Rev. W. Williams, Tredegar, read The collection, including a donation of
and prayed, and the Rev. J. Stephens, 151. from William Morris, Esq., Salford,
Brycbgoed, delivered the introductory disamounted to 551.
course; the Rev. T. Jeffries, Penyear, pro. posed the usual questions; the Rev. Ridge, Kendal, offered the ordination prayer;
the Rev. E. Davies, M.A., Classical Tutor, INDEPENDENT CHAPEL, HIGH-STREET, Brecon College, delivered an impressive WARE, HERTS.
charge to the young minister, which he The Rev. J. Lockyer resigned his pas
afterwards promised, at the unanimous retoral office in the above place on the 28th
quest of all the ministers present, to publish of October, where he laboured during the
in the “Diwyqiwr," (the "Reformer;") and period of twenty-one years, and has accepted
the Rev. Ll. Powell, Cardiff, in the unavoid. a cordial and unanimous invitation from the
able absence of the Rev. D. Stephenson, church and congregation at Ponder's End, Brynmawr, preached to the people. Middleses, and commenced bis stated la.
At two, Mr. Shem Phillips, Brecon Col. bours on the 8th of November.
lege, introduced, and the Rev. Edwards, | Aberdare ; Mr. J. D. Williams, Homerton
College, (in English ;) and the Rer. T. The Rev. S. Davies, late of Colchester, Rees, Siloa, Llanelly, (the translator of having accepted the pastorate of the English “ Barnes's Notes" into the Welsh language,) Presbyterian church at Rotterdam, intends preached. entering on his stated labours in that city, At six, the Revs. – Jones, Llangattog i on the 17th inst.
T. Roberts, Llanuchlyn ; and D. Stephens,
Llanvair, (the young minister's third bro. ordination discourse; and the Rev. J. Hamther,) preached.
mond, of Handsworth, received the pastor's May the Lord greatly bless both the confession of faith, and offered the ordinaminister and the church! and may the tion prayer, with the imposition of hands. peace and unanimity, which at present exist In the evening, at half-past six, the Rev. among them in so happy a measure, con J. H. Barrow, of Market Drayton, read the tinue, until their connection with each other Scriptures and offered prayer. The Rev. shall be dissolved by Him who is consti. Professor Stowell, of Rotherham College, tuted the Head of the church !
delivered the charge to the pastor; and the Rev. J. A. James the charge to the church and congregation. The Rev. Messrs. Shore,
of Smethwick ; Parkes (Wesleyan) and The Rev. W. Jackson.
Silly (Baptist) of Bridgenorth ; Simpson, The Rev. W. Jackson, from Rotherham of Gornal; Davis, of Ludlow ; OllerenCollege, was ordained pastor of the church, shaw, of Broseley; and M.Michal, of Ro. assembling in the Stoneway chapel, Bridge. | therham College, also took part in the north, Salop, on Tuesday, October 6th. The solemnities. order of services was the following :- In the On the previous sabbath, the chapel, morning, at seven, the Rev. F. J. Falding, which had been closed for various improveM.A., of Wellington, read the Scriptures, ments, was re-opened, when the Rev. A. and offered prayer; the Rev. D. H. Shoe- Gordon, M.A., of Walsall, preached, and botham, of Kidderminster, delivered the liberal collections were made.
THE BIBLE IN PRANCE.
grant that, while guiding them with a firm, (From M. D. Presseuse.)
yea, a very firm hand, they may be made
sensible, in a manner tending to reanimate I have been affected even to tears when their courage, that I am myself wrestling reading in the communications of the ma. with them in prayer! Nor is the task more jority of our colporteurs the details of their easy for me ; and I earnestly entreat that privations and sufferings. They have, how. you will, in brotherly kindness, often remem. ever, borne with all as Christians, looking ber me. for consolation and strength where they are From the foregoing you may, perhaps, to be found; but often when, perhaps for a have been ready to anticipate a grievous whole day together, they have met with no- | falling-off in the aggregate amount of our thing but rebuff, and heard the cry resound. distributions for November. Such, how. ing in their ears, “It is bread tbat we want, ever, is not the case ; for there have been and not your books," they have returned to issued from your depôt here, during that their quarters in the evening with sorrowful month, 922 Bibles and 10,096 Testaments ; hearts, and quitted them in the morning in all 11,018 copies, of which 9012 were with anxious apprehensions for the coming appropriated to the use of colporteurs. day. “Oh, if you knew (they writej how many visits, and what persuasion and en The Rev. Mr. Roussel is not merely en. treaty it costs us to do the little we have gaged in publishing controversial tracts, but recently been able to do, you would not has, of himself, alone prosecuted the work blame, but rather pity us, and redouble of evangelization by instituting Protestant your prayers in our behalf."
worship in the midst of Roman Catholic You know me, I think, sufficiently to be populations. This friend has just comassured that I deeply feel for these our poor menced a work of the same description in a friends in the critical situation in which they large town where several of our colporteurs are this year placed ; and hence you will have, at different periods, largely distributed easily conceive bow loth I must be to con. the Holy Scriptures. As there is no just vey to some, who have hitherto been our cause for concealing the locality of the work best Bible-vendors, the expression of regret here alluded to, I will at once mention which I cannot but feel at their present that it is Angoulême, in the department of apparent want of success. Nevertheless, I the Charente. There, seconded by the infeel it my duty to summon up courage to do habitants, Mr. Roussel has built a chapel, 80, and must regard a tone of severity as sufficiently spacious for holding 900 people, part of my duty. And oh I may the Lord and which, for the last month from the time