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1927.] Architectural Improvements in Westminster. :

125 bien entretenus receive from their decora- It becomes a question of a twig when it tion, and from the free circulation of light ought to be a question of a tree, and they and air, a gaiety of appearance which is in prune where they ought to eradicate. In itself a real recreation."

such cases a storm is the only remedy; it The reason assigned for this superi- often does what the hatchet should have done ority of French pleasure-gardens' has long before, and the proprietor is surprised

at the improvement." been very tastiig clothed by the Muse in the following lines :

It will be necessary, when this plan The French have taste in all they do,

is put in execution, to form a road runWhich we are quite without;

ning, parallel with the park, which For Nature, which to them gave goût,

should be the only carriage-way to the To us gare only gout !

new houses, no vehicles whatever being But I am digressing too much. It per ritted within the park gates. This

road would then forin au admirable will therefore be necessary to return to the line of houses running from those the want of which is at present so

carriage communication with Chelsea now existing on the south side of deservedly complained of—and be a Princes-court to Queen-square, and so

great convenience to the west end of continued to the aforesaid James-street. One continued terrace would be far of houses * now erecting on the Gros

the town, and particularly to the world from handsome, owing to its extent:

renor estate. they might therefore be disposed in

Respecting the new distribution of the convenient groups, to accommodate the various entrances to and from the ground within the park 1 am unao

quainted : indeed I have not even heard city; the facade of each group to post that any new arrangement is intended, sess different architectural features, simi: though no doubt can be entertained as lar to the Pallazini, as Lord Farnborough to its desirableness. Gwynne in his plan very appropriately designates them, in the Regent's Park. To each group might and walks which, however agreeable

laid down a new disposition of the trees beallotted a small portion of ground, to be adorned with a very low shrubbery, time, would ill accord with modern

to the geometrically-cut taste of his of laid out in parterres of flowers. To notions of effect in scenery. Among prevent the architectural character of the most conspicuous alterations were the façades frein being hidden; and to

the filling up the canal, and the erecgive the parks an air of gaiety—which

tion of an equestrian statue or group nobody can say they now possess,--the of figures in the centre of the parade. planting of large or forest trees should

The former, I by no means approve be absolutely prohibited. The injudi- of; for, though the canal is devoid of cious permission of this in the gardens all beauty, it might yet be made to attached to the houses in Arlington, blend harinoniously with the surroundstreet, has been justly censured by Lord ing scenery at a very trifling, exFarnborough in his able pamphlet upon pence. A mere naked parallel "sheet the Improvement of Westminster. As of water has a cold white glare, and is this pamphlet has not been so generally the more disgusting as it reminds one circulated as its merits demand, I shall of its difference from the beautiful quote one passage bearing on the point. lines of a meandering river. Price hu

“There are many places and gardens mourously says it may be made of linen; which have lost all their cheerful character for nothing can be more like than a from their possessors having suffered their sheet of water and a real sheet. trees to overgrow the original intention of

An appropriate subject for the latter the plantation. Perhaps the spot when first has been suggested by your valued Corplanted was cold and naked, but nature clothes rapidly, though imperceptibly, and that respondent Col. Macdonald in p. 3. which was once open and exposed, has be

That it may be carried into effect must come close and gloomy. Most people have

be the hearty wish of every admirer of the inclination to plant, but few liave the

those feelings which swayed the pubcourage to cut down; when all view is shut lic conduct of his Royal Highness, out, and they feel the necessity of making and made him the beloved and rean opening, they do it with a timid hand. spected friend of the army-the steady

The houses in the squares erecting on this extensive property have a most magnificent pathway before them, paved with stones of such a length as to serve also for the roof of the vaults. This plan of paving has two advantages, seldom or ever blended, economy and effect.

ture

126
Architectural Improvements in Westminster.

[Feb. upholder of our glorious Constitution, pletion of Kent's range of buildings, and which has caused his death to be this

pump was carefully preserved. But 80 generally lamented. I cannot place the inconvenience and nuisance occasufficient reliance upon my own know- sioned by the spilling of the water on ledge of landscape to lay down a plan the pavement as it was conveyed from for a new distribution of the objects the pump, called for its removal, which necessary to produce that tout ensemble, has been accordingly done. A new which could alone inspire the man of pump of neat execution has been made, taste with any feelings of pleasure and and erected on the edge of the road on contentment. But still it is necessary the western side of St. Margaret'sthat it should be done; and I feel con- street, to which the water is conducted fident that those who have begun the from the old well on the opposite side, work of adorning the park, will not through iron pipes. Thus the inhabits leave off in the iniddle.

ants of Westminster may still have The plan adopted at the Thuileries the pleasure of partaking of “Hell's” of permitting the public who frequent pure stream. the gardens the convenience of reading The “Privy-council" stables erectany newspaper in the world upon pay-ing in Princes-street, and the range of ment of two sous or one penny, might offices at Whitehall, are in a very proI think with great propriety be adopted gressive state. Of these, at some fuhere*. here would the

be some

me, I may furnish you with dekind of amusement for the visitors in- scriptions, but at present must be alstead of resorting to the petty scandal lowed to conclude, and sign myself of the day, or invidious remarks upon Yours, &c. their neighbours for something to relieve the time. When the intended alterations are

Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 20. it much to THE Rev. Joseph Blanco White,

first known to public tary evolutions in a place devoted to by his allusive names of Lucudio Dobpleasure will no longer be permitted ; lado, prefixed to his valuable Letters so that the public who promenade here on Spain, has since been indefatigable to obtain relief to the exertions of the in his endeavours to guard his adopted mind, may not be pained in witness-country (the country of his ancestors) ing the miseries which are necessarily from the snares and tyranny of Popery. endured by those in drill for this pro- In his “Practical and internal Evifession. Indeed the barracks should dence against Catholicism I," after debe removed in toto : Westminster scribing the struggles and Auctuations might then breathe a purer almo- of his own mind, in his perilous transisphere, and retrieve a portion of its lost tion from inculcated error to discocharacter.

vered truth, he addressed the imparMost Westminsters, of several yearstial among his former brethren, on the standing, must well remember the si- errors and abuses of their Church. In tuation of the Hell Pumpt, as it was a tract of still more extensive utility, named, at the entrance of the passage he has since addressed a warning io which led to the Exchequer and Oli- the lower classes of this country $; ver's Coffee-houses, and so to the Hall. thereby demonstrating not only the When the demolition of these low sincerity but the disinterested characbuildings--themselves of modern erec- ter of his zeal for truth ||. But it is tion—took place to allow for the com- not for the sake of eulogizing that ex

* But with more propriety at Kensington Gardens.

+ There were tenements or houses nearly adjoining to Westminster Hall known by the names of “ Paradise,” “ Purgatory," and "Hell;" as appears by an instrument printed in Rymer's Foedera, whereby Henry the Seventh, in the first year of his reign, granted the custody of them with others to one Authony Kene, esq. The situation of this pump marks the spot where “Hell” was situated. There was also in Westminster a place known by the name of “ Heaven;" and there is now a spring in Princes-street, in a place which was forinerly known by the name of “Broken Cross.”—The origin of all which names may be traced to their situation so near the Monastery.

Reviewed in vol. xc. § Entitled “ The Poor Man's Preservative against Popery.". || Having given away the copy-right.--A hint or two on the subject of what is called

(Signed)

1827.)
Blanco White and Antonio Gavin.

127 cellent man, much as he deserves eu- that the said Rev. Mr. Gavin, after having logy, that I now take up the pen, but publicly and solemnly abjured the errors of to revive the knowledge of a similar the Romish Religion, and being thereupon, case, which occurred a century ago.

reconciled to the Church of England, on About the year 1714, a Spanish the third day of January, 1715-16, he had priest, whose name was Antonio Ga- then my leave to officiate in the Spanish vin, being disgusted with the supersti. Westminster; and being now appointed

language, in the Chapel of Queen’s-square, tions

in which he had been educated, Chaplain of his Majesty's ship the Preston, escaped to England in the disguise of has iny licence to preach in English, and an officer. He had been a secular

to administer the Sacraments at home and priest in the city of Saragossa, and was abroad, in all the churches and chapels of there known as such to Lord Stanhope my diocese. and other English gentlemen. Ar- « Given under my hand in London the rived in London, and understanding 18th of July, 1720. that our Church would receive him,

John LONDON." if his claim to orders in his own

Thus between the years 1715 and church could be established, and the

1720, Gavin had so studied the Engsincerity of his conversion evinced, he

lish language, that he was then comapplied to the Bishop of London for culty arose from the want of his letters lain in the British

Aeet. In the mean that purpose. Some temporary diffi- petent to officiate or preach in it, and

io obtain the appoiniment of a chapof orders, which the fear of being de- time he had published a Sermon in tected in his flight had obliged hiin to leave behind. But Robinson, he had preached in London, and dedi

the Spanish language (in 1716), wbich then Bishop of London, being convinced of the fact, by the testimony This Sermon is still extant in the Bri

cated it to his patron Lord Stanhope. Jaid before him, accepted his renun

tish Museum. ciation of Popery, and reconciled him to the Churchi of England; giving him self able to write a considerable work in

But a few years later he proved himfull licence to exercise the functions of a priest in his diocese. The Bi- English ; for in 1725 he published a shop's licence is given at large in one

curious and important book, under the

title of “A Master-key to Popery," of his publications, and is thus ex

which contains the fullest exposure of pressed: Licence.

the errors and practices which had

disgusted him in the religion of Spain. “Whereas the Rev. Mr. Antony, Gavin It was followed by two other volumes, was recommended to me by the Right Ho- in the ensuing year, pursuing the same nourable Lord Stanhope, and by the same and other English gentlemen, 7 was certi- subject. A fourth was promised, but fied that the said Rev. Mr. Gavin was a se

does not seem to have appeared. Eicular Priest, and Master of Arts in the Uni- ther the author died, or the booksellers versity of the city of Zaragosa, in the king- found that the public curiosity on the dom of Arragon in Spain, and that they subject was satisfied for the time. The knew him in the said city, and conversed three volumes, however, were publishwith him several times; This is to certify, ed in 1726, in a French translation, the Catholic Question, I caunot refrain copying from this tract.-" There is indeed no reason for either fear or suspicion, with regard to the Roman Catholics of these kingdonis, as long as both the Government and Parliament remain purely Protestant; but I would not answer for the consequences, if the Pope, through his priests, could obtain an underhand influence in either."" P.8.

“ Had I a voice that could be heard from north to south, and from east to west, in these islands, I would use it to warn every Protestant against the wiles of Rome ; wiles and arts, indeed, of so subtle and disguised a nature, that I feel assured many of the freeborn Britons who are made the instruments and promoters of them, do not so much as dream of the snare into which they are trying to decoy their countrymen. Such as believe that Popery, if allowed to interfere with the laws of England, would not most steadily aim at the ruin of Protestantism, even at the plain risk of spreading the most rank infidelity, should be sent to learn the character of that religion, where it prevails uncontrolled ; where I have learnt it during five and twenty years in sincere submission, and for ten in secret rebellion." Page 26.

I have been told, and it is not improbable, that in some places endeavours have been made to persuade the common people that no such man as Blanco White exists, and that the whole is a mere fabrication.

WICLIFF.

a

ed his steps. This Preface is preserved In Luct of those parishes whose

128
Memorials of London Churches burnt 1666.

[Feb. by a M. Janigon. The work, how- of the two cases in many striking parever, was so much noticed, that it pro- ticulars induced me to recal to notice ceeded rapidly to a third edition, each the almost forgotten Gavin, and to volume being dedicated to some great point out his Master-key as that person; to the Princess of Wales, to which will unlock as much horror Lord Carteret, and to the Archbishop and abomination as that which opened of Armagh

the secret chamber of the formidable To the first edition Gavin prefixed Blue-beard. tolerably ample Preface, giving an account of himself, not so interesting, but apparently not less honest than that of

Mr. URBAN,

Myddelton-house,

Feb. 25. his countryman, who has lately follow

N vol. xciv. i. the in the French translation, and was perhaps in the second edition ; but is Church was burnt at the Fire of Lonomitted in the third, which is that in don, and have judiciously affixed a my hands. The first is in the British tablet to denote the site thereof, is Museum. The further account given highly commended. If it will not by Gavin of himself, after having trespass on your pages, I should be been chaplain in the Preston, is thus gratified to see them recorded. From stated :

the following interesting inscriptions,

the deficient parishes have an oppor“The ship being put out of commission, and my Lord Stanhope being in Hanover tunity of selecting and amending as with the King, I came over to Ireland, on

circumstances require. the importunity of a friend, with a design “ Near this marble in ye place which beto stay here till my Lord's return to Eng. fore the Fire of London was the porch of lánd. But while I was thinking of going ye Church of St. Anue Black Friars, lye inover again, I heard of my Lord's death, and terr’d,” &c. having in him lost my best patron, I re- “ Before the dreadfull Fire, Anno 1666, solved to try in this kingdom whether I stood the Parish Church of St. Bennet could find a settlement. After a few days, Sherehog." by the favour of his Grace the Lord Arch- “ Before the late dreadfull Fire, Anno bishop of Cashel, and the Rev. Dr. Perci. Domini 1666. Here stood the Parish val, I got the curacy of Gowran, on which Church of St. John Baptist upon WallI resided almost eleven months, by the li- broke, &c. The above stone was new cence of the Lord Bishop of Ossory; who faced, and the letters fresh cut, A.D. 1774.afterwards, upon my going to Cork, gave “ Before the dreadfull Fire Anno Dom. me his letters dimissory.” Pref. p. yi.

1666, stood the Parish Church of St. Mary

Stayning." It appears that he continued some

" This was the Parish Chvrch of St. time at Cork, beyond which I have

Olave Silver-street, destroy'd by the dreadnot found any traces of him. It is

fvl Fire in the yearé 1666. probable that there he died. But bis

“ Before ye late dreadfvll Fyer this was books still live, and may be consulted y Parish Chvrch of St. Peter Pavls Wharfe. by the curious without difficulty. They Demolished September 1666, and now erectcontain most horrible narratives, the ed for a Chvrchyarde, Anno Domini, 1675. truth of which will perhaps be denied This stone was new fac'd and letter'd 1779.” by those who are interested to deny

Wilkinson's “ Londina Illustrata" them; but which agree too well with gives a representation of the tablet many concurring testimonies, to be heretofore affixed to the wall of the doubted by those whose minds are open to fair evidence. That the wri: burying ground of St. Leonard Foster

lane, with this inscription : ter was a man worthy to be believed,

“ Before the dreadfvll Fire, Apno. Dom. there is every appearance, in what we

1666. Here stood the Parish Church of St. know of his story; and though he was

Lenard Foster-lane." evidently a man of less talents and accomplishmentsthan Mr. BlancoWhite, The tablet should now be placed on I see no reason to suspect that he was the house of Mr. Elles, baker, Fosterless sincere in his conversion, or less lane, obliterating the word “here,” veracious in his narratives. Let others and engraving, instead, the word "opjudge for themselves. "The similarity posite."

H. C. B.

1827.]

[ 129 )

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

84.

14. The History of Scotland, from the earliest may; and in the intermarriages of the

period to the middle of the ninth century. poor, where the countries have been By the Rev. Alexander Low, A.M. Cor- agricultural, original breeds are as correspondent Member of the Society of Scot- rectly supported, as are those of deer tish Antiquaries. 8vo, pp. 414. Append. in a forest of the most ancient date.

What the ancient Scots and Picts were UR readers will have the goodness is clearly shown from Xiphiline, in is known of the early history of Scot- dirk, the broad-sword, the target, the Jand, before the expedition of Agricola; small horses, the living in huis, the and that the earliest inhabitants were robbery by black mail, ihe subsistence Celts. The work before us is a collec- by hunting and plunder (MNTE TEX" tion of various ancient evidences, certainly not a history, and those ancient μητε πολεις μητε γεωργιας εχοντες, αλλ' evidences are all jumbled together in a

εκ τε νομης και θηρας ακροδυωντε τινων manner which it would require a che- {wites

. (Hist. Aug. iii. 421. Ed. Sylmical analysis to decompose. In fact, burg) are all circumstances proved by our author's work appears in the shape Ossian, Froissart, and other English of ore, not of metal'; and is a subject and Scotch histories. That there were for the Furnace, more than the Assay. individuals, who, by introducing reliHe makes the Scots to be einigrantsgion as an instrument of civilization from Ireland; and the Picts, from and pacific modes of existence,—by Germany, or Scandinavia. Now it is consequence arts of agriculture, upon a rule with us to think, that all islands which the means of such civilized 'exhave been first peopled from the nearest

istence must as to food and clothing continents; and we judge a great deal totally depend, -and laws, by which on that subject from the physical con- alone it could be possible for property formation of the people, in face, sta

to be secured,-is evident from the Histure, &c. Mr. Warner has clearly tory of Britain, Ireland, Scotland, and shown, that Strabo's description of the all-the barbarous provinces of the RoCelts is strictly applicable to the mo

inan empire. First come Generals and dern Welch ; and we certainly have Soldiers; this is a system which canseen in a town in Devonshire (on a

not last. Next come Saints, Merniarket-day), a complete collection of chants, and Husbandmen, whose ocBelgic visages; but all the genuine cupations necessarily imply, peace. Scotchmen known to us have been Such, in a general view, is the early small-eyed, high-cheek-boned, red or history of Great Britain and Scotland; light baired, and otherwise character and that in fact is the only history ized, as were and are the natives of which exists; for, though we may find the Baltic coasts. The Welch and in these early periods the Lives of parIrish have a greater leaning in charac

ticular Kings, Warriors, or Saints, ter to dark hair, eyes, and eyebrows; there is no such thing as National Hisand the former in particular have very tury, properly so called. Perhaps it was commonly a decidedly French look. not possible, where there was not a

The native Welch have a remarkably universal simultaneous action or gostout short figure, amounting in in- vernment. stances to deformity; for we have seen

We shall not enter into any analysis the legs of Welchmen, and Welch- of this work, for it is impracticable. women, to be completely of the form We shall however say that, whenever of nine-pins, from excess of muscle, the author appears in his own person, while the Scotchınan exhibits tallness his original remarks are very good; and bone ;-one is the broad-backed but he has not even used common poney, the other the cart-horse.

caution in digesting his materials. Let not the reader blame us for tak

In p. 21 we have Chiverius for Cluing this physical line of argument on

verius, and such wretched misnomers such subjects as the aborigines of na- of authors and places, as to show that tions. Nature cannot err, but authors Mr. Low is, as to literary habits, the Gent, Mag. February, 1827.

most slovenly writer whom we know,

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