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THE ARGUMENT.

RAPHAEL at the request of Adam relates how and wherefore this world was first created; that God, after the expelling of Satan and his angels out of heaven, declared his pleasure to create another world and other creatures to dwell therein; sends his Son with glory and attendance of angels to perform the work of creation in six days: the angels celebrate with hymns the performance thereof, and his reascension into heaven.

PARADISE LOST.

BOOK VII.

DESCEND from heav'n, Urania, by that name
If rightly thou art call’d, whose voice divine
Following, above th' Olympian hill I soar,
Above the flight of Pegaséan wing.
The meaniny, not the name I call: for thou
Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top
Of old Olympus dwell'st, but heav'nly born,
Before the hills appear’d, or fountain flow'd,

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for thou

the top

1. Descend from heav'n, Ura- 491. Onupriados Mouras. He nia,] Descende cælo, Hor. Od. calls it old, that is, famed of old iii. iv. 1. but here it is better and long celebrated, as he says applied, as now his subject leads old Euphrates, i. 420. and mount him from heaven to earth. The Casius old, ii. 593. word Urania in Greek signifies 5. heavenly; and he invokes the Nor of the Muses nine, nor on heavenly Muse as he had done before, i. 6. and as he had said Of old Olympus dwell'st, but in the beginning that he intended heav'nly born, to soar above the Aonian mount, Tasso in his invocation has the so now he says very truly that same sentiment, Gier. Lib. cant. he had effected what he intended, i. st. 2. and soars above the Olympian hill,

O Musa, tu, che di caduchi allori above the flight of Pegaséan wing, Non circondi la fronte in Helicona ; that is, his subject was more

Ma si nel cielo infra i beati cbori sublime than the loftiest flights

Hai di stelle immortali aurea corona, of the heathen poets. The

Thyer. mountain Olympus is celebrated 8. Before the hills appear'd, of for the seat of the Muses, who fountain flow'd, &c.] From Prov. were therefore called Olym- viii. 24, 25, 30. When there were piades, as in Homer, Iliad. ii. no depths, I was brought forth;

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Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse,
Wisdom thy sister, and with her didst play
In presence of th' almighty Father, pleas’d
With thy celestial song. Up led by thee
Into the heav'n of heav'ns I have presum'd,
An earthly guest, and drawn empyreal air,
Thy temp’ring ; with like safety guided down
Return me to my native element : :
Lest from this flying steed unrein’d, (as once

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when there were no fountains too pure and fine for him, but abounding with water: Before the the heavenly Muse temper'd and mountains were settled, before the qualified it so as to make him hills was I brought forth: Then capable of breathing in it: which was 1 by him as one brought up is a modest and beautiful

way

of with him; and I was daily his bespeaking his reader to make delight, rejoicing always before favourable allowances for any him, or playing according to the failings he may have been guilty Vulgar Latin (ludens corain eo of in treating of so sublime a omni tempore), to which Milton subject. alludes, when he says, and with 17. — (as once her didst play, &c. And so he Bellerophon, &c.] quotes it likewise in his Tetra Belleruphon was a beautiful and chordon, p. 222. vol. i. edit. 1738. valiant youth, son of Glaucus; God himself conceals not his who refusing the amorous appli

own recreations before the cations of Antea wife of Præteus “ world was built ; I was, saith king of Argos, was by her false “the eternal Wisdom, daily his suggestions, like those of Joseph's delight, playing always before mistress to her husband, sent

into Lycia with letters desiring 14. and drawn empyreal air, his destruction; where he was Thy temp'ring ;]

put on several enterprises full of Spenser, Faery Queen, b. ii. hazard, in which however he cant. ii. st. 39.

came off conqueror : but at

tempting vain-gloriously to Thus fairly she attempered her feast,

mount up to heaven on the And pleas'd them all with meet satiety.

winged horse Pegasus, he fell Thyer.

and wander'd in the Aleian plains

till he died. Hume and Richard15. Thy temp'ring ;] This is said in allusion to the difficulty His story is related at large in of respiration on high moun- the sixth book of Homer's Iliad ; tains. This empyreai air was but it is to the latter part of it

« him."

80n.

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Bellerophon, though from a lower clime,)
Dismounted, on th’ Aleian field I fall
Erroneous there to wander and forlorn.
Half yet remains unsung, but narrower bound
Within the visible diurnal sphere;
Standing on earth, not rapt above the pole,

αλεεινων.

rower

that Milton chiefly alludes, ver. had this passage at the begin200. &c.

ning of the seventh as now.

The episode has two principal Αλλ' ότε δη κακείνος απηχθιτο σασι Asortir,

parts, the war in heaven, and Ητοι και κασσιδιον το Αληιον οιος αλατο, the new creation; the one was "Ον θυμον κατιδων, στατον ανθρωπων sung, but the other remained

unsung, and he is now entering But when at last, distracted in his upon it—but narrower bound. mind,

Bound here seems to be a parForsook by heav'n, forsaking human kind,

ticiple as well as unsung. Half Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose yet remains unsung; but this to stray,

other half is not rapt so much A long, forlorn, uncomfortable way. into the invisible world as the

Pope. former, it is confined in narIt is thus translated by Cicero in

compass, and bound his third book of Tusculan Dis- within the visible sphere of putations.

day. Qui miser in campis inærens errabat

21. It is however half of the Aleis,

whole work which has been Ipse suum cor edens, hominum ve- treated, as well as half of the stigia vitans.

Episode. It is equally true with The plain truth of the story respect to the whole subject that seems to be, that in his latter the latter half of it is much more days he grew mad with his bound within the visible diurnal poetry, which Milton begs may sphere than the former portion; never be his own case: Lest and in point of actual length from this flying steed &c. He half still remained, when the says this to distinguish his from

poem was divided into ten the common Pegasus, above the books, as well as now that it is flight of whose wing he soared, distributed into twelve. It is as he speaks, ver. 4.

remarkable too that he invokes 21. Half yet remains unsung,] the Muse only in this place and I understand this with Mr. at the beginning of the Poem. Richardson, that it is the half There appears to be therefore a of the episode, not of the whole considerable probability, that work, that is here meant; for Milton meant that half of his when the poem was divided whole subject remained unsung. into but ten books, that edition E.

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More safe I sing with mortal voice, unchang’d
To hoarse or mute, though fall’n on evil days,
On evil days though fall’n, and evil tongues ;
In darkness, and with dangers compass'd round,
And solitude; yet not alone, while thou
Visit'st

my slumbers nightly, or when morn
Purples the east: still govern thou my song,
Urania, and fit audience find, though few,
But drive far off the barbarous dissonance
Of Bacchus and his revelers, the race

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woods

sonance.

25.-though fall'n on evil 32. But drive far off the bardays,] The repetition and turn barous dissonance of the words is very beautiful, Of Bacchus and his revelers,

&c.] though fall'n on evil days, On evil days though fall’n, and evil Compare Comus, 550. where the tongues ; &c.

Spirit is describing the Son of

Bacchus and his “ monstrous A lively picture this in a few

rout:" lines of the Poet's wretched condition. In darkness, though

The wonted roar was up amidst the is still understood; he was not

And filled the air with barbarous dis. become hoarse or mute though in darkness, though he was blind,

T. Warton. and with dangers compassid 33. Of Bacchus and his reround, and solitude, obnoxious velers,] It is not improbable to the government, and having that the poet intended this as an a world of enemies among the oblique satire upon the dissoluteroyal party, and therefore

ness of Charles the Second and obliged to live very much in his court; from whom he seems privacy and alone. And what to apprehend the fate of Orstrength of mind was it, that pheus, a famous poet of Thrace, could not only support him who though he is said to have under the weight of these mis- charmed woods and rocks with fortunes, but enable him to soar his divine songs, yet was torn to such heights, as no human to pieces by the Bacchanalian genius ever reached before?

women on Rhodope, a mountain 31. -and fit audience find, of Thrace, nor could the Muse though few. He had Horace in Calliope his mother defend him. mind, Sat. i. x. 73.

So fail not thou, who thee imneque te ut miretur turba, labores, plores ; nor was his wish inef. Contentus paucis lectoribus.

fectual, for the government suf

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