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PENNSYLVANIA.

9 of Virginia, and west by the latter and niary embarrassments; and although he the state of Ohio. It lies nearly in the actually entered into a contract for this form of a parallelogram. Darby, in his purpose, yet an apoplectic attack renGeographical View, states that its greatest dered him incapable of perfecting the length is due west from Bristol, on the legal forms. The litigated question with Delaware river, to the eastern border of the state of Connecticut touching the Obio county, in Virginia, through 5° 56 right of territory in the northern part of the of longitude, along N. latitude 400 9. This state, was depending from the year 1750 distance, on that line of latitude, is equal until a few years since, when the public to 315 American statute miles. The and private rights of soil were settled in greatest breadth is 176 miles, from the favor of Pennsylvania, under conciliations Virginia line to the extreme northern an- and restrictions, determined by special acts gle, on lake Erie; and the mean breadth, of the Pennsylvania legislature and the 157., The same writer calculates the decisions of the supreme court of the U. area at above 47,000 square miles, and States. The seat of the state government 30,080,000 statute acres. The original was transferred from Philadelphia to LanSwedish colony came over in 1638, caster in the year 1799, and the progress under the government and protection of of improvement and population caused it, Sweden. The Dutch and the Finns had in 1812, to be removed to Harrisburg, also settled on the Delaware, before the where handsome buildings are erected for British conquest of the New Netherlands, the accommodation of the legislature and in 1664. In 1682, William Penn founded the officers of the government. The a colony, having previously obtained a whole state is divided into 52 counties, charter from Charles II, which put him viz. Adams, Alleghany, Armstrong, Beain possession of the soil and government ver, Bedford, Berks, Bradford, Bucks, of the country. This charter was granted Butler, Cambria, Centre, Chester, Clearin consideration of an unsettled pecumiary field, Columbia, Crawford, Cumberland, account between the government and the Dauphin, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Frankestate of Penn's father. The emigration lin, Green, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, from Wales into Pennsylvania was as Juniatta, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, early as 1683. The emigrants purchased Luzerne, Lycoming, M'Kean, Mercer, a large body of land, and called the seve- Mifflin, Montgomery, Northampton, Northral settlements after favorite places in umberland, Perry, Philadelphia, Pike, Wales. The Indian right was respected Potter, Schuylkill, Somerset, Susquehanby William Penn, and his sense of justice pah, Tioga, Union, Vinango, Warren, Washinduced him to make an equitable pur- ington, Wayne, Westmoreland, York. chase from the aborigines, notwithstand. There are three incorporated cities in this ing his charter; and the same policy was state-Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Lancaspursued by the constituted government ter. There are very few counties which after the revolution, as the state of Penn- have not a borough and many populous sylvania made new purchases from th towns, the most considerable of which native proprietors at a fair price, and in are Harrisburg, Reading, Easton, Carlisle, open treaty, in 1784. Though the state York, Chambersburg, Brownsville, Washof Pennsylvania might have considered ington, &c. By an estimate of the poputhe proprietary claims as a royalty, to lation in 1782, it was supposed to be which the independent government could . 330,000. By the census of 1790, it was lawfully succeed, yet, as a peculiar ac- ascertained to be 434,373. In 1800, it knowledgment of the merits and claims was 602,545. In 1810, it was 810,091. of William Penn and his family, by an In 1820, it was 1,049,458 ; and in 1831, it act of the legislature, the sum of £130,000 was 1,347,672. The government of Pennsterling, together with a confirmation of sylvania consists of three branches—legistitle to all the manor lands, which were lative, executive and judicial. The legisten per cent. on all surveyed lands in the lature consists of a senate and a house of province, was to be offered to the Penn representatives. By the present constitufamily, which offer was by them accepted. tion, the house of representatives cannot This was a liberal compensation for exceed 100, and are chosen annually. revolutionary losses, considering that, in The senate, whose number cannot be the year 1712, William Penn offered more than one third of the lower house, to the queen of England the govern- are chosen for four years, one fourth of ment and soil of the province for the their body annually ; at this period both sum of £12,000, payable in four years. branches are full. The governor is This was certainly owing to his pecu- elected for thrce years, but cannot hold

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the office more than nine years in twelve. side of the Susquehannah are the KittaThese elections are all by the people and tinny ridges, comprising the North or by ballot. All judicial officers are ap- Blue, the Horse and the Tuscarora mounpointed by the governor during good be- tains, Sherman's hill, Sideling hill, Raghavior, and are removable by address of ged, Great Warrior's, Tussey's

and Wills's both houses or by impeachment. The mountains ; then the great Alleghany inhabitants are principally descended ridge, which, being the largest, gives from the English, Welsh, Irish, Scotch name to the whole; and west of this are and Germans, also French, Swedes, and a the Chestnut ridges, including the Laurel few Dutch. The language is generally a hill. Between the Juniatta river and the pure English, but, in many counties, the west branch of the Susquehannah are German prevails to a considerable extent. Jack's, Tussey's, Nittany and Bald Eagle The character of the Pennsylvanians is mountains. The mountain area has been somewhat diversified by difference of ex- estimated at 6750 square miles, or very traction and various modes of education, nearly one seventh part of the superficies but this is chiefly in minor points. Thé of the state. Some of these mountains facilities of receiving education are great. admit of cultivation almost to their sumThere is a university in Philadelphia, and mits, and the valleys between them are colleges have been established at Carlisle, often of a rich black soil, suited to the Canonsburg, Washington, Pittsburg, and various kinds of grass and grain. The Meadville, and provision has been made other parts of the state are generally level by the legislature for the establishment of or agreeably diversified with hills and an academy in every county in the state. vales. The principal rivers are the DelaThere are also flourishing Moravian ware, Susquehannah, Schuylkill

, Lehigh, schools at Bethlehem, Nazareth and Litiz; Alleghany, Monongahela, Ohio, Juniatta, and, by the will of the late Stephen Gi- Youhiogeny, and Clarion, formerly desigrard, of Philadelphia, a fund of $2,000,000 nated as Toby's creek. Besides these (to be augmented, if necessary, by rents main streams, Pennsylvania is watered by of real property, and residuary personal numerous large creeks and rivulets, to as estate) has been appropriated for the great a degree as the same extent of counestablishment of a college for the educa- try in any part of the U. States. This tion of orphan children. The different state deserves credit for her numerous religious denominations in Pennsylvania improvements in turnpike roads, canals, are Presbyterians, Methodists, German rail-roads and bridges, which have been Calvinists, German Lutherans, Friends, constructed in a superior style of excelEpiscopalians, Baptists, Roman Catholics, lence and durability. The first turnpike Seceders, Covenanters, Universalists, Swe- road in the U. States was made in Penndenborgians, Jews and Unitarians. With sylvania. (For further information with regard to the face of the country, the regard to these internal improvements, mountains strike the eye, at the first glance see the various heads.) The soil of Pennon a map, as the most prominent natural sylvania is much diversified ; in some features. The Appalachian system in parts it is barren, but a great proportion the U. States generally extends in a di- of it is. fertile, and a considerable part rection deviating not very essentially from very excellent. West of the mountains, south-west to north-east, but in Pennsyl- the soil of the first quality is a deep black vania, the whole system is inflected from mould, equal in fertility to any part of the that course, and traverses the state in a U. States. Wheat is the most important serpentine direction. Towards the south article of produce.

Indian corn, rye, boundary, the mountains lie about north- buckwheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, beans, north-east, gradually inclining more east- peas and potatoes are extensively cultiwardly as they penetrate northward, and, vated. Apples, cherries, pears, peaches in the central counties, many of the and plums are abundant. The trees chains lie nearly east and west. But, as natural to the soil are hemlock, pine, they extend towards the northern border hickory, walnut, wild cherry, locust, maof the state, they again gradually incline ple, chestnut, mulberry, oak, gum sassato the north-east, and enter New York fras, elm and poplar. The magnolia and New Jersey in nearly that direction. glauca grows in low grounds, and the The principal ridges on the east side of acuminata attains to a great height among the Susquehannah, are the Kittatinny or the western mountains. Grapes are comBlue mountains, behind which, and nearly mon, and some of them, mellowed by frost, parallel to them, are Peters, Tuscarora with the addition of sugar, make a pleasand Nescopeck mountains. On the westant wine. The wild plum and crab apple PENNSYLVANIA–PENSACOLA.

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grow in abundance. Foreign grapes have Pennsylvania exceeds all the other states in some counties been cultivated to advan- in the variety and extent of her manufactage, and wine and brandy, of good quali- tures, some of which are of superior exty, have been made. This article of cellence. Those of iron have been menmanufacture has hitherto been a matter tioned. The various fabrics from wool of experiment only. The sugar-maple, and cotton give ample employment to the in the western and northern parts of the capitalist and the artisan. All the necesstate, is abundant, and the inhabitants saries of life, and many of its luxuries, are generally make therefrom a sufficient to be found in this state, the produce of quantity of sugar for home consumption. its soil and the labor of its citizens. (For Iron ore is distributed, in large quantities, the exports of this state, see articles Philain many parts of the state, and the manu- delphia, and Pittsburg.) facture of iron from the ore, through the PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY. (See Philfumace, the forge, the foundery, the rolling adelphia.) and slitting mill, the nail cutting machine, Penn Township; a small township in up to the finest cutlery, is carried on to a Philadelphia county, Pennsylvania. This greater extent than in any other state in place was selected by the late Mr. Girard, the Union. Copper, lead and alum ap- for the establishment of a school for orpear in some parts of the state. Lime- phans. The site is about two miles from stone and marble, of the finest quality the old court-house in Philadelphia. for the purposes of architecture and PENNY. (See Sterling Money.) statuary, abound in various parts of the Penny Post. (See Posts.) state. In the middle counties, anthracite, PENNYROYAL; a species of mint (mentha and in the western, bituminous coal, is pulegium), formerly in considerable refound in great abundance. This state is pute as a medicine, but now almost totally famous for its breed of draught horses, and neglected. In this country, the same name nature has abundantly supplied the forests is applied to the hedeoma pulegioides, a with game. Deer, turkeys, pheasants and small plant, allied to, and not very differpartridges are numerous. Wild ducks ent in its sensible properties from the are found on almost every stream. Wild former, nor, indeed, from the other spegeese, swans and pigeons are migratory, cies of mint. (See Mint.) and frequently found in large flocks. Penobscot; the largest river of Maine. Singing birds of various notes and plu- The western and principal branch rises mage are common. In the eastern rivers in the western part of the state, and unites are found rock-perch, bass, shad and her- with the eastern branch 54 miles northring, which come from the sea in large east of Bangor. After the junction, it runs sboals. In the western waters there is a south by west, till it flows into the head species of catfish, weighing from 50 to of Penobscot bay, between the towns of 100 pounds; likewise pike, of an enor. Penobscot and Prospect

. It is navigable mous weight and size, are found. Stur- for ships to Bangor, where the tide termigeon is common to both sections of the nates, 52 miles north of Owl's Head, at state. In the smaller streams, trout, pike, the entrance of the bay. Many towns chub, sun-percb, mullet, catfish and white on the banks of the Penobscot are beautisalmon are found in their several seasons. ful and flourishing. Bears, panthers, wild cats, foxes, wolves, PENOBscot Bay, at the mouth of Pebeavers, otters and raccoons are more or nobscot river, on the coast of Maine, is a less common, in proportion to the progress large and beautiful bay, and affords great of settlement and cultivation. Rabbits and advantages for navigation. It contains squirrels are still abundant. In the low several islands. Its entrance, between grounds are found minks, muskrats, and the Isle of Holt and Owl's Head, is eighopossums. Of the numerous tribe of teen miles wide, and its length from north snakes, the bite of the rattlesnake and to south is about thirty miles. Lon. 68° copperhead alone is deadly. The Penn- 40 to 68° 56' W.; lat. 44° to 44° 30 N. sylvania farmer lives as comfortably as PENSACOLA, the capital of West Floriany one of his station in any part of the de, is situated on a bay of the same name, world. Commodious farm houses of in lat. 30° 28' N., and lon. 87° 12 W. stone or brick, extensive barns and farm The shore is low and sandy, but the town buildings, show the agricultural prosperity is built on a gentle ascent. It is in the of the state. Log and frame houses are form of a parallelogram, and the length is common in the new settled country. In nearly a mile. Only small vessels can the towns and villages is a considerable approach the town, but the bay is one of proportion of brick and stone houses. the most safe and capacious in the gulf of Mexico. It has been selected as a and lovely character from this double naval station and depot. A stream of pause, by which it is distinguished essenfresh water runs through the town. It is tially from the majestic hexameter. (q. v.) regarded as comparatively a healthy place. Ovid therefore says, that Cupid created it The present population may be a little for his sport, by robbing the hexameter more than 2000.

of two syllables. If used alone, the pen. PENSIONER; a person who receives a tameter would become monotonous and pension from government.—Grand Pen- tiresome; it is, therefore, never employed sionary was the priine minister of the states except alternately with the hexameter, of the province of Holland, who was which always precedes it. The metre called by them advocate-general of the thus composed of hexameters and penprovince. He had no deciding voice in tameters was called by the ancients the the assembly of the states, but only pro- elegiac, and each two verses a distich. posed the measures to be discussed. (See Distich, and Elegy.). The character of He collected the votes, drew up the re- the pentameter, however, is not exclusively ports, opened all memorials addressed to gentle. It may be very poignant if used the states, transacted business with the in an epigram, the point of which is made foreign ministers, superintended the reve- to coincide with the abrupt termination nue and the maintenance of rights arl of the pentameter. A distich of Scbiller privileges, and took care, in general, of compares the hexameter to the rising of the welfare of the province. He took the water of a fountain, and the pentamepart in the doings of the college of the ter to the falling back of the same. counsellors, who exercised the sovereign PENTAPLA, Pentaglot; a Bible in five power in the absence of the estates, and languages. was permanent deputy to the general PENTATEUCH. (See Hebrew Language, estates of the United Netherlands. The and Moscs.) influence of this first magistrate was very

Pentecost (from FEVTIKOOTT, the fiftieth); great in Holland, and, therefore, in all a Jewish festival, celebrated fifty days the Netherlands. His term of office was after the passover, in commemoration of five years, after the lapse of which he the promulgation of the law on mount was generally rechosen. The French Sinai. It was also called the Feast of revolution and its consequences put an Weeks, because it occurred at the end of end to this office; but Napoleon, in 1805, a week of weeks, or seven weeks. It is made a state-pensionary director of the also a festival of the Christian church, ocrepublic. (See Schimmelpennink.) curring fifty days after Easter (q. v.), in Pentaglor. (See Pentapla.)

commemoration of the descent of the PENTAMETER ; a verse consisting of Holy Ghost on the disciples. It is called five feet. These feet are two spondees or Whitsuntide by the English, according to dactyles, two dactyles and one spondee, some, from White Sunday Tide (time), bewhich latter is so severed, that its first cause those who were newly baptized apsyllable follows the two first feet, and its peared at church in a white dress between last syllable concludes the verse. The Easter and Pentecost. final syllable may also be short. The PesteLIC MARBLE. (See Marble.) scheme of the pentameter is, therefore, as PenthESILEA. (See Amazons.) follows:

Pentheus; nephew of Cadmius, and

his successor as king of Thebes. He op|-- vul- uulz posed the introduction of the worship of

Bacchus, and for this offence was torn to The ancient grammarians, who in this way pieces by the Bacchantes, among whoin make of the pentameter a verse of five feet, were his own mother and sisters, acting, can give no other reason for so doing, than probably, under the direct influence of the that there does not exist, as they say, any god, like the rioters in the late outrages at foot of one syllable. To the ear, howev- Bristol, after they had broken open the er, and in its essential character, the pen- wine-cellars of the town-house. tameter is, as well as the hexameter, a PENUMBRA. (See Eclipse.) verse of six parts, having in the third di- Peon, in the language of Hindoostan; a vision a long syllable, and in the last a foot-soldier, armed with sword and target. long, or a short syllable, on which we in common use, the word depotes a footdwell as long as on two long sylla- man so armed, employed to run before bles, so that the pentameter requires as the palanquin. Piada is the original much time in pronouncing as the hexam- word, of which peon is a corruption. eter. The pentameter receives a gentle Peony. (See Pæony.)

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PEPE. (See Naples and Sicily, Revo- the sun, rubbed between the hands, and
lution of:)

winnowed to separate the hulls; it is
PEPLUM. (See Panathenæum.) much less pungent than the entire berries.
PEPPER (piper); an extensive genus The leaves of the P. betel, a native of the
of plants, constituting a distinct natural same parts of the globe, serve to enclose
family—the piperaced. The species are a few slices of the areca nut (thence com-
mostly succulent, perennial, herbaceous monly called betel nut), and a little shell
or shrubby, often climbing, dichotomous, lime, which substances together form a
and jointed. The leaves are very simple, masticatory as much in use among these
and sometimes peltate, smooth, veined, nations as is tobacco in Europe and
pubescent, or rough. The flowers are America. It stains the saliva of a brick-
disposed in nearly filiform aments, are red color, and corrodes by degrees the sub-
destitute of either calyx or corolla, and stance of the teeth, but the consumption
are separated by very small scales; these is, notwithstanding, prodigious, and it
aments or spikes are opposite to the leaves, forms a very extensive branch of com-
or terminal. The fruit consists of a berry merce. The true cubebs is the berry
containing a single seed. The species of a third species of pepper (P. cubeba),
of pepper are almost strictly confined also from the same countries. The ber-
within the limits of the tropics, and ries are globular, and about as large as
abound particularly in the equatorial re- those of the black pepper; they are tonic,
gions of America. A single species has stimulant and carminative, and are fre-
been discovered in East Florida, inhab- quently used medicinally by the Asiatics.
iting as far north as lat. 39o. They are We must not confound this with the tailed
inconspicuous, often insignificant plants, pepper, also called cubebs, which is the
in their appearance, and present little va- product of the uvaria zeylanica, an en-
riety in the shape of their leaves. The tirely different plant, although it is used for
P. nigrum, which furnishes the black the same purposes. In the year ending
pepper of commerce, is a native of the September 30, 1830, there were imported
East Indies, and is besides cultivated on into the U. States 2,275,947 pounds of
an extensive scale in that part of the black pepper, and there were exported
globe. It is a climbing plant, and is sup- 2,160,829. (See Cayenne Pepper.)
ported on a pole or small tree planted for PEPPERELL, sir William, a lieutenant-
ibis purpose, which gives to the pepper general in the service of the British king
grounds an appearance somewhat similar before the American revolution, was born
to the hop fields in northern climates. in the district of Maine (Massachusetts),
The stems are smooth and spongy, pro- and, about the year 1727, was chosen one
vided with broad, ovate, acuminate, seven- of his majesty's council, to which he was
nerved leaves, and bearing little globular annually reëlected until his death-a peri-
berries, which, when ripe, are of a bright od of thirty-two years. He possessed a
red color. The pepper of Malacca, Java, vigorous frame, and much energy and
and especially of Sumatra, is the most firmness of character, which rendered
esteemed. Formerly, the export of this him of great utility to a country exposed
article to Europe was exclusively in the to a ferocious enemy. lle was bred a
hands of the Portuguese, but it is now merchant, but the principal portion of his
open to all nations. Its culture has been time was spent in the discharge of the
introduced into the Isle of France, and duties of a soldier. Ile rose to the highest
thence into Cayenne and other parts of military lionors. When the expedition
tropical America, where it has succeed- against Louisburg was contemplated, lie
ed perfectly. Black pepper has always was comunissioned by the governors of
formed an extensive branch of commerce; New England to command the troops,
the ancient Greeks and Romans were and, investing the city in the beginning of
acquainted with it, and, at the present day, May, 1745, soon forced it to capitulate.
no spice is so generally used; the con- To reward his services, the king created
sumption is prodigious in all parts of the him a baronet of Great Britain. He died
globe, but the southern Asiatics seem to at his seat in Kittery, Maine, July 6, 1759,
employ it the most frequently. White aged sixty-three. He was distinguished
pepper is nothing more than the best and for his social qualities.
soupdest of the berries, gathered when PEPPERMINT. (See Mint.)
fully ripe, and deprived of their external Pepys, Samuel, secretary to the admi-
skiu, by steeping them in salt water for ralty in the reigns of Charles II and James
about a week, at the end of which time II, was born at Brampton, in Hunting-
the skins burst; they are then dried in donsliire, and educated at Cambridge. He

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VOL. X

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