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against. The close of the line where it makes no pause in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence; but, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the meaning.

The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a pause, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroick verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th syllable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the line can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah :

“ Ye nymphs of Solymalı! begin the song;

"To heav'nly themes\\, sublimer strains belong." But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate a con

not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided from one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle between the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read such lines harmoniously.

The rule of proper pronunciation in such cases, is to regard only the pause which the sense forms ; and to read the line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the line sound somewhat unharmoniously; but the effect would be much worse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in the following lines of Milton,

" What in me is dark, "Illumine; what is low, raise and support." The sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly, though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,

. "I sit, with sad civility I read.” The ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore must be the only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.

There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-cæsuras, which require very slight pauses; and which the reader should manage with judgement, or he will be apt to fall into an afect. ed sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura ;

"Warms' in the sun!', refreshes' in the breeze,
"Glows' in the stars), and blossoms in the trees;
“Lives' through all lifell; extends through all extent,

"Spreads' undivided", operates' unspent." Before the conclusion of this introduction, the Compiler takes the liberty to recommend to teachers, to exercise their pupils in discovering and explaining the emphatick words, and the proper tones and pauses, of every portion assigned them to read, previously to their being called out to the performance. These preparatory lessons, in which they should be regularly examined, will improve their judgement and taste ; prevent the practice of reading without attention to the subject ; and establish a habit of readily discovering the meaning, force, and beauty, of every sentence they peruse.

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CHAPTER 1.

Select Sentences and Paragraphs

CHAPTER II.

Narrative Pieces.

Soct. 1. No rank or possessions can make the guilty mind happy . . . . . . .

2. Change of external condition often adverse to virtue . . . . . . . .

3. Haman; or the misery of pride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. Lady Jane Grey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Ortogrul; or the vanity of riches ...............

6. The hill of science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. The journey of a day; a picture of human life . . . . .. . . . .

CHAPTER IIT.

Didactick Pieces.

Soct. 1. The importance of a good oducation ..............

2. On gratitude . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. On forgiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. Motives to the practice of gentleness . . . . . . . . . · · · · ·

5. A suspicious temper the source of misery to its possessor . . .

6. Comforts of religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. Diffidence of our abilities a mark of wisdom . . . . . . . . . . .

8. On the importance of order in the distribution of our time . . . . . .

9. The dignity of virtue amidst corrupt examples . . . . . . . . . .

10. The mortifications of vice greater than those of virtue . . . . . . .

11. On contentment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12. Rank and riches afford no ground for envy . . . . . . . . . .

13. Patience under provocations our interest as well as duty . . . .

14. Moderation in our wishes recommended . . . . . .

15. Omniscience and omnipresence of the Deity, the source of consolation

to good men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER (V.

Argumentative Pieccs.

Soct. 1. Happiness is founded in rectitude of conduct ...........

2. Virtue and piety man's highest interest .

3. The injustice of an uncharitablo spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. The misfortunes of men mostly chargeable on themselves . .

5. On disinterested friendship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. On the immortality of the soul .....

CHAPTER V.

Descriptive Pieces.

Soct. 1. The seasons..

2 The cataract of Niagara, in Canada, North America .......

3. The grotto of Antiparos...

paros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. The grotto of Antiparos, continued . . . . . . . .

5. Earthquake at Catanea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. Charity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. Prosperity is redoubled to a good man . .

.

9. On the beauties of the Psalms.

saims . . . . . . . . . . . .

10. Character of Alfred, king of England . . . . . . .

• •

11. Character of Queen Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12. The slavery of vice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13. The man of integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14. Gentleness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER VI.

Pathetick Pieces.

Sect. 1. Trial and execution of the Earl of Strafford

2. An eminent instance of true fortitude of mind ...........

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bect. 3. The good man's comfort in affliction .........::

4. The close of lite . .

5. Exalted society, and the renewal of uous connexions, two sources

of future felícity :

6. The clemency and amiable character of the patriarch Joseph :::::

7. Altamont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • •

CHAPTER VIL

Dialoguce.

Sect. 1. Democritus and Heraclitus . . . . . . . .

• • 84

2. Dionysius, Pythias, and Damon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Locke and Bayle ..................... 87

CHAPTER VIII.

Publick Speeches.

Sect. 1. Cicero against Verres .

2 Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senato, imploring their protection

against Jugurtha . . . . . : : : : . ... ... •

*

3. The apostle Paul's noble defence before Festus and Agrippa . . . . ,

4. Lord Mansfiell's speech in the House of Lords, 1770, on the bill for pre-

venting the delays of justice, by claiming the privilege of parliament. 97

5. An address to young persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

CHAPTER IX.

Promiscuous Pieces.

Sect. J. Earthquake at Calabria, in the year 1638 ..... • • • • • •

2. Letter from Pliny to Germinius ....

3. Letter from Pliny to Marcellinus, on the death of an amiable young

woman. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

4. On discretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. On the government of our thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. On the evils which flow from unrestrained passions . . . . . . . .

7. On the proper state of our temper with respect to one another ....

8. Excellence of the Holy Scriptures .............::

9. Reflections occasioned by a review of the blessings pronounced by Christ

on his disciples, in his sermon on the mount

10. Schemes of life often illusory . . . . .... . . . . . . . . .

11. The pleasures of virtuous sensibility . . . . . . . . . . . .

12. On the true honour of man. . .

. . 117

13. The influence of devotion on the happiness of life..

14. The planetary and terrestrial worlds comparatively considered . . 119

15. On the power of custom, and the uses to which it inay be applied ... 121

16. The pleasures resulting from a proper use of our faculties ..

122

17. Description of candour. .

18. On the imperfection of that happiness which rests solely on worldly

pleasures ..

19. What are the real and solid enjoyments of human life ::::::::

20. Scale of beingg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21. Trust in the care of Providence recommended . . . . . . . . . . .

22. Piety and gratitude enliven prosperity...

ven prosperity . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23. Virtue, when deeply rooted, is not subject to the influence of fortune . .

24. The speech of Fabricius, a Roman ambassador, to king Pyrrhus ....

25. Character of James I. king of England .....

26. Charles V. emperor of Germany, resigns his dominions, and retires from

the world ..

27. The same subject continued

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2. The nights of virtueletopher :

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CHAPTER II.
Narrative Pieces.

Page Sect. 1. The bear and the bees . . . . .

148 2. The nightingale and the glow-worm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 3. The trials of virtue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ib. 4. The youth and the philosopher ..

351 5. Discourse between Adam and Eve, retiring to rest . . . . . . . . . 152 6. Religion and death . . . . . . .

. 154 CHAPTER JIL

Didactick Pieces.
Sect. 1. The vanity of wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • •

2. Nothing formed in vain . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • •
3. On pride .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Cruelty to brutes censured . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. A paraphrase on the latter part of the 6th chapter of Matthew
6. The death of a good man a strong incentive to virtue . . . . . . . . 159
7. Reflections on a future state, from a review of winter . . . . . . . . ib.
8. Adam's advice to Eve, to avoid temptation . . . . . . . . . . . 160

9. On procrastination i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 10. That philosophy, which stops at secondary causes, reprovod..... 162 11. Indignant sentiments on national prejudices and hatred; and on slavery. 163

CHAPTER IV.

Descriptive Pieces. Sect. 1. The morning in summer..

i , . richin

. . . . . . . 164

. 2. Rural sounds, as well as rural sights, delightful ... 3. The rose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Care of birds for their young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. 5. Liberty and slavery contrasted.

166 6. Charity. A paraphrase on the 13th chapter to the First Corinthians .. 7. Picture of a good man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

168 8 The pleasures of retirement .....:::

Wiairented imagination

169 9. The pleasure and benefit of an improved and well-directed imagination 170

CHAPTER V.

Pathetick Pieces.
Soct. 1. Tho hermit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. The beggar's petition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Unhappy close of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 .4. Elegy to pity . . . . . : : :: 5. Verses supposed to be written by Alexander Selkirk, during his solitary

abole in the Island of Juan Fernandez
6. Gratitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. A man perishing in the snow; from whence reflections are raised on

the miseries of lite . . . . . · · · · · · · · · · · ·
8. A morning hymn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER VI.

Promiscuous Pieces.
Sect. 1. Ode to content . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • •

2. The shepherd and the philosopher ............... 180
3. The road to happiness open to all men . .

182 4. The goodness of Providence . . . . . . .

183 5. The Creator's works attest his greatness . . 6. Address to the Deity .

184 7. The pursuit of happiness often less often ili directed :........

183 8. The fire-side.

186 . . 9. Providence vindicated in the present state of man.......... 187 10. Selfishness reproved . .

188 11. Human frailty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

189 12. Ode to Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .

190 13. Ode to Adversity . . .

. .

.

ib. 14. The Creation required to praise its Author . . . . . . . . . .

191 15. The universal prayer . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • •

193 16. Conscience. . . . . . . . .

194

. . . . . . . . . . 17. On an infant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • •

ib. 18. The cuckoo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

193 9. Day. A pastoral in three parts. 20. The order of Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197 21. Confidence in Divine Protection .....

199 Hymn, on a review of the seasons 2. On solitude .

.

Sect. 1. The beggar's Pof life

Dahappy eos petition :

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PART 1.
PIECES IN PROSE.

CHAPTER I.
SELECT SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS.

SECTION I. 1. DILIGENCE, industry, and proper improvement of time, are material duties of the young.

2. The acquisition of knowledge is one of the most honourable occupations of youth.

3. Whatever useful or engaging endowments we possess, vir. tue is requisite, in order to their shining with proper lustre.

4. Virtuous youth gradually brings forward accomplished and flourishing manhood. 5. Sincerity and truth form the basis of every virtue. 6. Disappointments and distress are often blessings in disguise. 7. Change and alteration form the very essence of the world.

8. True happiness is of a retired nature, and an enemy to pomp and noisc.

9. In order to acquire a capacity for happiness, it must be our first study to rectify inward disorders.

10. Whatever purifies, fortifies also the heart.

11. From our eagerness to grasp, we strangle and destroy plea. sure.

12. A temperate spirit, and moderate expectations, are excellent safeguards of the mind, in this uncertain and changing state.

13. There is nothing, except simplicity of intention, and purity of principle, that can stand the test of near approach and strict examination.

14. The value of any possession is to be chiefly estimated, by the relief which it can bring us in the time of our greatest need.

15. No person who has once yielded up the government of his mind, and given loose rein to his desires and passions, can tell how far they may carry him.

16. Tranquillity of mind is always most likely to be attained, when the business of the world is tempered with thoughtful and serious retreat.

17. He who would act like a wise man, and build his house on the rock, and not on the sand, should contemplate human life, not only in the sunshine, but in the shade.

NOTE. In the first chapter, the compiler has exhibited sentences in a great variety of construction, and in all the diversity of punctuation. If well practised upon, he presumes they will fully prepare the young reader for the various pauses, inflections, and modulations of voice, which the succeeding pieces require. The Author's “ English Exercises," under the head of Punctuation, will afford the learner additional scope for improving himself in reading sentences and paragraphs variously constructed.

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