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Modern Science: that is, Logic, Mental and Moral Philosophy 560

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Candidates are at liberty to name, before

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branches of the above in which they wish to be examined. will be required for permission to attend this examination.

1870, those

A fee of £5

5. The merit of those examined will be estimated by marks according to the above scheme.

6. No Candidate will be allowed any marks in any subject unless he possesses a competent knowledge of the subject.

7. "The examinatfon will be conducted by printed questions, and written answers, and viva voce examination, as may be deemed necessary.'

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8. The marks obtained by each Candidate will be added up, and the (Twenty) Candidates who have the greatest aggregate number will be entitled to appointments.

9. He who is first on the list will get his choice of the situations vacant and the others in like manner, according to their position on the list.

10. Every selected Candidate will enter on six months' probation; and if satisfactory proofs of his fitness be given by the chief of the department, his certificate will be issued by the Civil Service Commissioners.

Admission Fee, 10s.

The Test Examination will consist of :—1. Handwriting; 2. Orthography 3. Arithmetic.

Age 16-20.*


1. Handwriting

2. Orthography

3. Arithmetic

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400 8. English History



10. Indexing



Total, 2,600

4. Copying MS. to test accuracy 200 9. Book-keeping

5. Digesting returns into sum


It is now impossible for a person to go in for one particular office. He must go in for the group of offices in which the vacancies actually exist at the time, or become vacant soon after, and take the office falling to his place on the successful list, as above-mentioned.

* Persons in the Army or Navy are admitted to compete at a more advanced age.

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Writers, for copying and other mechanical work, will, from time to time, be examined by the Civil Service Commissioners, and recommended to the various offices as vacancies arise.

Candidates for Writerships will be examined on the following subjects—

1. Handwriting 2. Orthography

3. Arithmetic

4. Copying Manuscript

5. Writing a simple Letter
6. Totting

Fee for permission to attend one of these examinations, 5s.

Age-The limit of age for men writers is 18 to 30, except in case of army and Constabulary pensioners, who will be eligible up to 45; the age for boy writers is from 13 to 16.

Candidates presenting themselves from the Army or Navy are allowed an exception in every instance—they will be considered the age they were when entering the Service.

Payment The payment will be either by the piece or by the hour. Candidates are now for the most part paid at the rate of 10d. an hour. In some offices many are employed at extra hours, for which they are paid at the usual rate-and the minimum will be 5s. a day for men, and 12s. a week for boys.

In the Excise Guide Candidates will find hints on the best method of preparing the subjects in the programme for this department; and in the English Composition and Essay-writing" they can see specimens of essays actually written by successful Candidates.

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By referring to the tabularized list of Public Offices Candidates may form a tolerably correct idea as to the comparative value of the various depart


Civil Service Guide.


By an order in Council of the 21st May, 1855, it was provided that all such young men as might be proposed to be appointed to any junior department of the Civil Service should "before being admitted to probation," be examined by the Civil Service Commissioners, or under their directions, and should receive from them a certificate of qualification for such situation; and it was declared to be their duty "in respect of every such candidate, before granting any such certificate as 66 aforesaid :


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66 Ist. To ascertain that the candidate is within the limits of age prescribed in the department to which he desires to be "admitted; 2nd. To ascertain that the candidate is free from any physical defect or disease which would be likely to interfere "with the proper discharge of his duties; 3rd. To ascertain that "the character of the candidate is such as to qualify him for "public employment; and 4th. To ascertain that the candidate possesses the requisite knowledge and ability for the proper discharge of his official duties."



The total number of candidates whose names have appeared on the lists of the Civil Service Commissioners from the date of the above order up to June 30th, 1868, was 59,658, of whom 3,514 were competitors for the Indian Civil Service. In this statement a candidate whose name has appeared twice (or more), is counted as two (or more) candidates.


The usual mode of obtaining nominations—that is, in competitive examinations the privilege of competing, in tests the privilege of going in for such tests, and in qualifying examinations a situation on satisfying the examiners-is, as a general rule, through members of Parliament, habitual supporters of the party in power, who obtain nominations for their constituents and personal friends as vacancies arise. Indeed, it is

almost impossible for any person who has no immediate political influence to obtain a nomination to any department under her Majesty. It is pleasant to have to record the increasing number of open competitions, at which any native-born subject can present himself on merely forwarding his name and a specimen of his handwriting to the Secretary of the Civil Service Commissioners, from whom he will receive full information on this head. The application of an influential country gentleman to an M.P. on behalf of whom he may have canvassed is seldom neglected. A candidate who fails to pass his test, or fails at a competition, must seek a new nomination; but candidates who have once passed a test are not again called for this preliminary, except they go in for a different office, in which case they are required to pass on the subjects in which they may not have been previously examined. On a change of ministry, of course, all lists of applicants, all promises of nominations, and all tests for deferred competitions, are worthless.


There are five kinds of Examinations conducted by the Civil Service Commissioners. I. Pass or Qualifying. II. Tests. III. Competitions. IV. Open Competitions. V. Examinations of Successful Candidates for "Honorary Additions to their certificates in subjects selected by themselves. We shall speak of each kind of examination in detail.

Pass or Qualifying Examinations.

These examinations are usually held for the less important posts in the Civil Service, such as messengers, letter-carriers, indexers, transcribers, and the many valuable appointments in the Law Courts, the patronage being vested in the Judges, each nominating to the Court in which he presides. One candidate is nominated for each vacancy; and, should he satisfy the examiners that he has attained a fair proficiency in each subject of the prescribed course, he obtains the appointment. In general, spelling is the most difficult subject in pass examinations. The number of such examinations is diminishing.

Test Examinations.

These were introduced a few years ago into every department to which the Treasury nominates. Their object is to allow those only to compete who have satisfied the examiners in a Preliminary Test on the most important subjects prescribed for the office which they seek. A very large number is rejected at the

Test. At examinations held periodically for the "Open Competitions," sometimes seventy or eighty per cent. of all who present themselves are thus rejected.

Mode of Conducting Examinations.

The Civil Service Commissioners hold their Open Competitive Examinations simultaneously in London, Dublin, and Edinburgh, at stated periods, as vacancies arise in the Public Service; and, as a general rule, candidates may select the place most convenient for themselves. In some instances, however, the candidates have no option. Some "Open Competitions" are held in London only; and, as large numbers usually attend on such occasions, these are not held on the same days as the usual fortnightly examination. In a few of the Londor Offices, and for some appointments under the Foreign Office, a gentlemanly appearance is considered necessary, and the candidate must present himself in London a few days before his examination. Again, candidates for the Royal Irish Constabularly who may chance to reside in Great Britain must be examined in Dublin, as they are compelled to undergo a medical examination by the doctor of that force on the day previous to the literary examination. The papers of those who are examined in Dublin or Edinburgh are forwarded to London, the local authorities merely superintending the order of examination, and seeing that the candidates take no unfair advantages. In Test Examinations the result is generally sent to the candidate about a week afterwards, direct from the Commissioners, by whom it is published in the London Gazette, in case of "Open Competitions." The reply states that he will receive further notice; and a call to compete will, in due course, reach him. The result of Competitive Examinations is longer delayed; and when a large number has been in for examination at the same time, frequently three or four weeks elapse before the decision of the Examiners is known. The candidates merely receive the gross number of marks; but if they apply personally to the head of the department for which they have competed, they frequently receive their marks on each subject.

Assistant Examiners now permanently employed.

Edward Headlam, Esq., M.A., late Fellow St. John's College, Cambridge.

Edward Poste, Esq., M.A., Fellow Oriel College, Oxford.

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