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140
Review.-Christie on Greek Vases.

[Feb. 22. Mr. Christie on Greek Vases. this reason some will have it, and very (Concluded from p. 38.)

justly, that the emasculate Bacchus was en

titled Attis." Pp. 30, 31. MR. CHRISTIE gives the follow

What these mysteries were we know ing account of the Etruscan Vases :

not, nor are likely to know, as will “ This custom of depositing vases in se- appear by the following passage, which pulchres is supposed to have been intro

we shall give from Pellerin. duced into Sicily and Magna Grecia by the early Greek colonies from Greece Proper,

“ The gods Cabiri were originally Syand into Etruria by emigrants from the rian or Phænician, and all that is known of same country. The manner in which these their origin and actions is to be found in a vessels are disposed in tombs, is well repre- passage of Sanchoniathon, quoted by Eusesented in an engraving introduced into bius, who says that the Dioscuri, Cabires, the sccond volume of the great work of Corybantes, and Samothraces, were the inD'Hancarville, p. 57, that illustrates the

ventors of ship-building. The Greeks fafirst collection of vases formed by the late bricated a vast variety of mythological tales Sir William Hamilton. The body of the and pedigrees concerning theni; but mostly deceased was deposited in the centre of the

made of them Castor and Pollux, sons of vault, or upon an embankment raised against Jupiter and Leda. An equal confusiou prea side wall of the structure. It was sur

vails concerning the mysteries of these gods. rounded by these painted earthen vessels, All which regarded them was mystical, even some of which had particular positions as

to their names, says Strabo. Herodotus signed to them, one being placed upon the mentions that they had a temple in Egypt, chest of the corpse, and another between where the priests alone had permission of the legs, and (occasionally at least) a lamp ries were only known to the initiated ; and

Pausanias says that their mystenear the crown of the head. The most curious kinds of vases are found in the tombs that the latter did not dare to divulge them in Sicily, those of finest manufacture near

without exposing themselves to the greatest Nola in Campania. A differeut description misfortuues. According to that author,

the of vessel seems to have been peculiar to

mysteries of Ceres Cabiria in Bæoria were different districts, yet some of almost every

the same as those of the Cabiri in Samokind are found in the same tomb, P. 4.

thracia. If the initiated took so much care “ The mystic doctrine of the immortality from fear of punishment, than because these

not to speak of them, it was doubtless less of the soul, imported at Eleusis, being allegorically expressed by an elegant group on

mysteries were infamous, according to the the side of the vase, the painting itself was

recital made of them by Clemens of Aleranput for the religious opinion of the person,

dria, in speaking of the worship of the Coand the person was in some degree repre- lange de Medailles, tom. i. p. 82.

biri among the Etruscans.”—Pellerin, Mesented by the vase. P. 8.

“ The absence of painted fictilia from the Vases referring to the Dioscuri may Cuman sepulchre, examined by Mr. Joria, be easily known by the bonnets with prevents me from supposing that the de- over them, according to the ceased had enjoyed the benefit of initiation." Greek mode of representing them. P. 26.

But the Etruscan mode of sepulture If we correctly understand Mr. under discussion is much earlier than Christie, he means to say that the the Greek æra, having been derived painted vases are limited to the Eleu- from Egypt. Boissard (Antiq. sive sinian initiates.

Monument. Roman. I. ii. anpexed to Of the mythology of the Etruscans, Antiq. Roman. pars iv. p. 34) obserres we have very imperfect intimations. that the Etruscans embalmed their Their knowledge of the Cabiric ini- dead like the Egyptians, and annexed tiation is, however, shown by Cle- a book full of hieroglyphical characmens Alexandrinus in the following ters, and vases full of oleaginous liwords:

quor. The vase in the instance below “For as they style the Corybantes Cabirs, was of gold. The passage is as follows: so do they term this the Cabiric initiation. “Neque solum apud Egyptios (embalmFor the two who slew their brother, taking ing the dead] usitatum fuit, sed etiam apud up the chest in which the member of antiquos Italos hunc morem servatum aniDionysius was deposited, brought it into madversum est, nempe Hetruscns, qui ex Etruria, and truly they were the importers Egypto in Italiam navigantes regnum tenueof a precious freight. There these run- ruut apud Tyrrhenos et Ligures. Memini aways took up their abode, and imparted me audivisse a clarissimo viro Julio Roscio their valuable lessons in religion to the S. Mariæ Transtiberinæ cavonico Romæ, Etrurians, by proposing to them the mem- suo tempore ad Arnum ex Aluminis inundaber and chest as objects for worship. For tione detectum fuisse sepulchrum, in quo

stars

1927.) Review.Christie on Greek Vases.

141 inventum est corpus humanum adhuc inte- To return to the subjects of the grum et incorruptum ; in cujus concavitate paintings.-We wish that Mr. Chrisliber erat literis hieroglyphicis notatus cum tie had searched the inscriptions in phiala aurea plena nescio quo liquore olea

Spon, Gruter, Reinesius, &c. for one giuoso."

which certified the deceased to have That all this is perfectly correct, ap. been initiated in the Eleusinian myspears from two curious facts recorded teries ; for such inscriptions do occur by Suetonius, which throw some light with regard to the adepts in other upon this obscure subject. He says, mysteries ; and it is certain that the that while the new colonists were Eleusinian were only introduced into throwing down the very ancient se- Italy in the reign of Hadrian; that pulchres of Capua, in the time of Cae- Claudius had attempted previously to sar, in order to build their villas, and do so, and that Nero had been rejected proceeded more earnestly, “ quod ali- as a candidate through his impiety. quantum vasculorum operis antiqui scru- (See Suetonius and the Augustan Histitantes reperiebant,” a brass plate was tory:). We do not, however, deny Mr. found in a monument ascribed to Ca- Christie's hypothesis, because we have pys, founder of Capua, on which was seen symbols of these mysteries, as written in Greek words and letters, a mentioned by Clemens Alexandrinus, vaticination, that when the bones of upon these vases ; and from l'ertulCapys were uncovered, a descendant lian (p. 289), mentioning the Phallus of lulus (Jul. Cæsar) should be killed in the Adyta, we think that the Inby his own relatives, and his death be dian Lingam was the archetype, and afterwards avenged by great slaughters that there is to be sought the primary ihroughout Italy. (Suet. in Cæsar, c. origin of the Eleusinian mysteries. 81.) The Delphin editor observes, Tumblers were usual at funerals; and from Virgil and Dionysius of Halicar- in Mr. Christie's first plate we see an nassus, that this Capys was a compa- Indian dancing girl; the conformation nion, and very probably a relative, of too of the figures in general is so slenÆneas. (p. 82.) Another instance der, as to resemble the forms of these (which by the way shows the origin Asiatics. Dr. Clarke thinks that the of the bard's pointing out the tomb of Myrrhine yases were only porcelain ; Arthur at Glastonbury to Henry the it is clear that Propertius makes them Second), is as follows:-At Tegea in fictile. (L. iv. El. 5.) Arcadia, ly the instinct of soothsuyers, Seu quæ palmiferæ mittunt venalia Thebæ, (instinctu vaticinantium), vases of antique work were excavated in a

Murtheaque io Parthis pocula cocta focis. consecrated place, and “in them an From this passage, we make no image like Vespasian.” (Suet. Vespas. doubt of the Greeks and Etruscans c. vii.), As to the inscriptions or ta- having derived the art of making their blets, Mr. Dodwell says, that laminæ beautiful pottery from Asia or å frica. of lead containing imprecations of ene- If so, they may have derived from mies, are found both' in Grecian and thence some also of the subjects, for Etruscan tombs; but that the Etrus- Mr. Christie finds the following anacan vases have no resemblance to those logy between certain festivals in Hiu. of Greece. (i. 453, 459.) He also dostan and the Eleusinian mysteries. mentions a Greek tomb' with eight Speaking of the illuminations during vases. At the head and feet of the the Dewali, which falls soon after the skeleton were placed, at each, one; and autumnal equinox, he says, three upon each side. (id. 438.) He “As the Sun about that time goes down shows from Homer and Aristophanes, into the lower hemisphere, these illuminathat these lecythi were placed with tions anticipate the return of bis light; and the dead, and probably contained the this festival is accordingly held in honour ointment and wine, with which liba of the dead, to whom, as at Eleusis, was tions were made upon the body. (id. indicated a similar return from the shades. 438, 452.) It is, however, certain

Even that autumnal feast, the Mullaum in that the dead were presumed to be Boolan, and the correspondent Durga Poovery thirsty (a superstition of Egyptian jah of the Hindoos, though now appearing origin), and that s'ases were placed with be presumed had once at least a different

to present a moral scenic exhibition, it may them, under the presumption that they meaning. The first of these, we are inwould drink of the contents. (Enc. of formed, is celebrated during ten days. What Antiq. i. 66.)

then forbids our comparing its spirit and

142
Review.-Christie on Greek Vases.

(Feb. meaning wich the Eleusiuian mysteries (Enc. of Antiq. i. 199.) In short, we which lasted nearly an equal number? The believe that the Etruscan and Greek Durga Poojah, we are told, consists in the vases were painted upon this plan, for display of a gaudy scene, with Darga and they look as if they were outlined by a various figures in alto relief, loaded with stamp, and in fact were no other than tinsel and other ornaments. At the close ancient china. If they had been of the exhibition, it is conducted to the Ganges, to the waves of which it is com

the painted by hand, an inequality and mitted with due solemnity. Who does not difference of character and workmanhere discover a counterpart to the orna- ship must, we thiuk, have been inemented statue of the goddess in the temple vitable. Pliny tells us, that some of at Eleusis, * frottée avec soin, ornée avec the first sculptors and painters made gout, et revêtue de ses plus beaux habits,' designs for pottery; hardly for one as described by the Baron de Ste. Croix ? piece only; but if the professional Whence we may possibly be furnished with potters were so able of themselves, a solution of that expression, upon which why should this resource be adopted ? Meursius exercised his ingenuity with much They copied in sculpture, why not in felicity,-'AΛAΔΕ ΜΥΣΤΑΙ, «To the painting: sea, O Mystæ,' which gave the name to a But the Etruscan vases ought to be particular day of the Mysteries." P. 42.

called Greek vases. So says Denon, We meet with other corroborations because the Etruscans were a colony of the Asiatic origin of these beautiful of Greeks. But we protest against vases. Mr. Christie says,

this enisnomer, because it leads to very "The missionary Paolino, struck with wrong opinions, and because it is the apparent correspondence of many In- somewhat like calling the modern dian ceremonies with others, which he had English Anglo-Saxons or

British, formerly noticed upon the Greek vases, de- whereas neither in arts, manners, peclared, that a satisfactory explanation of digree, &c. are we any other than a the latter could not be given, until they mixed breed. Mr. Dodwell, who, were compared with the mauners of the however, has written the best book on orientals."-Travels, p. 255, Engl. ed. 8vo. Greece, says, in a passage before quoted,

We believe Paolino; for it is a re- that there is no resemblance between markable fact, that the mystic words Greek and Etruscan vases. Why, xoyš ģumat, which closed the celebra- then, because a French tailor has tion of the Eleusinian mysteries, are made in London an English coat, Şanscrit words. This is clearly shown are we to call it a French coat? when in p. 56.

it is notorious that he has made it in To add further information concern- the English fashion. ing the oriental character of these But we must approach to a close. paintings, another circumstance is cs

Mr. Christie has with great ingenuity pecially noted by Mr. Christie. Upon allegorised the subject, and we do not these vases, scarfs or fillets are very be correct. It is, in short, a most ele

deny that he may in certain instances common symbols.

“In the very entertaining narrative of gant and able work. But that he Captain Turner's embassy to Tibet, we are

places us in a most cruel dilemma,informed, that between people of

ihat he calls upon us to compromise

every rank and station in life, the presenting å principle, is evident from his own silken scarf constantly forms an essential words. It has ever been a rule part of the ceremonial of salutation. If with us to think that contemporaries persons of equal rank meet, an exchange can best explain contemporary things. takes place; if a superior is approached, he But in page 90, Mr. Christie denies holds out his hand to receive the scarf, and (without quoting any authority) the a similar one is thrown across the shoulders

explanation given by Diodorus of the of the inferior by the hand of an attendant

fawn's skin worn by Bacchus, and in at the moment of his dismission." pp.

p. 95, says, that in the same allegori. 91, 92.

cal way, “would he dispose of most Thibet is not far from China ; and of those subjects on vases, which AnDr. Clarke says, that in Greece, as in tiquaries have termed Homeric.” P.95. China, the professions being heredi- This is to declare war against the tary, the patterns of the paintings were ancients and Winckelman. For intaken from pieces of paper laid upon stance, in the gems of Stosch, we have the clay, and that the work of the Love enveloped in drapery, walking artist was therefore mechanical only. softly, and holding a lantern in his

1927.]
Review.-The Wanderer.

143 hand. Mr. Christie has. engraved a many subjects of these paintings are paste copy of this gem (pl. iii.) and apparently taken from Indian, Egyp calls it the infant Dioscurus hooded, tian, and Etruscan mythology, which and bearing the Bacchus under the is neither known or to be known, exform of a lantern to the lower regions, cept in parts. If, therefore, Mr. (p. 54.) Again, in Plate vii. Love ap- Christie succeeds in some instances, pears standing on an amphora, floating and fails in others, no man living can on the sea. He manages a sail, which do more. is swelled by the wind. Winckelman Leaviug this unpleasant part of the refers it to Ovid's description of suc- subject, we shall close with an excessful sailing down the sea of Love.tract, which shows the origin of a very Mr. Christie says that the return of curious superstition, viz. that of SiBacchus is here nearly expressed by a meon Styliies and his imitators, who winged genius upon the anıphora, passed their lives upon the tops of which is wafted along by means of a pillars. pointed sail. P. 55.

“ The ancient temple at Hierapolis in Now we certainly prefer the expla- Syria is reported [by Lucían de Deå Syria] nation of Ovid, but we should be act- to have stood upon an eminence in the ing unjustly to Mr. Christie, if we did middle of the city, the base of which eminot allow ihe astronomical allegory of nence was inclosed by a double wall. Near Bacchus, as founded by Dupuis de the gates to the north were erected two Lisieux, upon the Dionysiacs of Non- phalli (of the enormous height of thirty nos, lo have ancient authorities for its fathoms), one of which a man ascended support, and that there was a Bacchus twice every year, swarming (sic) it by a Avoorns , or Adoneus, mentioned by climbing the palm-trees of their country.

chain, as was practised by the Arabs in Macrobius and Ausonius, which had Arrived at the top, he coiled his clothes, so a relation to the Sun, and was an ana

as to form a nest or seat, and having let logy invented by the Egyptians. . In down another chain, which he carried with truth, there were no less ihan thirty him, and drawu up by the means of it food Bacchuses of different denominations, and necessaries, he remained upon the Phalmany of them with distinct mytho- lus seven days. Seated aloft, he prayed for logies; but Herodotus (l. 2, c. 42) says all Syria, but while he prayed he rang a that the Greeks, in adopting the Egyp- bell.” P. 99. tian divinities, gave the name of Bac- Here then we have also the origin chus to Osiris, 'Oosque Alovugoy thras of the holy bells carried about by the asyoor, and Diodorus Siculus (1. i. Irish, British, and early Anglo-Saxon c. 11) makes the same assertion. We saints. also know that the ancients them- In an Appendix Mr. Christie has selves have given different symbolical given a classification of vases in the meanings to the same thing, and that Linnæan manner. The idea that the Strabo and Pausanias did not under- pericarpia or seed-vessels of plants first stand various paintings and bas-reliefs, suggested the forms of roses, is due to until they had been interpreted to them Mr. Fosbroke (Enc. of Antiq. i. 196), upon the spot. Upon ihese grounds and we are glad to see that Mr. Chris. we are so prejudiced as to think that tie has proved its accuracy by showing of the antient allegories, only a very the ease of adapting it to the botanical few can now be intelligible, and that nomenclature. those require every particular to be as

The Plates are numerous and capiminutely prored by ancient authori- tally executed. Upon one of them ties, as a claim to a peerage before the (plate X.) we were surprised to see a House of Lords. We most willingly presumed Mercury in a modern swalallow every credit to the ingenuity and low-tailed coat, not reaching to the sagacity of Mr. Christie ; but it is not knees, and padded or swelling upon our fault that he assumes his positions, the neck and shoulders, but with armand that most of the ancient vases holes instead of sleeves, and covering must remain unintelligible, unless this the forepart of the body. It was a privilege be allowed. We do not give travelling dress. credit to all the elucidations of Winckelman, Millin, D'Hancarville, &c. 23. The Story of a IVanderer, founded upon &c. because we beliere these eminent his Recollections of Incidents in Russian men to have undertaken an impossi- or Cossack Scenes. 8vo. pp. 298. bility; we say impossibility, because THESE Tales, w.bich are of a me

144
Review.--Seyer's Bristol.

(Feb. lancholy kind, and are conversant with Manchester; and contains minute and a barbarous state of society, show in a elaborate investigations of the local anstriking light the great miseries to Liquities, and, generally speaking, exwhich existence is subject, under are cellent commentaries upon them. It bitrary and unconstitutional Govern- igust be exceedingly interesting to the ments. For whatever may be the vir- inhabitants of Bristol. The authotue of the Sovereign, he is inevitably rities are manuscript calendars and subject to a misrepresentation of things printed historical works. The national and persons, and must ever be so, un- records, and the manuscripts in the less he could be omniscient. It is the British Museum (with only one or two peculiar good fortune of the English, exceptions), have been disregarded, ihat the Government has no controul perhaps because Mr. Şeyer means to over the private life of individuals, and include them in a third volume, which no power of determining the guilt or he has announced. We hope that he innocence of the accused. So far from will do so, because we have some acits being a desirable thing in the Sove- quaintance with these documents, and reign or his agents to possess any other know that without them no local histhan a political power in public mat- tory can be pronounced authentic or ters, the very necessity of reference in complete; but in what manner they private affairs to the supreme autho- can possibly be exhibited to advantage, rity must be, to any one but a trou- xcept by that Archæological Science blesomie officious tyrant, a very irk- which Mr. Seyer holds in disregard, some, in fact unnecessary, part of his we know not. From what we have office; for it is better done by law, a heard, his superciliousness is about to Judge and Jury. According to the produce a rival, in Mr. Evans. accounts of Russia here stated, the Whitaker, a man of strong intellect dominion is or was too extensive for (lawyer-like used), but a pedant, has the support of even a police, and Go- made a plausible romance of the Hisvernment was obliged io permit gangstory of Manchester, by ascribing the of banditti to increase, till they had refinements of the Romanized Britons power sufficient to require a regular to those of the Celtick æra; and ararmy to subdue thein; and thus a raigning, as imbecils, writers who did civil war became, to a certain extent, not make similar inistakes. He was a necessary evil. Such is the account a turkey-cock, strutted, spread his tail, giveu of the Zaparogian Cossacks and gobbled at us domestic poultry of (page 84) – ferocious gangs, whose antiquaries, for presuming to pick up avowed object was war and plunder barley-corns of history in his august (p. 89); and “these same men, who presence. Mr. Seyer imitates his archein the leisure of the camp were the iype in never quoting a modern antigrossest of all sensualists, spending quary, and in speaking, we believe in every interval of repose in gluttony more than one place, of the dreams of and drunkenness, became sober and Antiquaries," as if many of them had vigilant soldiers the moment they not been as good dreamers as Joseph, were detached on ang marauding ex- and as certain expounders of them. pedition."

Had Mr. Seyer not scorned these The author seems to have been a dreamers, he would not have rendered nervous sensitive character, placed in (i. 228) the term Nutritus by scholar, countries which require the iron feel. but in its precise sense (see Ducange); ings and habits of a soldier, and his neither would he have published such fine sentiments are as much out of a passage as this (i. 343), that Fitz Osplace, as the song of a nightingale borne built the Castle of Eastbridge among carousing boors. The book, Hotel (Hotel in Domesday book !) at however, is a very useful one, as it Gloucester, whereas the right reading shows us the vast blessing of a Con- is Estrigoil, or Chepstow, though it is stitutional Government and civilized mixed up with the account of Glouceshabits.

ter, in the Survey, through the follow

ing cause. Domesday-book was tran24. Seyer's Memoirs of Bristol.

scribed in London from loose noies,

collected in the country, and the scribes, (Concluded from vol. xcvi. ü. 523.) not having a geographical knowledge

We shall now give the literary cha- of the counties, have often erroneousiy racter of Mr. Seyer's work. It is evi- classed places together, and even sepadently written on thenlan of Whitaker's rated returns relating to the same

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