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As emphasis often falls on words in different puts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position : “If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires." “ The Mexican figures, or picture writing, represent things, not words : they exhibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding.".
Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphatical : as, “ Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !" or, as that pathetick expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, “ Why will ye die!"
Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words sepirately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are arranged in sentences; the long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the word with
Emphasis also, in purticular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples. “ He shall increase, but I shall decrease.” “There is a difference between giving and forgiving.” “I this species of composition, plausibility is much more essential than probability. In these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syllables, to which it does not commonly belong.
In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the great rule to be given, is, that the reader study to attain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he is to pronounce. For to lay the emphasis with exact pr priety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is far from being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just taste; and must arise from feeling delicately ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others.
There is one erreur, agninst which it is particularly proper to caution the learner; nanely, that of multiplying emphatical words too much, and using the emphasis indiscriminately. It is only by a prudent reserve and distinction in the use of them, that we can give them any weight. If they recur too often; if a reader attempts to render every thing he expresses of high impor. tance, by a multitude of strong emphases, we soon learn to pay little regard
to them. To crowd every sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding * all the piges of a book with Italick characters; which, as to the effect, is just the same as to-use no such distinctions at all.
Tones. TONEs are different both from emphasis and panses; consisting in the notes or variations of sound which we employ, in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis affects pirticular words and phrases, with a degree of tone or inflexion of voice; but tones. peculiarly so called, affect sentences, paragraphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.
To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only observe, that the mind in communicating its ideas. is in a constant state of activity, emotion. or agitation, from the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being, not merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings which they excite in him who utters them, there must be other signs than words, to manifest those feelings ; as words uttered in a monotonous minner can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings was of much more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the A thor of our being did not, as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the language of emotion to man ; but impressed it ħimself upon our nature, in the same manner as he has done with regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superiour rank that we hold, are in a high degree more comprehensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an ex
ortion of the fancy, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculiar tona or note of the voice, by which it is to be expressed ; and which is suited er actly to the degree of internal feeling. It is chierly in the proper use of these tones, that the live, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist.
The limits of this introduction do not admit of examples, to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the diferent pussions and emotions. We shall, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will in some degree, elucidate what has Leen said on this subject. “The beauty of Israel is slain upon the high places; how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath; publish it not in the streets of Askelon ; lest ile daughters of the Philistines rejoice; lest the daugliters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty was vilely cast a way; the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil." The first of these divisions expresses sorrow and lamentation : therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited coin. mand, and should be pronounced much h igher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetick address to the mountains where his friends had been slain must be expressed in a note quite ditierent from the two former ; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.
The correct and natural language of the emotions is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest discourse. And the reason that they have not the same use of them, in reading aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous method in which the art of reading is taught ; whereby all the various, natural, expressive tones of speech, are suppressed ; and a few artificial, unmeaning reading notes, are substituted for them.
But when we recommend to readers, an attention to the tone and lan guage of emotions, we must be understood to do it with proper limitation. Moderation is necessary in this point, as it is in other things. For when reading becomes strictly imitative, it assumes a thertrical manner, and must be highly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers; because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensable on such occasions. The speal-er who delivers his own emotions must be supposed to be more vivid and animated, than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.
We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicate the passions and emotions. “In reading, let all your tones of cxpression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly characterized. Let those tones which signify any disagreeible pission of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions; and, on all occasions, preserve yourselves from being so far affected with the subject, as to be able to proceed through it, with that easy and masterly man ner, which has its good effects in this, as well as in every other art."
Pauses. PAUSES or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessation of the voice, during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measurable spice of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer. "To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporary rests, relieve the organs of speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action : to the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continuity of sound; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.
There are two kinds of pauses : first, emphatical pauses; and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical piusê is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Soinetimes, before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this nature. Such pauses have the same etlect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequently. For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointnient and disgust.
But the most frequent and the principal use of piuses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without the least separation. Many a sentence is miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one, while he is reading, should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptions.
Pauses in reading must generally be formed upon the manner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired froin reading books according tothe common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing ; for these are far from marking all the pauses, which ought to be made in reading. A mechanical attention to these resting places, has perhaps been oue cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of use : “ Though in reading, great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in common speech.” • To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the right place, but also accompınied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these piuses is intimated ; much more than by the length of them, which can seldom be exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required ; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate ourselves by attending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in real and earnest discourse with others. The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing piuses : “Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune." The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice, that gives the he tion of something further to complete the sense : the inflection attending the third pause signifies that the sense is completed. • The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending piuse, in ito simple state : the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice : “If content cannot remove the disquietudes of mankind, it will at least alleviate them." : The suspending pruse is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice; as will be seen in this example: "Moderate exercise', and habitual temperance', strengthen the constitution." 1. The rising inflection is denoted by the acute; the falling, by the grave acceph. .
As the suspending 'pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing pluse : it admits of both. The falling intlection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently connected with the rising inflection. Interrogative sentences, for instance, are often terminated in this manner : as, “ Am I ungrateful' ?” “Is he in earnest'?”
But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, it is commonly terminated by the falling inflection : as, “ What has he gained by his folly!?” « Who will assist him'?” “ Where is the messenger'?" " When did he arrive'?"
When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling intlection : as, « Does his conduct support discipline', or destroy it'?”
The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature. perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.
The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their and importance.
“Manufactures', tradel, and agriculture', certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species.”
“ He who resigns the world has no temptation to envy', hatred', malice', anger'; but is in constant possession of a serene mind : he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', remorse', and confusion!." .
" To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted', are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.”
“ Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in the body habits of lust' and sensuality'; malice' and revenge'; an aversion to every thing that is good, just', and laudable', are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery."
“I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life'; nor angels', nor principali. ties', nor powers'; nor things present', nor things to come'; nor height', nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate us from the love of God.”
The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investigation of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.
Manner of reading Verse. WHEN we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse, which dictates to the ear pruses or rests of its own : and to adjust and compound these properly with the pruses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, nor offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter, that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry. There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse : one is, the pause at the end of the line; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end of the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme renders this always sensible; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also to read it so as to make every line sensibie to the ear : for, what is the use of
hat end has the poet composed in verse, if, in reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose ? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and tone must be carefully guarded
against. The close of the line where it makes no pause in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence; but, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the meaning.
The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a pause, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroick verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th syllable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the line can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah :
“Ye nymphs of Solymall! begin the song;
"To heav'nly themesll, sublimer strains belong." But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate a con
S not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided from one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle between the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read such lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such cases, is to regard only the pause which the sense forms; and to read the line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the line sound somewhat unharmoniously; but the effect would be much worse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in the following lines of Milton,
What in me is dark, "Illumine; what is low, raise and support.” The sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly, though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,
," I sit, with sad civility I read.” The ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make a
to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore must be the only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.
There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called démi-cæsuras, which require very slight pauses; and which the reader should manage with judgement, or he will be apt to fall into an effect. ed sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura ;
" Warmst in the sun, refreshes' in the breeze,
"Spreads' undivided", operates' unspent." Before the conclusion of this introduction, the Compiler takes the liberty to recommend to teachers, to exercise their pupils in discovering and explaining the emphatick words, and the proper tones and pauses, of every portion assigned them to read, previously to their being called out to the performance. These preparatory lessons, in which they should be regularly examined, will improve their judgement and taste; prevent the practice of reading without attention to the subject; and establish a habit of readily discovering the meaning, force, and beauty, of every sentence they peruse.