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country life. But in this delicious and glowing description, it is observable that no part of the scenery which he apostrophizes by name belongs to his own country. It is all Grecian ; & his fields, his moun

; tains, his rivers, and his woods are all found in Thessaly, Laconia, and Thrace.

Horace is so far like Virgil, that neither does he derive his ideas of rural beauty from the country of which he was a native; but, unlike him in other respects, gives the palm to some parts of Italy over all the rest of the world. In particular, he prefers it to the most admired scenery of Greece, even by name, in the strongest terms. In his ode to Plancus (Lib. I. Ode 7), he tells him that he shall leave to others the office of celebrating the beauties both of art and nature to be found in Greece ; for that neither Laconia itself" (which country was expressly

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g Georg. II. v. 486, et seq.

O ubi Campi
Sperchiusque, et virginibus Vacchata Lacænis
Taygeta! O qui me gelidis in vallibus Hæmi

Sistat, et ingenti ramorum protegat umbra!

Tam patiens Lacedæmon cannot refer to the city, because that could be no object of comparison with the groves and river of Tiber. Larissa was seated on the river Peneus, which also ran through the vale of Tempe; and, no doubt, is to be understood as referring to that valley which might well be compared to Tiber, though the fertile Larissa in the strict and literal sense could not.

included in Virgil's praises) nor even the boasted vale of Tempe was equal in his estimation to the scenery round Tiber; in which neighbourhood his own villa was seated. Upon the same principle we find the poet earnestly wishing at another time (Lib. II. Ode 6) that he may pass the evening of his days at Tiber, and that if this prayer be denied him, he may be allowed to settle in the soft and genial climate of Tarentum, in the south-east of Italy.

This difference of opinion, or taste, in two poets, contemporaries and friends, is very striking. To which the suffrage was given by the Emperor who loved them both, and (I am sorry to add) was flattered by both, it would now be useless to inquire ; but it is curious to observe in how different a light the same objects appear to minds of perhaps equal powers, of equally cultivated understandings, and having an equal taste for the enchanting scenery which abounds in both those countries.

Admirable indeed is the variety of the powers of Nature, and their influence on the minds of men; and the different manner in which they affect different dispositions, so that what is to one a beauty, to another appears a deformity, is not one of the least instances of the bounty of Providence towards

Extensive as their variety seems in combination, the works of Nature (like every thing that is truly great) are simple. Water, hill, plain, and wood, form all her materials; but these are subdivided, modelled, classed, and mixed together, in so many forms of beauty, as to prove to a well regulated mind one of the purest as well as highest sources of innocent and intellectual pleasure


Feb. 20, 1807,

No IV.

On the State best adapted to Human Happiness.


Vitam quce faciunt beatiorem,

Jucundissime Martialis, hæc sunt;
Res non parta labore, sed relicta;
Non ingratus ager; focus perennis;

nunquam, toga rara; mens quieta;
Vores ingenue, salubre corpus;
Prudens simplicitas ; pares amici;
Convictus facilis, sine arte mensa:
Nox non ebria, sed soluta curis ;
Non tristis torus, attamen pudicus ; *
Somnus qui faciat breves tenebras ;
Quod sis, esse velis, nihilque malis ;
Summum nec metuas diem, nec optes."


Translation by Cowley. “ Since, dearest friend, 'tis your

desire to see
A true receipt of happiness from me;
These are the chief ingredients, if not all:
Take an estate neither too great, nor small,
Which quantum sufficit the doctors call.

Let this estate from parent's care descend;
The getting it too much of life does spend.
Take such a ground, whose gratitude may be
A fair encouragement for industry.
Let constant fires the Winter's fury tame;
And let thy kitchen be a vestal flame.
Thee to the town let never suit at law,
And rarely, very rarely, business draw.
Thy active mind in equal temper keep,
In undisturbed peace, yet not in sleep.
Let exercise a vigorous health maintain,
Without which all the composition's vain.
In the same weight prudence and innocence take.
Ana of each does the just mixture make.
But a few friendships wear, and let them be
By nature and by fortune fit for thee.
Instead of art and luxury in food,
Let mirth and freedom make thy table good;
If any cares into the day time

At night, without wine's opium, let them sleep.
Let rest, which Nature does to darkness wed,
And not lust, recommend to thee thy bed;
Be satisfied, and pleased, with what thou art;
Act chearfully and well the allotted part;
Enjoy the present hour, be thankful for the past,
And neither fear, nor wish the approaches of the last.”

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