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flicts penance, as a satisfaction to his head of a ship-of-war, and usually terown conscience and to God. Confession minating in two ends or points, called the was not invented by Innocent III, but swallow's-tail. It denotes that a vessel is only enjoined by him at least once a year. in actual service.-Broad pendant is a It is followed by absolution, according to kind of flag terminating in one or two the authority transmitted to the church, points, used to distinguish the chief of a and by the imposition of such penances squadron.-Pendant is also a short piece as are necessary to free from the conse- of rope, fixed on each side, under the quences of sin. The council of Trent shrouds, upon the heads of the main and declares, in sess. xiv, c. 8, that satisfaction fore masts. for sin is effected only by Christ, and it is PENDULUM, in dynamics, is a simple left for the individual to bring forth fruits ponderous body, so suspended by a flexiworthy of repentance. Days of penance ble cord from an axis of suspension, that and fasting are holy days, which, in certain it is at liberty to vibrate by the action of countries, are fixed annually, or after gen- its own gravity alone, when it is once eral calamities, for the purpose of a gene- raised, by any external force, to the right ral expression of penitence, or with the or left of its quiescent position; and, in view of appeasing the anger of the Deity. demonstrating the theory of its motion, The great day of fasting among the Jews mathematicians are obliged to assume, is the Long Night. The Christians imi- that there is no rigidity in the cord, no tated these fast-days.

friction at the axis of suspension, po rePerates; the private or public gods sistance to motion made by the air, and of the Romans; in the former sense, they no variation in the total length of the cord, resembled the Lares (q.v.), with whom they arising from the variable temperature or are often confounded. Not only every moisture of the atmosphere; and if these house, but every city, had its Penates, and assumptions were strictly correct, a penthe latter were the public gods. The dulum, once put in motion, would conmost celebrated at Rome were those that tinue to move, ad infinitum, without a protected the empire. These were brought further accession of any external force; into Italy by Æneas, together with Vesta but, when the pendulum is applied as the and her eternal fire. According to Varro regulator of a clock, for which purpose it and Macrobius, the Penates were rude im- is admirably adapted, the assumptions ages of wood or stone, furnished with a spear; which we have stated, require an equal and generals, on their departure, and con- number of mechanical corrections of suls, pretorsand dictators, when they retired which the theory, simply considered, from office, sacrificed victims before them. takes no notice. In horology, therefore,

Pencil; an instrument used by paint- the pendulum must be considered not ers for laying on their colors. Pencils are simply as a self-moving pendulous body, of yarious kinds, and made of various without any tendency to come to a state materials; the larger sorts are made of of rest, but as a body whose motion is boar's bristles, the thick ends of which are perpetuated by repeated accessions of bound to a stick, large or small, according force in aid of its own gravity, and whose to the uses they are designed for; these, vibrations are rendered isochronal by a when large, are called brushes. The nice adaptation of mechanical contrivfiner sorts of pencils are made of camels', ances, that prevent or remedy the influbadgers' and squirrels' hair, and of the ence of all natural impediments to unidown of swans; these are tied at the up- form and uninterrupted motion. The first per end with a piece of strong thread, and kind of pendulum (the theoretical) is called enclosed in the barrel of a quill. Good a mathematical or simple pendulum, the pencils, when drawn between the lips, other the physical or compound pendulum. come to a fine point.

In the mathematical pendulum, the matter Lead Pencils. (See Plumbago.) of the pendulous ball or bob is supposed

Pencil of Rays; a number of rays di- to be collected into one point, so that the verging from some luminous point, which, centres of gravity and of oscillation coinafter passing through a lens, converge cide. The doctrine of the pendulum is again to a point.

of the highest importance, but, as it canPendant. Two paintings or prints of not be fully developed without the aid of equal dimensions, which are attached in mathematics, nor rendered clear without corresponding positions to the same wall, diagrams, we can state only some of the are called pendants to each other.

obvious properties and circumPENDANT, or PENNANT; a sort of long stances connected with it. A pendulum, narrow banner displayed from the mast- once put in motion, would never cease to oscillate in ares, were it not for the fric- basis for a calculation of the length of the tion at the point of suspension, and the degrees in the various latitudes; but acturesistance of the air. Neither of these al measurements have shown tha“, the circumstances can ever be avoided en- meridians contain some irregularities, from tirely, but their effect may be rendered which it has been justly concluded, that comparatively slight by giving to the the earth has not a perfectly regular form, weight a lenticular shape, and suspending but deviates more or less from the shape the rod on a sharp edge, on which it of a sphere. We can, therefore, properly plays with very little friction. The times draw conclusions from the oscillations of of the vibrations of a pendulum depend, the pendulum respecting the power of 1. on the magnitude of the angle of elon- gravity only, and not respecting the form gation, viz. that angle by which the heavy of the earth. Besides the friction of the body of the pendulum is removed from rod, &c., and the resistance of the air, the vertical line; 2. upon the length of there are also other circumstances which the pendulum; and 3. upon the accele- influence the oscillations of the pendulum. rating power of gravity. If all these cir- These are the changes of heat and cold. cumstances are perfectly equal in the case Heat lengthens the rod of the pendulum, of two pendulums, they will perform an cold contracts it; hence common pendulum equal number of oscillations in the same clocks go much quicker in winter; and the time; but if there is a difference in either change of temperature in rooms which are of the circumstances, the oscillations will heated during the day influences them condiffer immediately. Thus, if one pendu- siderably. Many contrivances have been lum is shorter than the other, and all the devised for overcoming this inconvenience. other circumstances equal, the shorter One is, by making, pendulums of the form pendulum will move quicker than the of a gridiron, consisting of several parallel longer. The law which has been found bars of different metals, so connected that to exist is, that the lengths of the pendu- the effect of one set of them counteracts Jums are in an inverse proportion to the that of the others. These have been squares of their oscillations; hence the very successful. Rods are sometimes times of the oscillations are inversely as made of certain kinds of wood, well seathe square roots of the lengths of the pen- soned, which are little influenced by the dulums. Hence a pendulum which is weather. Astronomical clocks of the four lines as long as another, will vibrate present day do not err to the amount of with but half the rapidity, or the shorter one beat or oscillation of the pendulum in pendulum will performi two oscillations a year. A common clock is merely a whilst the larger performs but one. The pendulum with wheel-work attached to it, pendulum does not perform its oscillations to record the number of vibrations, and in equal times in all parts of the earth. with a weight or spring to counteract the This is owing to the third of the circum- retarding effects of friction and the resiststances enumerated above, upon which ance of the air. Huygens, who developed the oscillations depend. The gravity, or, the doctrine of the pendulum, which had what is the same thing, the power of at- been treated already by Galileo, first aptraction in the earth, does not operate ev- plied it to clocks, and thus became the ery where with equal force on the pendu- inventor of the pendulum clock (in 1656). lum, which, therefore, in some parts of the (See Clock.)-For the application of peneartb, oscillates more slowly than in others. dulums to horology, see Berthoud's The cause of this lies in the centrifugal Essai sur l’Horlogerie (Paris, 1763, 2 force (q. v.), or in the diminution of the vols., 4to.).-See, also, Biot's treatise Sur la power of gravity caused by it. This be- Longueur du Pendule à Secondes, in the comes more perceptible the nearer the third volume of his Traité d'Astronomic place where the pendulum is observed Physique (second edition, Paris, 1810).--is to the equator. (See Earth.) At See, also, Bode's Anleitung zur Kenntniss the equator, therefore, a pendulum vi- der Erdkugel (second edition, Berlin, 1803). brating seconds must be somewhat shorter PENELOPE. (See Ulysses.) than at a distance from it. The length Penguin. (See Pinguin.) of a seconds pendulum at the equator is, PENITENTIARIES. (See Prisons.) according to Biot, 39.011684 inches; in Penn, William, was born in London, in latitude 45°, 39.116820, in 90°, 39.221956. 1644. He was the only son of William If the globe were a perfect spheroid, Penn, of the county of Wilts, vice-admiral the meridians would be perfect ellipses, of England in the time of Cromwell


, and and in such case the length of seconds afterwards knighted by king Charles II, pendulums would immediately afford a for his successful services against the Dutch. He appears to have been seri- his conduct, remanded him home; and, ously inclined from his youth, having finding him unalterably determined to imbibed religious impressions as early as abide by his own convictions of duty, in his twelfth year, which were soon after- respect to plainness of speech and deportwards confirmed by the ministry of Thom- ment, he would have compounded with as Loe, an eminent preacher among him, if he would only have consented to the people called Quakers, then newly as- remain uncovered before the king, the sociated in religious fellowship. In his duke (afterwards James II), and himself. fifteenth year, he was, notwithstanding, Being disappointed in this, he could no entered as a gentleman commoner of longer endure the sight of his son, and a Christ-church, Oxford, where, meeting second time drove him from his family. with some other students who were de- Yet after a while, becoming convinced of voutly inclined, they ventured to hold pri- his integrity, he permitted him to return; vate meetings among themselves, wherein and though he never openly countenanced they both preached and prayed. This him, he would use his interest to get him gave great offence to the heads of the released, when imprisoned for his attendcollege, by whom these zealous tyros ance at religious meetings. In the year were at first only confined for non-con- 1668, in the twenty-fourth year of his age, formity; but persisting in their religious Penn first appeared as a minister and an exercises, they were finally expelled the author; and it was on account of his secuniversity. On his return home, his fa- ond essay, entitled the Sandy Foundather endeavored in vain to divert himn tion Shaken, that he was imprisoned in from his religious pursuits, as being likely the Tower, where he remained seven to stand in the way of his promotion in months, during which time he wrote his the world; and at length, finding him most celebrated work, No Cross no inflexible in what he now conceived to be Crown, and finally obtained his release his religious duty, beat him severely, and from confinement by an exculpatory vinturned him out of doors. Relenting, how, dication, under the title of Innocency ever, at the intercession of his mother, and with her open Face. In 1670, the meethoping to gain his point by other means, ings of dissenters were forbidden, under he sent his son to Paris, in company with severe penalties. The Quakers, however, some persons of quality ; whence he re- believing it their religious duty, continued turned so well skilled in the French lan- to meet as usual ; and when forcibly kept guage, and other polite accomplishments, out of their meeting-houses, they assemthat he was again joyfully received at bled as near to them as they could in the home. After his return from France, he street. At one of these meetings, William was admitted of Lincoln's Inn, with a Penn preached to the people thus assemview of studying the law, and continued bled for divine worship; for which pious there till his twenty-second year, when action he was committed to Newgate, his father committed to him the manage- and, at the next session at the Old Bailey, ment of a considerable estate in Ireland— was indicted for “ being present at, and a circumstance which unexpectedly prov- preaching to, an unlawful, seditious, and ed the occasion of his finally adhering to riotous assembly.” He pleaded his own the despised cause of the Quakers, and cause, though menaced by the recorder, devoting himself to a religious life. At and was finally acquitted by the jury; Cork, he met again with Thomas Loe, but he was, nevertheless, detained in Newthe person whose preaching had af- gate, and the jury fined. Sir William died fected him so early in life. At a meet- this year, fully reconciled to his son, to ing in that city, Loe began his declaration whom he lefta plentiful estate, taking leave with these penetrating words, “There is a of him in these memorable words: “ Son faith that overcomes the world, and there William, let nothing in this world tempt is a faith that is overcome by the world;" you to wrong your conscience. So will which so affected Penn, that from that you keep peace at home, which will be a tiine he constantly attended the meetings feast to you in a day of trouble." Shortly of the Quakers, though in a time of hot after this event, Peon travelled, in the expersecution. He was soon afterwards, with ercise of his ministry, into Holland and inany others, taken at a meeting in Cork, Germany. In the year 1672, he married and carried before the mayor, by whom Gulielma Maria Springett, whose father they were committed to prison; but young (sir William) having been killed at the Penn was soon released, on application to siege of Bamber, in the civil wars, her the earl of Orrery, then lord president mother had married Isaac Pepington, of of Munster. His father, being informed of Chalfont, in Bucks, an eminent mivister

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and writer among the Quakers. In 1677, than fifty sail arrived with settlers from in company with George Fox and Robert England, Ireland, Wales, Holland, and Barclay, the celebrated apologist, he again Germany. Soon after Penn returned to set sail on a religious visit to Holland and England, king Charles died ; and the reGermany, where he and his friends were spect which James II bore to the late received by many pious persons as the admiral, who had recommended his son ministers of Christ, particularly at Her- to his favor, procured to him free access werden, by the princess Elizabeth of the at court. He made use of this advantage Rhine, daughter of the king of Bohemia, to solicit the discharge of his persecuted and grand-daughter of James I of Eng- brethren, fifteen hundred of whom reland. The persecutions of dissenters con- mained in prison at the decease of the tinuing to rage, notwithstanding their late king. In 1686, having taken lodgings repeated applications to parliament for at Kensington, to be near the court, he sufferance and protection, William Penn published a Persuasive to Moderation now turned his thoughts towards a settle- towards Dissenting Christians, &c., humment in the new world, as a place where bly submitted to the King and his great himself and his friends might enjoy their Council, which is thought to have hasreligious opinions without molestation, tened, if it did not occasion, the g's and where an example might be set to the proclamation for a general pardon, nations of a just and righteous govern- which was followed the next year by his ment. “There may be room there,” suspension of the penal laws. At the said he, “though not here, for such a revolution, in 1688, Penn's intimacy with holy experiment.” He therefore, in 1681, the abdicated monarch created suspicions, solicited a patent from Charles II, for å of which he repeatedly cleared himself province in North America, which the before authority, until he was accused by king readily granted, in consideration of a profligate wretch, whom the parliament his father's services, and of a debt still due afterwards declared to be a cheat and an to bim from the crown. Penn soon after impostor. Not caring to expose himself published a description of the province, to the oaths of such a man, he withdrew proposing easy terms of settlement to such from public notice, till 1693. In that as might be disposed to go thither. He year, through the mediation of his friends also wrote to the Indian natives, inform- at court, he was once more admitted to ing them of his desire to hold his posses- plead his own cause before the king and sion with their consent and goodwill

. council, and was again acquitted of all He then drew up the Fundamental suspicion of guilt. The most generally Constitution of Pennsylvania, and the known production of his temporary sefollowing year he published the Frame clusion bears the title of Fruits of Soliof Government, a law of which code tude, in Reflections and Maxims relating held out a greater degree of religious lib- to the Conduct of Human Life. Not erty than had at that time been allowed long after his restoration to society, he in the world. “ All persons living in this lost his wife, Gulielma, to which he said province, who confess and acknowledge all his other troubles were as nothing in the One Almighty and Eternal God to be comparison. He travelled, however, the the Creator, Upholder, and Ruler of the same year, in the west of England, and in world, and that hold themselves obliged the next prosecuted an application to parin conscience to live peaceably and justly liament for the relief of his friends, the in civil society, shall in no wise be mo- Quakers, in the case of oaths. In the year lested or prejudiced for their religious 1696, he married a second wife, Hannah, persuasion or practice, in matters of faith the daughter of Thomas Callowhill

, an and worship; nor shall they be compelled eminent merchant of Bristol, and soon at any time to frequent or maintain any after buried his eldest sou, Springett, a religious worship, place or ministry what- remarkably pious and promising youth. soever.” Upon the publication of these pro- In 1698, he travelled in Ireland, and reposals, many respectable families removed sided the following year at Bristol. In to the new province; the city of Phila- 1699, he again sailed for Pennsylvania, with delphia was laid out, upon the banks of his second wife and family, intending to the Delaware ; and in 1982, the proprie- make his province the place of their futor visited his newly-acquired territory, ture residence; but advantage was taken where he remained about two years, ad- of his absence to undermine proprietary justing its concerns, and establishing a governments, under color of the king's friendly intercourse with his colonial prerogative, and he thought it necessary neighbors ; during which period no less to return to England again in 1701. After

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his arrival, the measure was laid aside, dents, originated in the chapters and
and Penn became once more welcome at monasteries. (See Feast of Fools.)
court, on the accession of queen Anne. PENNANT, Thomas, an English natu-
In 1710, finding the air near the city to ralist and antiquary, born at Downing, in
disagree with his declining health, he Flintshire, in 1726, studied at Oxford.
took a handsome seat in Buckingham- His first production was an account of an
shire, at which he continued to reside earthquake felt in Flintshire, April 2, 1750,
during the remainder of his life. In the which appeared in the Philosophical
year 1712, he had three distinct fits of the Transactions, in 1756; and, the following
apoplectic kind. The last of these so im- year, he was chosen a member of the
paired his memory and understanding as royal society of Upsal, through the influ-
to render him ever after unfit for public ence of Linnæus. He commenced, in
action ; but he continued to deliver, in the 1761, a body of British Zoology, which
meeting at Reading, short, but sound and first appeared in four vols. folio, and was
sensible expressions. In 1717, he scarcely republished in quarto and octavo, and
knew his old acquaintance, or could walk translated into German by C. Theoph.
without leading. He died in 1718. The Murr. This work was followed by his
writings of Penn (first published in two Indian Zoology (1769); Synopsis of
volumes folio) bespeak his character as a Quadrupeds (1771); Genera of Birds
Christian and a philanthropist. Of his (1773); History of Quadrupeds (1781);
ability as a politician and legislator, the Arctic Zoology (1786); and Index to
prosperity of Pennsylvania is a lasting Buffon's Natural History of Birds (1787).

In 1765, Mr. Pennant took a journey to
PENNALISM is the name for the torments the continent, when he visited Buffon,
and impositions to which the elder stu- Haller, Pallas, and other eminent foreign-
dents in German universities used to sub- ers. He was admitted into the royal so-
ject the younger ones, called Pennale ciety in 1767; and, in 1769, he undertook
(pen-cases), afterwards foxes. This abuse a tour into Scotland, of which he publish-
was carried to a great extent ; and books ed an account in 1771, and a second vol-
written 200 years ago exhibit a real bar- ume appeared in 1776, relating to a sec-
barity of manners in this respect. In ond tour in the same country, and a
1661 and 1663, the German empire thought voyage to the Hebrides. In 1778, he
it necessary to enact laws against pennal- published a tour in Wales; to which was
ism. It corresponds to the English fag- afterwards added, in another volume, a
ging ; and, though few traces of it exist at Journey to Snowdon. He produced, in
present in Germany, it is still customary, 1782, a narrative of a Journey from Ches-
in most schools, to greet the “foxes” ter to London; and ia 1790 appeared
(scholars who ascend from a lower class his amusing work, An Account of London
into a higher) with a sound beating; and (4to.) In 1793, he professedly took leave
we find in Byron's Life, by Moore, to what of the public in a piece of autobiography
an extent fagging has been carried in the Literary Life of the late Thomas
England. It is said that pennalism origi- Pennant; but he subsequently committed
nated in the Italian universities (Bologna, to the press a History of Whiteford and
&c.), which is very probable, as the stu- Holywell, in his native county. He died
dents at these universities kept together in 1798. After his death appeared Outlines
in “nations,” in order to protect each of the Globe (4 vols., 40.), forming a por-
other, and young students went with rec- tion of a very extensive undertaking,
ommendations to the senior of those na- which was never completed, and some
tions. But in those rude times, the weak, other posthumous publications. His skill
who wanted protection, were every where in the selection of interesting subjects for
exposed to the brutal abuse of the stronger. discussion, and his felicity of illustration,
Among mechanics, apprentices and young attracted admirers, rather than the extent
journeymen were subjected to similar of his researches, or the profundity of his
discipline—a consequence of the rude observations.
feudalism which had penetrated every PENNSYLVANIA, one of the United States,
part of society. Others derive these prac- as now limited, extends from N. lat. 390
tices from the chapters of the clergy, 43' to N. lat. 42° 16', and from 74° 35' to
among whom every new canon was 80° 31' W. lon. from Greenwich. It is
obliged to pay a certain sum for a banquet bounded north by New York; east by the
on his entrance; and it is a well known river Delaware, which separates it from
fact, that many of the customs, songs (de- New Jersey; south-east by the state of
cent and indecent), &c. of German stu- Delaware ; south by Maryland and part


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