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INDEX TO VOLUME XIX.

Page A LETTER of a Valetudinarian ...

62 An Essay on the Ground and Reason of Punishment. An Essay on the

Ground and Reason of Punishment ; with special reference to the Pen-
alty of Death. By Taylor Lewis, Esq. And a Defence of Capital
Punishment. By Rev. George Cheever, D. D. With an Appendix,
containing a Review of Burleigh on the Death Penalty...

90 American Actors in England ..

186 A Song of the Stars. By Miss Anna Blackwell..

224 A Dream of the World. By R. S. S. Andros.....

303 A Day in the Dead Letter Office. By Francis Copcutt..

446 Brazil. Sketches of Residence and Travels in Brazil, &c. &c. By Rev. D. P. Kidder, A. M. (Concluded.)..

33 Correspondence of Mr. Ralph Izard. By Lt. Col. Henry Whiting, U. S. A.; author of “Ontwa," “ Washington's Orders,” &c.

40 Comparative View of the Relative Advantages of constructing Steam-Ships

of Wood or of Iron in the United States, for Ocean Navigation. By
Junius Smith.....

260 Financial and Commercial Review..

..71, 148, 230, 321, 401, 483 Gluck in Paris. Translated from the German. By Mrs. Von Hassel... 106 Gossip of the Month....

.332, 411, 491 Howard's Special Term Reports. New-York Supreme Court Special

Term Reports. By N. Howard, Jr., Counsellor at Law, and Deputy
Clerk af the Supreme Court...

19 Haydn's Apprenticeship. Translated from the German..

..193, 298 Hochelaga. Hochelaga ; or, England in the New World. Edited by

Eliot Warburton, Esq. ; author of the “ Crescent and the Cross". 255 Human Clothing, Dyeing, and Calico-Printing. Practical Treatise on Dye

ing and Calico-Printing, &c. By an Experienced Dyer; assisted by
several scientific gentlemen...

305 Imaginary Commonwealths. By J. Sullivan Cox...

175 Legislative Embodyment of Public Opinion. Texas--Oregon—The Land

Bill—The Tariff—The Warehousing Bill-The Independent Trea-
sury..

83 Literary Larcenies.

.203, 289 Modern Arms and Armies...

15 Margipalia. By Edgar A. Poe... Miss Fuller's Papers on Literature and Art. Papers on Literature and

Art. By S. Margaret Fuller, Author of " A Summer on the Lakes,”
“ Woman in the Nineteenth Century,” &c..

198 Minstrelsy; Ancient and Modern. Minstrelsy ; Ancient and Modern. By William Motherwell...

264 Morni and Ethnea--A Tale of St. Columba..

.284, 394 Modern English Poets...

316 Mutations of Time. By Mrs J. W. Mercur.

361 Money. 1st. A Manual of Gold and Silver Coins of all pations struck with

in the past century. By Jacob R. Eckfeldt and William E. Dubois,
Assayers of the Mint of the United States. 2d. Annual Report of the
Director of the Mint at Philadelphia, showing the operations of the
Mint and Branches for 1845..

369 Notices of New Books...

..76, 151, 235, 327, 408, 489 No Remedy and Remedy. By D. P. Barhydt.

103 Origin of Idolatrous Worship....

22

30

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Page Practical Annexation of England...

3 Prison Discipline. Reports of Prison Association of New-York... 129 Papers of an Old Dartmoor Prisoner. Edited by Nathaniel Hawthorne.141, 209 Political Statistics. Oregon Treaty--Tariff Bill, and Vote thereon in the

House-Land and Treasury Note Bill, and Vote-Warehousing Bill,
and Vote-Land Graduation Bill, and Vote.

154 State Elections...

414 Congressional Elections..

495 Political Portraits with Pen and Pencil. Silas Wright, of New-York.... 349 Do. Zadock Pratt, late Member of Congress from the State of NewYork....

472 Reasons Why the Aspect of Society in England and the United States

must be Radically and Permanently Different. By Junius Smith.... 25 Do. No. II..

217 Sonnets. By the Author of the “ Yemassee," &c..47, 140, 202, 302, 391, 471 Some Translations from Uhland. By William Allen Butler...

55 Slaves and Slavery. Ist. Message of the President, transmitting to Con

gress Despatches from the American Minister at Brazil. 2d. Report of the Secretary of State, with Correspondence of S. W. Slacum, late U. S. Consul at Rio Janeiro. 3d. Parliamentary Debate on Sugar Duties...

243 Travels in North America. Travels in North America. By Charles Lyell, Esq., F. R. S....

113 The Writings of Charles Lamb: An Essay. By J. W. Shelton.. 123 The Tariff-Its History and Influence...

163 The Old Arm-Chair that Rocks so Easy.

192 The Indian Lover..

272 The Elements of Morality ; including Polity. The Elements of Morality ;

Including Polity. By William Whewell, D. D., Author of the “ History and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences," &c..

.273, 385 The Broken Heart-A Tale of Hispaniola. By S. Anna Lewis, author of “ Records of the Heart,".

312 The New York Constitutional Convention,.

339 The Goddess of the Beautiful-- A Bohemian Legend,.

365 The Norseman's Ride, ..

368 The Infelicities of Intellectual Men,..

373 The Welcome Rain-Trapslated from the High German of Herr Niemand of Weispichtwo.....

400 The Results, ...

419 The Administrations of Washington and Adams. Memoirs of the Admin

istrations of Washington and John Adams. Edited from the Papers
of Oliver Wolcott. By George Gibbs,...

426 The Natural History of New York. Natural History of New York. By Authority,...

433 The Autobiography of Goethe. Truth and Poetry ; from My Life.

Translated from the German of Goethe. Edited by Parke Godwin,. 443 To the Ocean. By Mrs, J. W. Mercur..

452 Upward! By J. Bayard Taylor...

442 Which is the Fortunate Man? By Miss Anna Middleton..

48 West Point. By H. T. Tuckerman...

121 What is Truth? 1st. Acts and Resolutions passed at the first session of

the 29th Congress of the Unijed States. Published by Authority. 2d. Sections adopted at the New York Constitutional Convention... 267

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The great feature of the modern islands, then indeed might the nations world is the growth and power of the of Europe have cause for alarm, were it Anglo-Saxon race. More particularly not for the peaceful nature of our since the commencement of the present institutions. The Anglo-Saxons on this century have their numbers multiplied continent are now equal in number to with a rapidity that astonishes the those in Great Britain, and in a few observer. In the 46 years which have years the latter will bear but a small elapsed since the 18th century reached proportion to the whole number. its close, the Anglo-Saxon race, properly The great improvements which have so called, have increased 120 per cent. been made in science have prodigiously Their wealth, prosperity and social increased the means of subsistence in condition have improved in a much the British islands; and the increase of greater ratio. The race is now divided the population, great as it has undoubtinto nearly equal parts, one of which, edly been, is yet subordinate to the in the possession of great political enhanced production. The latter, by power, occupies the British islands, outrunning the population, has afforded and from them sways the commercial to the laboring classes luxuries and world. The other inhabits the conti even comforts that formerly were nent of North America, and will soon unknown to the richest lords. The absorb the whole in one vast union, from proportion of food produced in the whose bosom the British islands must British islands to the whole number of thereafterdraw their supplies of food, and the people is doubtless much larger become measurably dependent for the than formerly, but at the same time elements of their power. The natural there is a larger and increasing number limits of British greatness appear to who suffer more than formerly, because have been reached; that is, the greatest the tendency of laws and the structure number of persons that her resources of society has been, to accelerate the can feed, occupy her islands, and those natural accumulation of property in the persons exercise the greatest possible hands of a few at the expense of the power that is permitted to one nation many. The population of the British in modern times. If the Anglo-Saxon islands, exclusive of Ireland, has inrace on this continent is destined to creased from 10,472,048 in 1800, reach wealth and power as much according to the census then taken, to greater than those now enjoyed by 18,664,761 in 1841, being an increase England, as the breadth of land here of about 80 per cent. in 40 years. In occupied is larger than the British the same time the number of the

French people rose from 27,349,003 occupied, and each successive tract to 34,194,875, or 25 per cent. only. overrun is apparently more fertile The United States, peopled by the same than the other. The area of Great race as Great Britain, have in a similar Britain is the same now that it ever has period multiplied their numbers of been; that is to say, 55,291,788 acres, white inhabitants from 4,304,489 to or 86,439 square miles. On this ex14,575,998, or 320 per nt., having tent of surface, as we have seen, the nearly doubled every 20 years. The population has increased 8,192,713 souls population of the United States has or 80 per cent. in 40 years, or 94 perindeed been mostly of the Anglo-Saxon sons to each square mile. Or, in other race, but it has received constant words, from a population of 118 to the accessions of French and Germans, square mile in 1800, the density has who mix with and are finally lost in the increased to 210 to the square mile in swelling numbers of the whole mass. 1840. In the United States the greatThe British Islands have lost to some est density is in that of Massachusetts, extent by emigration, and most of that eighty-six to the mile. To maintain which they have lost has been a direct 'this increase, the highest skill and gain to America. The decennial in- science in agriculture, added to the crease per cent. of the population of the most unremitting industry and perseUnited States, as compared with that verance, has been requisite in England. of England, has been for the first 40 It is self-evident, however, that there years of the present century as follows: is a point beyond which this increase

cannot take place; that how great so1800-10. 1810-20. 1820-30. 1830-40. United States....36.2....34.3......33 8.....34.7

ever the productive powers of the EnBritish Islands.. 14.2....17.6......15.5.....14.0 glish soil may be made through the aid

of science, ultimately the wants of the From 1810 to 1820, which embrace population, through increasing numthe period of the last war, it appears bers, must exceed those powers. This that the ratio of increase in the United appears now to be nearly the case. States diminished, while that of the Every portion of the soil of Great BriBritish islands improved. Since that tain, capable of bearing food advantaperiod the actual increase of the popu- geously, has been pressed into that lation of the United States has become service. It is true that there are still more considerable, while that of the maintained in England a large number British islands has decreased 34 per of cattle, Of horses alone there are cent., baving been for the ten years 1,330,000, on which duties are paid; to ending with 1840, slightly less than in feed which, an extent of soil equal to a similar period ending with 1810, that which will suffice for the susteduring a general war. These facts nance of 10,000,000 human beings is seem to support the theory that the required; but these horses are, to a very increase of population must always considerable extent, necessary in the depend upon the increase of food and conduct of internal business, and indisother necessaries, and can never, for pensable as yet to the trade which any considerable period, exceed that supports the manufacturing population. increase. As far as high science and How far those services may be supergreat capital go, England has the advan- seded by steam is a question. It is, howtage of the United States in facilities ever, probable that steam may so far for enhancing the means of subsistence; supply the place as to make an increase nevertheless her population feels annu in their numbers to facilitate a growing ally the increasing restraint upon its trade unnecessary; and, indeed, as the growth consequent upon the deficiency home supply of food has now become of food, and the existing distress mani. insufficient for the support of both anifests itself in the swelling number of mals and human beings, in consequence paupers, who now, according to a Parlia- of the excess of their demands, it would mentary statement, reach 1,500,000 seem that the maintenance of the souls. While England has thus en former would become yearly more countered in her onward progress an onerous. The surface of England may insurmountable barrier to her continued be pretty accurately divided into three advancement, the United States have sections, viz: 10 manufacturing and constantly added to the quantity of land mining counties, 13 metropolitan and

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