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This course, when completed, ought to be followed by a second, having for its object to illustrate the different tenses and moods of the verb, and the combination of simple into compound sentences. A few examples, by way of illustration, will suffice. Suppose the lesson to turn upon the conjunction before, the teacher would give the following model-sentence:
I mended my pen, before I wrote my lesson. After this pattern the pupils would have to form a number of analogous sentences, such as these :
I washed my hands, before I ate my dinner.
I scraped my shoes, before I entered the house. and so on.
The next exercise would be, to propose the transposition of all these single facts, into general rules of conduct in this
I mend my pen, before I write my lesson.
The same sentences may be changed again, in another manner, by inverting their order and putting after, instead of before; thus :
Tawrote my lesson, after I had mended my pen.
clothes. I entered the house, after I had scraped my shoes. or more emphatically:
I did not write my lesson, until I had mended my pen.
I did not enter the house, until I had scraped my shoes. or, again in the way of general rule:
I do not write my lesson, until I have mended my pen.
clothes. I do not enter the house, until I have scraped my shoes. Another sort of exercise might then be performed, by writing the different variations of any one of the above sentences alongside each other, and questioning the pupils upon them. For instance, let the following sentences be written down:
1. I mended my pen, before I wrote my lesson. 2. I mend my pen, before I write my lesson. 3. I wrote my lesson, after I had mended my pen. 4. I did not write my lesson, until I had mended my pen. 5. I do not write my lesson, until I have mended my pen. The teacher might then ask:
What difference is there between the first and the second sentence ?
In which parts of the sentence does this difference appear?
What difference is there between the meaning of mended, and the meaning of mend?
What difference is there between the meaning of wrote, and the meaning of write?
What difference is there between the meaning of the first and that of the second sentence?
Give me some words expressive of time, which might be inserted in the first sentence ?
Give me some words expressive of time, which might be inserted in the second sentence?
Suppose, to the former of these questions, the pupils had replied to-day, yesterday, to the latter always, often; the teacher would have the following questions to put:
How would the first sentence read by inserting to-day?
To which part of the sentence does the word to-day here belong?
And to which word in that part more particularly?
What difference is there between the meaning of the second sentence as it stood before, and as it now stands with to-day in it?
Is that an addition or an alteration?
What other word did you say that you could insert in the first sentence, besides to-day?
How would it read then, by inserting yesterday?
To what part of the sentence, and to what word of that part does yesterday belong ?
Does it make any alteration in the meaning of the sentence, or only an addition to it?
Could you insert the word yesterday in the second sentence? Why not?
What word did you say you could insert in the second sentence?