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age with which the Bible colporteur approaches them, the cordiality with which he is treated, and the readiness with which the Scriptures are takeu.
So we can truly say that throughout the field of the Agency a notable change seems to have taken place. And with less hesitation than ever before we are learning to regard the non-Christian populatiou as a most important part of the field which is to be cultivated.
Editorial Work The transliteration of the Kurdish Gospel of Matthew from Armenian to Arabic characters has been completed by Mr. Andrus, and we hope soon to be able to continue that work through the other Gospels.
Dr. Hoskins' work on the preparation of the text of the Octavo Reference Bible (Arabic) has continued to make progress, though somewhat delayed by his temporary absence in America. The work is now rapidly approaching its completion.
Electrotyping Beirut.—The plates of the Octavo Reference Bible are drawing near their completion. During the year in review 177 additional pages have been completed, making 1,120 in all thus far. The whole set should be completed during the coming year.
Constantinople.-For the 16mo Armeno-Turkish New Testament 395 more new plates have been made, making the total to date 670 plates. The work on the Ancient Armenian Bible has been extended 375 pages, making 550 in all.
Printing Beirut.—The American Bible Society continues to occupy with its Arabic publications a great portion of the time and labor of the Mission Press. It is also doing at present some publications of Kurdish Gospels in the Arabic character. Says Mr. Dana : “It is most difficult to give an adequate idea of the large place the work of the American Bible Society has in our press. Sixty-six per cent of all the printing done this past year was for this Society, and one is constantly impressed by its far-reaching importance."
Constantinople. The printing here continues to be all done by the priuting establishments domiciled in the Bible House. The work committed to these presses has not been so large as last year.
The following are the figures of editions actually completed:
At Beirut, in Arabic....
The total issues of the Agency for fifty-six years ending December 31, 1913, are 3,489,308 copies.
Geographical Classification of Issues
Bibles Test's Parts Total Distributed in Turkey...
10,284 18,890 38,013 67,187 Bulgaria
1, 40 3,670 7,470 12,280 Egypt.....
5,055 5,109 26,976 37,140 Soudan....
95 4,014 4,185 America.....
3,815 3,002 15,400 22,217 Other countries......... 160
724 1,037 The remainder went to the British and Foreign Bible Society, as shown above.
Issues Classified by Language
Bibles Test's Parts Total Armenian Group-Modern Armenian..... 2,860 4,803 12,533 20,196 Ancient Armenian .... 80 2,133
633 2,846 Ararat-Armenian .....
15 Armeno-Turkish...... 2,350
4,098 6,968 13,416 Armeno-Kurdish......
34 Armenian for Blind...
Issues Classified by Language-Continued
Biblos Toat's Parta Turkish...
942 1,480 8,305 Arabic ..
.10,487 11,436 68,050 Syriac.....
293 1,178 English.
850 1,899 Azerbaijan.
4,014 Esperanto Totals of all.
Total 10,727 89,973 210
6 731 296 1,676 4,114
23,439 35,855 120,166
DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTION
Bulgaria During and after the war we shipped large quantities of Scriptures to Sofia and Philippopolis. They were distributed among soldiers, refugees, and prisoners, the Mohammedans not being forgotten. The Rev. D. N. Furnajieff, of Sofia, had a large share in this work and displayed great zeal and efficiency in promoting it. He writes: “Only a few days ago the bot m of the last box of your donatiou of Scriptures was reached. They are all gone. The distribution has been wonderfully blessed of God. The wounded soldiers are still much in evidence, some of them maimed for life, having lost both arms or both legs, or one of each. They begged for the Bible. We are no longer fit for life,' they said, 'and the least we can do is to spend the rest of our life getting nearer to God through the Bible. We have distributed not only among the troops in Sofia, but on the very battlefield and among the hospitals. Those who have assisted in this work are all members of the three evangelical churches of Sofia."
The Rev. Mr. Holway also writes from Sofia : " We find that the immense gratuitous distribution of the Scriptures to the army, etc., and others throughout the country, while it has temporarily lessened actual sales, has had a proportionate influence on the attitude of the nation toward evangelical work. In all grades of society this is apparent. The king, general, high officials, professors, and simple soldiers express their strong conviction that our people are the really vital Christian leaven in the country. Our schools in Samokov and our churches in general are fuller than ever before. We are planning a more aggressive work and praying for guidance and success. The Bible-study classes of the University of Chicago are preparing for a fresh campaign this winter after last year's interruption."
At Philippopolis Dr. Marsh continued his activities up to the very end of his painful sickness. We miss his annual summary of the work in that district, always optimistic and hopeful. He too did much for the army, directly and indirectly.
Reference has already been made to our new arrangements for Bulgaria, made necessary by Dr. Marsh's death. Our new superintendent, the Rev. M. N. Popoff, was unable to assume his responsibilities until after the close of the year. Meantime the Rev. Mr. Tsakoff, of Philippopolis, has been caring for the work, though already much absorbed in his pastoral duties.
European Turkey Macedonia.-From this district also our reports are meager. During the war Scriptures were sent to Salonica with much difficulty, but in cousiderable quantities. Our missionary friends were on the alert, seized the opportunities that came, and distributed successfully. This territory has most of it now passed to Greece and Servia.
Adrianople.The western part of this province has witnessed the varying fortunes of war, the coming and going of the long trains of refugees, Turkish, Greek, and Bulgarian. The possibilities of Bible work seemed small. A part of the territory has now been annexed to Bulgaria. Adrianople, the capital city of the province, remains to Turkey. Our Greek colporteur, who has been stationed in that city for many years, was cut off from all communication with us until the Bul. garians occupied the city. Then again communication was suspended until the Turks, after recapturing the city, re-established order. Through these changing vicissitudes, the colporteur held on his way as best he could, but with insignificant results.
The Rev. Paul Dressler, of the mission to the Jews in Adrianople, had been doing some work in co-operation with us; but he withdrew to England early in the year, and did not return to Adrianople until after it had finally reverted to the Turks. We then entered into new arrangements with him, the full result of which will appear more clearly this coming year.
Rodosto, also, in the south was the scene of changing fortunes and general calamity. Our Armenian colporteur accomplished practically nothing, and for a long while was so completely isolated that we were in doubt even as to whether he were still living. From a recent letter we translate as follows: “The books you sent came. I have been at fault in not writing you more. The fact is I scarcely know what to write. To sell Scriptures seems at present impossible. There is no longer war, and the roads are open. But war's consequences are all about us, desolation and ruin. I am accomplishing nothing. I would hand you my resiguation, but I love the work, and I prefer to continue on, doing what I can even without a salary."
Constantinople The colporteurs in the capital have worked industriously without restraint from the political strain and excitement. There have been many Mohammedan purchasers, notwithstanding the bitterness of feeling provoked by the wars. Difficult as has been the distribution of Scriptures in this great metropolis, it certainly has not been because of incapacity or business sluggishness. Appearances indicate a rapidly growing population. The rush of the crowds in the congested thor
oughfares certainly suggests a prosperity that appears marvelous with all the horrors of war in the background. But the complaints and pessimism of the petty shopkeeper are such as to make one doubt the evidence of his own senses. The fact is, this wonderful city seems to be struggling through a mighty transition period, politically, educationally, religiously, commercially, and every way. On the one hand we still see the old semi-barbarism, the uninformed and unaspiring masses, the fossilized bigotry, poverty, and industrial pettiness. On the other hand, we have the ambition and vanity of a new birth into statecraft, reaching after knowledge as clearly demonstrated power; reaction from blind faith to conceited agnosticism; effort more or less genuine at social readjustment; and the expansion of the commercial consciousness from the penny to the pound type.
The atmosphere is intensely charged with worldliness and is becoming more so. Moral ideas need revitalizing. There are the good and the reverent who still respect the Scriptures, but the masses are sluggish and lukewarm in appreciation of what professes simply to be uplifting and spiritually redeeining. But the Bible-men work patiently on; and this year, as in past years, they have placed copies in many homes and with many men, from which the normal fruitage may be confidently expected. The following incident illustrates the change that is in progress in the Turkish attitude. It is told by one of the city colporteurs: “Some Armenian boys at Koum Kapou were quarreling with some Turkish boys. They were about to come to blows, when a man who was selling artificial flowers in the street, intervened and tried to disperse them. A hoja who was passing by rebuked the flower seller for his apparent sympathy with giaour children. The man replied at once to the hoja that in the prayers of Islam God is called • Rabb ul Alemin,” viz., 'the Lord of all,' and not · Rabb ul Muslimin,' viz., 'the Lord of the Moslems. He also asked him if he had read the Bible, and when the hoja asked him whether he was a Mussulman or a Christian, and whether he expected that he (the hoja) should read the Christian Scriptures, the man replied : 'Yes, I am a Mussulman; but as a hoja you ought to know what there is in the books of other religions than yours.' "
Asiatic Turkey The outlook grows brighter as we move out into the Asiatic provinces. Here the greater simplicity of character and the greater love of what is good give greater impulse to the demand for religious and serious literature of all kinds. Our Bible shops are found in many large towns in Asia Minor. Our Bibles and New Testaments are used in the schools of various Christian sects. The missionary movement still depends upon the Bible as its indispensable ally; the hospitals and the orphanages still hold to the Bible as absolutely essential to their equipment. Even the old prejudice that Bible Society publications are Protestant, and are to be treated with considerable suspicion, has largely broken down. The influences that make for Biblical righteousness are not deall, but throbbing with new life. The colporteurs