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ful impositions, were certainly right in a moral view ; let us see how far they were so with regard to us, in a political one.

They afferted, that as Jesus Christ had never exacted annates, nor reversions, nor fold diipensations for this world, nor indulgences for the next, they saw no reason why they should pay a foreign prince his price for these things. Suppofing that the annates, the law proceedings in the pope's court, and the dispensations which still subfift, were to cost us no more chan five hundred thousand crowns a year; it is clear, that since the time of Francis I. that is, in two hundred and fifty years, we have paid a hundred and twenty millions, and if we calculate

; the different value of the mark of silver, we fhall find this sum to amount to about two hundred and fifty millions of the present money. It may therefore, I think, without any blafphemy be allowed, that the heretics in proposing the abolition of these very extraordinary taxes, which will be the admiration of pofterity, did, in that respect, no great injury to the kingdom, and Towed themselves rather good calculators than bad subjects. Add to this, that they were the only persons who understood the Greek language, or had any knowledge of antiquity; let us own likewise, without diffimulation, that with all their errors, we are indebted to them for the opening of our understandings, which had been long buried beneath the most barbarous obcurity.

But as they denied the doctrine of purgatory, concerning which no one ought to have the least doubt, and which, moreover, brought in a comfortable revenue to the monks; as they paid. no reverence to relics which every one ought to reverence, and which brought in ftill greater profits; and lastly, as they attacked the most respectable tenets *, their adversaries made

They revived the opinion of Berengarius concerning the Eucharift; they denied that a body can exist in a thousand different places at one time, even by all the exertion of divine omnipotence; they also denied, that attributes can subfift without a fubject; they held, that it was absolutely impoffible that what appears to be fimple bread and wine to the fight, the taste, and the stomach, can in the very instant of its existence, be annihilated or changed into another substance; in a word, they maintained all those errors for which Berenç arius


them no other reply, than by committing them to the stake. The king, who stiled him felf

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was formerly condemned. They founded their be-
lief on several passages of the antient fathers of the
church, and particularly of St. Justin, who says
expressly in his dialogue against Typhonius,
“ That the offering of fine flour is the figure of
" the Eucharist, which Christ has ordered us
" to make in commemoration of his passion;"
« και η τής σεμιδάλεως &c. τύπος ήν τε άρτα της ευχα -
•* μίας, δν εις αναμνησιν τη παθους &c. Ιησές Χειρός 6
« κύριφ- ημών παρέδωκε τσοιεϊν.”

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They revived all that had been advanced in the firft ages against the worship of relics, and brought these words of Vigilantius for their authority: “ What neceflity is there for your paying adora“ tion or even respect to a mass of vile duft? " Can it be supposed that the souls of deceased

martyrs retain after their death an affection for " their alhes? The customs of the antient idola. so ters are now introduced into the church ; we be“ gin to light tapers at noon-day; we may, in« deed, during our life-time, mutually pray for 1 each other ; but of what service can such prayers 4 be after death."

their protector, and who kept a body of them in pay in Germany, marched at the head of a procession through Paris, which was concluded hy the execution of a number of these unhappy wretches; which was as follows :

They were suspended at the end of a long beam, which played upon a pole erected for that purpose; and underneath them was kindled a large fire, into which they were alternately lowered and then raised up again, by which they experienced the most excruciating torments; till a lingering death at last put a period to the longest and most dreadful punishment that eruelty ever invented.

But they did not take notice how warmly St. Jerom has opposed this passage in Vigilantius. In fhort, they referred wholly to the primitive times of the apostles, nor could they be brought to acknowledge, that as the church became more extended and strengthened, there was a necessity for extending and strengthening its discipline likewise ; they condemned every thing that had the appearance of riches or grandeur in religion, which, however, feem absolutely necessary towards supporting the dignity of that worship we pay the Deity.


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A short time before the death of Francis I. the members of the parliament of. Provence, whom the clergy had incensed against the inhabitants of Mirandol and Cabriére, applied to the king for a body of troops to attend the execution of nineteen persons of that country who had been condemned by them; with the affiftance of this armed force, they massacred about fix thousand fouls, without sparing fex or age, and reduced thirty villages to ashes. The people who were the objects of these executions, and who had, till then, been in a manner unknown, were doubtless to blame for having been born Vaudois, but this was their only crime. They had been settled for upwards of three hundred years in deserts and on mountains; which they had rendered fertile by incredible labour, and led a pastoral and quiet life, the perfect image of the innocence wbich we find attributed to the first ages of the world. They had no other acquaintance. with the towns or villages round about them, but from carrying the produce of their grounds chither to sell. Totally ignorant of all military operations, they made no defence; but were laughtered like timorous animals, whom we. C5


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