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by timidity, while the unruly ones availed themselves of this opportunity of carrying on their sport with the greater boldness. The person whom Gertrude had in view was the daughter of a master spinner in Bonnal, who, in distributing the work which her father gave out to the villagers, and receiving the yarn back, had become well acquainted with most of the families, and was personally well known to all the children. There was another reason why the interference of “ Cotton Mary” was highly desirable. It was currently reported from house to house, that the new schoolmaster had declared, on the first morning, there was more use in learning “the Merry Jester,” than in learning the Bible, and the "pious” folks “left each other to judge” what education their children could receive from such a “blasphemer.” This rumour was taken up by Cotton Mary, on her first entrance into the school-room, and by talking familiarly with the children, she impressed upon their minds the contrast between what Gluelphi had actually said, and what he was reported to have said, so forcibly, that, except with a very few who were determined he should be a blasphemer, the effect of his unguarded speech soon subsided.
“This point being settled, she seated herself behind a desk, and said : “What should you say, children, if I were to stop a few days, and help the lieutenant to keep school ?'
“All the children, knowing her, exclaimed: ‘Oh, that would be very nice indeed!'
“ Mary.—But how is it? will you promise to be obedient?'
“O yes, 0 yes !' exclaimed the children, and some added : ‘O, we know you, and you need only make us a sign, we shall understand at once what
“ Mury. But don't you understand the master as well, if he makes you a sign.'
“The children were silent, but one answered: “We dare not speak as freely with him as with you.'
Mary.—But with Gertrude you may, mayn't you ?' “ Children.—Not quite.'
“ Mary.-'Well, I'll teach you, before the day is over, to understand them, and to talk with them as freely as you do with me.'
“And, saying so, she turned towards the lieutenant, and said : • Now, sir,
A QUICKENING METHOD.
if you please, you may ask them, one after the other, whatever you like. I shall see whether they cannot answer you as freely and cheerfully as if I were asking them.
“The lieutenant took the hint, and began to ask, now one child, and then another, all manner of questions, just as they happened to come into his mind, and if any child was backward in answering, Mary went and took him laughing by the hand, or by the hair, or by the ears, and said: “Come, come, be quick, say what you think about it, never mind! only be free and cheerful !' It lasted not a quarter of an hour, before several of the children felt quite easy, and began to give lively answers; and they thought it very funny, that Mary should thus take them by their ears, or by their hair, and oblige them to look up, and to speak out. Some of them soon became merry, their answers grew shrewd and witty, to the great delight of Mary, and of the lieutenant, who made them repeat some of the quaintest answers aloud, so that all should hear them. This set the whole school laughing; all reluctance soon disappeared, and those who had been most timid were now most ready to answer. Gluelphi was very much struck to see that those, who from insolence had been most forward to speak, became more considerate and retired, in proportion as the better children became more free and easy."
Gluelphi was discerning enough to see, how much of her influence over the children Mary owed to the homeliness of her manner and address; and he endeavoured to profit by the example, by adopting as much as possible a turn of action and expression which was more familiar to them. He succeeded beyond his expectation; and having once established a fellow-feeling between himself and his pupils, he found it much easier to preserve that evenness of temper, which he felt to be so essential in his position.
“ How much better did his second afternoon succeed than his first! What would have roused his indignation a few hours before, now excited his pity, and compassion took the place of anger. A boy who had mocked him yesterday, and who still looked at him with an evil eye, he would now take kindly by the hand, and say to him : . It is a pity you should behave yourself in this way, my boy, it is to your own hurt.' He now began to see the children more and more individually. The impression of a corrupt mass, which had so bewildered him at first, seemed to have quite vanished. He looked upon each child separately, and then felt each of them nearer to his heart:
: nay, he observed something good or lovely even in those whom he had considered, the day before, as thoroughly perverse. ....
“His compassion and his love brought the eminent qualities which he possessed for the office of a schoolmaster into full play, and made him a very
different man from what he had been at first. He now saw, that it was on these tender feelings that all the influence of Gertrude in her domestic circle rested, and when he represented to his mind the image of maternal kindness and faithfulness which he had from the beginning chosen for his model, he remembered at once the beautiful words of the Psalmist: 'Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear him.' And he said to himself, “ as the Lord pitieth them that fear him, so ought I to pity the children of this village, if I truly love them, and mean to be their schoolmaster.'
“Gertrude and Gluelphi did, from morning to night, all in their power to preserve the confidence and affection of the children. They were constantly assisting them with kindness and forbearance. They knew, that confidence can only be obtained by an union of power and love, and by deeds which claim gratitude in every human bosom; and, accordingly, they endeavoured daily more to attach the hearts of the children by conferring upon them numberless obligations, in a spirit of active charity. They knew, likewise, that confidence and affection for his human benefactors is the steppingstone for the child to those more elevated feelings of faith and love, with which he ought to embrace the Supreme Being, and they made it a leading object of their solicitude to guide the children's minds to perceive the manifold evidences of divine goodness and mercy towards them, exhibited in the occurrences of daily life, and in the experience of their own hearts. Gluelphi was deeply impressed with the truth, that education is not imparted by words, but by facts. For kindling the fame of love and devotion in their souls, he trusted not to the hearing and learning by heart of passages forth the beauties of love and its blessings ; but he endeavoured to manifest to them a spirit of genuine charity, and to encourage them to the practice of it both by example and precept. He led them to live in love. He presented to their minds the distresses and sufferings of others, not of men who had lived thousands of years before them, and at thousands of miles distance, but of those who were near them, whose tears they saw flowing, in whose emaciated countenances they could themselves read the inscription of hunger, whose nakedness and helplessness made an immediate appeal to their senses. By the sight of misery he' endeavoured to excite commiseration in the hearts of the children, and to lead them to reflect on the causes of distress and suffering, and on the means of alleviating them. He rendered them attentive to the afflictions of their fellow-creatures, and especially of those who were connected with them by any nearer ties, for he knew that the sympathies of life are most acutely felt within the circle of the family. If there was any one ill in the house of any of the children, were it father or mother, or brother or sister, or even the meanest servant, he never failed to ask the child, the moment he entered the school-room, how the invalid did, and the child had to give him a detailed and accurate account. Gluelphi did not take half-answers on these occasions, but was so particular in his inquiries, that if the child had not asked the sick person at home, he would
INSTRUCTION BROUGHT HOME.
at once betray his ignorance, and be overwhelmed with such confusion, that he would certainly never leave home again without having informed himself on the subject. The children were asked likewise, whether they had spoken themselves to the invalid, and whether they had contributed to alleviate his sufferings, if it were only by avoiding every noise and bustle in the house. Of the older children, Gluelphi inquired whether they sat up with their sick, and how long they could bear it, and he testified to them his approbation when he found that they did so willingly. Nor did he ever omit the question, 'Are you praying every morning and every evening for your invalid, that God may restore him to health ? If he knew that a sick person was in narrow circumstances, and could not easily procure medicines and adequate diet, he asked a great many questions on these points, and if he found that there was a want of any thing conducive to health and comfort, he went to the parsonage house, or to the master spinner, or he sent word to the manorhouse, and so procured what was necessary. He then generally asked the children of the more wealthy among the villagers, to carry it to the house of the sick, which often induced their parents to add some gift of their own to what was sent by Gluelphi. This gave the children so much pleasure, that it became soon a custom in the village, if any of the poor were sick, for the children of the more opulent inhabitants to ask their parents to send something or other for their relief. With the same kindness did Gluelphi provide for medical assistance. When, from poverty or ignorance, the people neglected to apply to the physician, he went himself to report their case, or, if necessary, to invite him to the sick-bed.
“ It was in this spirit that he taught faith and love practically; and the children showed that they understood his instruction, more frequently by tears of emotion, or by a significant silence, than by clever answers to catechetical questions on the respective doctrines.”
Christopher and Eliza-Fireside Wisdom-Domestic
It has already been stated that Pestalozzi, finding himself disappointed in the effect which he had hoped Leonard and Gertrude would produce, followed up his interesting novel by a sort of practical comment, intended to direct the attention of his readers from the story to its morale. It consists of thirty dialogues, in which Christopher, an intelligent farmer, canvasses with his family, chapter by chapter, the history of Bonnal. The chief interlocutors are, besides himself, his wife Eliza, Josiah, his head servant, and Fre- ! deric, his eldest son. Some of his neighbours too occasionally drop in, and take part in the discussion, which is replete with sound argument, conveyed in the homely style of the Swiss peasantry. Now and then, however, the author seems to forget the disguise which he has assumed ; and fragments of abstract reasoning in the language of the educated classes interrupt the strain of native wit and lively illustration which runs through the volume. This may in some measure account for the fact, that this work never reached that part of the public for whom it was intended, while its general tone and manner was not likely to gain great popularity in the world of literature. As a whole it would be unintelligible to English readers, even if it admitted of translation ; nevertheless they may form a tolerably correct notion of the mode in which the subject is handled, from the following specimen :
“ • That is my chapter, father!' said Eliza, when Christopher bad read