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for myself, I think it plainly marks the state and condition of the new covenant-viz. the abolishing of birth-sin-the children not begotten in the likeness of sinful flesh, but every one shall die for his own iniquity.

I will now consider some passages adduced from the Old Testament by St. Paul, by which it will be plainly perceived that we are not yet under the new covenant. There is some difficulty in the manner of his quotations, of which Acts xiii. 34 is a remarkable instance. The words are advanced to prove the eternity of Christ's resurrection-life; which he establishes by shewing that we shall live for ever. "I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David." Therefore, if these mercies be to us everlasting, He" IN whom all the promises are yea and amen," and from whom they flow to us, must have an everlasting life. He quotes the xvith Psalm, to shew that this is his resurrection-life: then points out that this prophecy in Isa. lv. 3, concerning David, as well as David's own prophecy in Psalm xvi., cannot apply to the literal David, but of necessity, by enallage, must belong to "David's Son and David's Lord." By the fact that David's body did see corruption, he shews the justness of his interpretation of the Psalm: the quotation from Isaiah needed no confirmation; its own context proving its truth: "I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people," Isa. lv. 4. We here see that this everlasting covenant is subsequent to Christ's resurrection: therefore could not be his testament, which was of course made before his death: "Father, I will," &c. John xvii. 24: "Peace I leave."

I will now, by comparing Isa. xlix. 8 with 2 Cor. vi. 2, point out that the present dispensation is prior to that of the new covenant.-Isa. xlix. commences with the Lord Jesus calling to the Gentiles to hear that God has chosen and appointed him from the womb (to which Zacharias alludes at the birth of his forerunner). He fitted him for his office; making his mouth like a sword, to speak to those that are nigh; and an arrow, to those that are afar off; ver. 2. He is here styled Israel," as head of the Israel of God, and similarly to xlii. 1,. called "his servant, his elect in whom his soul delighteth;" ver. 3. Then, alluding to Jacob serving for Rachel, the beloved but barren church, he said, I have laboured in vain "-in his personal ministry and miracles, not in his soul travail-(yet, though there



*I do not think the general view of the passage in Acts will stand-namely, that that which is holy cannot see corruption-and that the argument turns upon the expression Ta odia: for "thou shalt not suffer," implies that his flesh dwelt confidently not from its own inherent incorruptibility of holiness, but being preserved by the power of God. However, my argument does not depend upon it.

was no immediate result, he still had confidence that his reward was with the Lord). To this the Lord replies; Even though that for which he came were not accomplished, yet should he be glorious but, so far from failing in his object-viz. the salvation of the Jews-that should be "but a light thing," in comparison to, or but a small portion of, all the glory that should accrue to him, in being the salvation of " the ends of the earth" (Isa. xliii. 6). Though there be a period during which he is despised, yet "kings and princes shall arise and worship," ver. 7. Then, in ver. 8; "In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee." "Behold, now," says St. Paul," is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation."-" I have heard thee in an accepted time." This must be the intercession he is now carrying on; for, behold, now is the accepted time. This the prophet is speaking of as past; and the result of the Lord having heard his prevailing intercession is, that he "will give him as a covenant to the people.”—Then is shewn the nature of this covenant, the features of which are similar to the other passages I shall adduce. "Establishing," or raising up, "the earth," ver. 8. "Say to the prisoners, Go forth; and to them that are in darkness, Shew yourselves," appears an expression equivalent to Ps. cii. 20; "to hear the groaning of the prisoners; to loose the children of death." The Prophet continues in the highest strain of millennial glory: "They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them; for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them; even by the springs of water shall he guide them," ver. 10. This is parallel to Rev. vii. 9-17; "They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat: for the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters; and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes," vers. 16, 17.

Gal. iv. 27 is another instance of the peculiar manner in which St. Paul supports himself from the Old Testament. He brings forward Isai. liv., " Rejoice, thou barren," &c. to prove the casting off of the Jews. By evidencing their recal, he establishes their previous rejection. It is clear, by what follows in Isaiah, that "Rejoice, thou barren," belongs to the Jews, and not to the Gentiles: "Thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles " (ver. 3). Here the opposition requires that the barren woman be the Jews. "Thou shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any more:" inferring a former rejection, and asserting a future restoration. For a small moment have I forsaken thee." Neither that, nor the widowhood mentioned in the preceding verse, is applicable to the Gentiles: previous to their call they were strangers and aliens," and not in a state of widowhood. But it is during the period of the contemplated



widowhood of the Jews, that the Lord "visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people." And upon their return, when the fulness of the Gentiles is brought in, the Lord gives them the covenant of peace (Isai. liv. 10). Some copies read these two words (ver. 9), "", as one," as the days of Noah." The meaning is, that God's dispensation towards his people, at the time to which the prophecy refers, is like that to Noah and his family. Ver. 10: "For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed;" as they will at the last day, when the earth shall be dissolved (Gill in loco). This figure of the Flood is twice used in the New Testament, to denote the second advent of our Lord. The Lord Jesus, in the Spirit, shall be both ark and flood: an ark to those which are taken into Christ, bearing them high above all miseries towards heaven; a flood, carrying away insensible persons and scorners into everlasting woe. In ver. 11, the mixture of metaphor implies a change as great to the church, from fluctuation, turbulence, and affliction; to joy, peace, and stability; as the former figures did to the face of the earth. This is parallel to Rev. xxi. 9, ult., which describes the Jerusalem which is now above; the mother of all the children of promise, both Jews and Gentiles.

Rom. xi. 27, before alluded to, marks very precisely the period of the new covenant-viz. "after the fulness of the Gentiles be brought in;" at the Deliverer's coming out of Zion, when all Israel shall be saved. The Apostle, having discoursed in the viiith chapter of the righteousness of the Law being fulfilled in us (ver. 24), who, because of the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, shall partake of the resurrection of the just (ver. 11); and having mentioned the glory that shall be revealed in us, at the future dispensation of the manifestation of the sons of God (v. 18, 19); and that not only the creature, but we ourselves, are waiting for the new-covenant blessing of the redemption of the body (ver. 13), is by these considerations reminded of the Jews, to whom these blessings belong, and from whom they must emanate. "The glory," ix. 4, is commonly understood of the Shechinah; but that emblem had departed for ever: it was only a type of the glorious one, mentioned in the same passage and therefore I look for its meaning in the future glory of being chief of the nations, when all the world is under the Theocracy, touched upon in xi. 12-15.

Another peculiarity is, that to them belong "the covenants," in the plural; and this new covenant is to them future: "For this is my covenant unto them, when all Israel shall be saved" (xi. 26, &c.), as it is written Isai. lix. 20. Mr. Fry, in his excellent Commentary on the Romans, appears to think that verse in Isaiah, "And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob," the commence

ment of a separate prophecy. Although to this I cannot quite agree, yet his views are in the main so correspondent with mine, that I shall take the liberty of making an extract.

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"For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits, that blindness in part has happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.' The mystery was this: the partial blindness or hardness (for the Apostle does not admit that it is universal) was only to last till the fulness of the Gentiles was come in, and so' (or, and then')' all Israel shall be saved.' By the word fulness' is intended, I conceive, that remnant which was then begun to be gathered by the preaching of the Gospel. They were a body of the people taken to fill up, as it were, the gap or fissure made in Israel, by the cutting off of so many of the natural branches: when the number decreed shall be completed, then will the end come to the present dispensation of Christ's kingdom, which will be succeeded by a more extensive dispensation, to commence with the restoration of the Jews." Fry on Romans,

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It appears to me that the former part of Isai. lix. marks the state of the world previous to Messiah's second advent; accounting, first, for his not coming immediately. It is not slackness on his part, but their sins, that hinder his coming (ver. 1, 2). But when things should arrive at such a state as verse 15 describes, that he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey," or is accounted mad, then he comes clothed with vengeance (ver. 17), "to repay fury to his adversaries." "When the enemy shall come in like a flood, then the Spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a standard, AND THE REDEEMER SHALL COME TO ZION." The feature of the covenant is, that neither they, nor their seed, nor their seed's seed, shall lose the influences of the Spirit for ever. Then it goes on, Arise, shine, for thy light is come." Here is the Jewish people, "fair as the moon," called to" arise and shine, because her light is come, and the glory of the Lord (the Sun of Righteousness) has arisen upon her," &c. The Prophet continues, by contrasting her glory with the " gross darkness of the people." This, compared with Rom. xi., must I think imply the people to whom are committed the oracles of God; the advantage the Jews had, but lost, and which the Gentiles now have; whom the Apostle warns not to be high-minded, but fear, lest a similar fate should befal them. However, the Prophet continues enlarging on the glory of Zion. Ver. 7: "I will glorify the house of my glory." Also ver. 9. Also ver. 13: "I will make the place of my feet glorious." Ver. 14: "They shall call thee The city of the Lord, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel." Ver. 15: “I will make thee an eternal excellency, a joy of many generations."

Ver. 19 "The Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory." Ver. 20: "The days of thy mourning shall be ended."

We may infer from Heb. viii. 13, that there are but two covenants. "In that he saith a NEW, he hath made the first old: now that which decayeth and waxeth old, is ready to vanish away."

1. If there were to be a third covenant, the new covenant would decay and wax old.

2. But the new covenant is everlasting; therefore it never decayeth or waxeth old, or is ready to vanish away.

Therefore there cannot be a third covenant.

But as some may say, there are more covenants than the two, I will point out the similarity in the condition, extent, and duration of this covenant here spoken of, with the new covenant prophesied of by Jeremiah, and quoted in the Hebrews.

1. In condition.

Rom. xi. 27: "This is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins."

Heb. viii. 12: "I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and iniquities I will remember no more.'

2. In extent.

Isai. Ix. 21: "The people also shall be ALL righteous."
Jer. xxxi. 34: They shall ALL know me, from the least of


them to the greatest of them, saith the Lord."

3. In duration.

Isai. lx. 21: "They shall inherit the land for ever."
Jer. xxxi. 35-40: The city

thrown down FOR EVER."

"shall not be plucked up nor

Let us now consider what we have arrived at.—

There is yet to be a new covenant made with both Israel and Judah,

Perfect in its conditions,

Eternal in its duration,

Universal in its acceptation.

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The state in which the world will be at the time, gross darkness."

The manner of delivery, "The Redeemer cometh to Zion." Lastly, we see the conversion of the Gentiles is not prior, but subsequent to this period: "The Gentiles shall come to thy light." (Isai. lx. 3.)

I will, lastly, make a few observations on the sign of circumcision. The national sign appears to be the Sabbath, looking to the Millennium; at which period, and not till then, shall people, nationally and universally, know the Lord. But the Abrahamic individual sign of possessing the land, was circumcision; suspended during the present dispensation, to be revived

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