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Wak’d in the renovation of the just,
Resigns him up with heav'n and earth renew'd.
But let us call to synod all the blest
Through heav'n's wide bounds ; from them I will not

hide
My judgments, how with mankind I proceed,
As how with peccant angels late they saw,

70 And in their state, though firm, stood more confirm’d.

He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd ; he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. Th’angelic blast
Filld all the regions : from their blissful bowers
Of amarantine shade, fountain or spring,
By the waters of life, where'er they sat
In fellowships of joy, the sons of light
Hasted, resorting to the summons high,
And took their seats; till from his throne supreme

75

80

a

74. His trumpet heard in Oreb presented to be standing, or fallsince perhaps &c.] For the law ing down before the throne of was given on mount Oreb with God; because they are genethe noise of the trumpet, Exod. rally employed there in acts of xx. 18. and at the general judg- praise and adoration. But here ment, according to St. Paul, they are introduced in another 1 Thess. iv, 16. the Lord shall character, called to synod, like descend from heaven with a grand council, or to be as it shout, with the voice of the arch- were assessors with the Almighty, angel, and with the trump of God.

when he was to pronounce his 78. Of amarantine shade,] See decree on fallen man: and thereiii. 353. and the note there. fore the poet very properly says,

82. And took their seats ;) In they took their seats. And thus Rev. iv. 4. and xi. 16. the four our Saviour tells the Apostles, and twenty elders are described they shall sit upon twelve thrones as sitting on seats round about the as his assessors, judging the twelve throne. Pearce.

tribes of Israel. Matt. xix. 28, The angels are generally re- Greenwood.

8.5

90

Th’ Almighty thus pronounc'd his sovran will.

O sons, like one of us Man is become
To know both good and evil, since his taste
Of that defended fruit; but let him boast
His knowledge of good lost, and evil got,
Happier, had it suffic'd him to have known
Good by itself, and evil not at all.
He sorrows now, repents, and prays contrite,
My motions in him; longer than they move,
His heart I know, how variable and vain
Self-left. Lest therefore his now bolder hand
Reach also of the tree of life, and eat,
And live for ever, dream at least to live
For ever, to remove him I decree,
And send him from the garden forth to till
The ground whence he was taken, fitter soil.
Michael, this

my

behest have thou in charge,

95

84. O sons, &c.] The assem- tree of life, and eat and live for bling of all the angels of heaven, ever; Therefore the Lord God to hear the solemn decree passed sent him forth from the garden of upon Man, is represented in Eden, tổ till the ground from very lively ideas.

The Al. whence he was taken. So he drore mighty is here described as re- out the Man: and he placer at membering mercy in the midst the east of the garden of Eden of judgment, and commanding cherubims and a flaming sword, Michael to deliver his message which turned every way, to keep in the mildest terms, lest the the way of the tree of life. spirit of Man, which was already 86. of that defended fruit;] broken with the sense of his Forbidden fruit, from defendre guilt and misery, should fail (French) to forbid; so used by before him. Addison.

Chaucer, This whole speech is founded upon the following passage in Ge

Where can you say in any manner

age nesis jii. 22, 23, 24. And the Lord

That ever God defended marriage ? God said, Behold the Man is be

Hume and Richardsor. come as one of us, to know good and evil: And now lest he put 99. Michael, this

my behest forth his hand, and take also of the have thou in charge,! Our au

100

105

110

Take to thee from among the Cherubim Thy choice of flaming warriors, lest the Fiend, Or in behalf of Man, or to invade Vacant possession, some new trouble raise : Haste thee, and from the Paradise of God Without remorse drive out the sinful pair, From hallow'd groud th' unholy, and denounce To them and to their progeny from thence Perpetual banishment. Yet lest they faint At the sad sentence rigorously urg'd, For I behold them soften's and with tears Bewailing their excess, all terror hide. If patiently thy bidding they obey, Dismiss them not disconsolate; reveal To Adam what shall come in future days, As I shall thee inlighten ; intermix My covenant in the Woman's seed renew'd; So send them forth, though sorrowing, yet in peace : And on the east side of the garden place, Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs, Cherubic watch, and of a sword the flame Wide-waving, all approach far off to fright,

115

120

thor has with great judgmenting our first parents, and even singled out Michael to receive while he is ordering Michael to this charge. It would not have drive them out of Paradise, orbeen so proper for the sociable ders him at the same time to spirit Raphael to have executed hide all terror; and for the same this order : but as Michael was reason he chooses to speak of the principal angel employed in their offence in the softest mandriving the rebel angels out of ner, calling it only an excess, a heaven, so he was the most pro- going beyond the bounds of per to expel our first parents too their duty, by the same metaout of Paradise.

phor as sin is often called trans111. Bewailing their excess,] gression. God is here represented as pity

And guard all passage to the tree of life:
Lest Paradise a receptacle prove
To spirits foul, and all my trees their prey,
With whose stol’n fruit Man once more to delude. 125

He ceas’d; and th' archangelic pow'r prepar'd
For swift descent, with him the cohort bright
Of watchful Cherubim ; four faces each
Had, like a double Janus, all their shape
Spangled with eyes, more numerous than those
Of Argus, and more wakeful than to drowse,
Charm’d with Arcadian pipe, the past’ral reed
Of Hermes, or his opiate rod. Mean while
To resalute the world with sacred light

130

son.

128. —--four faces each &c.) and their hands, and their wings, Among the poetical parts of were full of eyes round about: Scripture, which Milton has so the poet expresses it by a definely wrought into this part of lightful metaphor, all their shape his narration, I must not omit spangled with eyes, and then adds that wherein Ezekiel, speaking by way of comparison, more nuof the angels who appeared to merous than those of Argus, & him in vision, adds, that every shepherd who had an hundred one had four faces, and that their eyes, and more wakeful than to whole bodies, and their backs, und drowse, as his did, charmed with their hands, and their wings, were Arcadian pipe, the pastoral reed, full of eyes round about. Addi- that is, the pastoral pipe made of

reeds, as was that of Hermes or Ezekiel says, that every one had Mercury, who was employed by four faces, x. 14. The poet adds, Jupiter to lull Argus asleep and four faces each had, like a double kill him, or his opiate rod, the Janus; Janus was a king in caduceus of Mercury, with which Italy, and is represented with he could give sleep to whomtwo faces, to denote his great soever he pleased. With this wisdom, looking upon things pipe and this rod he lulled Arpast and to come; and the men- gus asleep, and cut off his head. tion of a well known image with It is an allusion to a celebrated two faces may help to give us story in Ovid, Met i. 625, &c. the better idea of others with four. Ezekiel says, x. 12. And

Centum luminibus cinctum caput their whole body, and their backs,

Argus habebat &c.

Leucothea wak'd, and with fresh dews imbalm'd The earth, when Adam and first matron Eve

135. Leucothea wak'd] The White Goddess, as the name in Greek imports, the same with Matuta in Latin, as Cicero says, Lucothea nominata a Græcis, Matuta habetur a nostris. Tusc. i. 12. Quæ Lucothea a Græcis, a nobis Matuta dicitur. De Nat. Deor. iii. 19. And Matuta is the early morning that ushers in the Aurora rosy with the sun-beams, according to Lucretius, v. 655.

Tempore item certo roseam Matuta
per oras
Etheris Auroram defert, et lumina
pandit.

And from Matuta is derived Ma-
tutimus, early in the morning.
This is the last morning in the
poem, the morning of the fatal
day, wherein our first parents
were expelled out of Paradise.
It is impossible to say, how
much time is taken up in the
action of this poem, since a great
part of it lies beyond the sphere
of day; and for that part which
lies within the sphere of day, it
is not easy to state and define
the time exactly, since our au-
thor himself seems not to have
been very exact in this particu-
lar. Satan came to earth about
noon, when the full-blazing sun
sat high in his meridian tower,
iv. 30. The evening of that
first day is described iv. 598.

Now came still evening on &c. That night Satan tempts Eve in her dream, is discovered close at her ear, and flies out of Paradise, iv. 1015.

185

and with him fled the shades of night.

Seven days after that he was coasting round the earth, but always in the shade of night, ix. 62.

-thence full of anguish driven, The space of sev'n continued nights

he rode With darkness.

But we have no farther account of any of these days excepting the first, which begins at the beginning of book v.

Now morn her rosy steps in th' cast ern clime Advancing &c.

Eve there relates her dream to Adam; they go to work. Raphael is ordered to go, and converse with Adam half this day as friend with friend, v. 229. He comes to Paradise at midnoon, ver. 311. and 300.

-while now the mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays to

warm

Earth's inmost womb..

He and Adam converse together, which discourse is related at large in the remainder of book the evening parts them, viii. v. and book vi, vii, and viii. till

630.

But I can now no more; the parting

sun

Beyond the earth's green Cape and verdant Isles Hesperian sets, my signal to depart. This is the first of the seven days, during which Satan was compassing the earth. On the

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