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1827.]
Review.--Seyer's Bristol.

145 manor (see Owen and Blakeway's struction, the word may imply an idoShrewsbury, ii. 303). In the Liber latrous use of the well, and spiritual Niger, published by Hearne, we have destruction thereby, a superstition pro(i. 160) Godrich Castle in Hereford- hibited in the Laws of Ina, &c.; and shire, and military tenures of William the cruciform ridge have then been Marshall, Earl of 'Pembroke, classified thrown up to show Christian re-conunder the return of the Abbot of secration, or have an expiatory or proWinchcombe. In fact, there neither hibitory object. Neither of these exis, nor can be, any natural connection planations we dare to call satisfactory, between Archæology and intellectual ihough the best we can give. The imbecility; nor is Archæology any spade might produce far better. other than a minute knowledge of his- Many of our readers know, that the tory; in fact, to use the words of Arch- site of the place, on the borders of the deacon Owen and the Rev. Mr. Blake- Wiccii, where Augustine preached to way, who have written a most valuable the Britons, has been long contested. History of Shrewsbury,

Mr. Seyer places it at Bristol, and we “ The facts adduced by Antiquaries are

shall give his account of it, because it the milestones of history, landmarks in the

is introduced with a preface, perfectly progress of social life, collected to vindicate

à la Whitaker, and is a very successful the study of Autiquities, and redeem it from

iinitation. the sneer of the supercilious sciolist." i. 308. “I undertake to convince the reader, We have only spoken thus in de- that not Jordan only, but Austin himself

, fence of our profession, to which Mr. preached here, and that his celebrated con

ference with the British Bishops, was holden Seyer has (from charity we suppose) on our College green; and I suppose, that rendered much service by some very the monastery afterwarıls built there revaluable descriptions of ancient earth- ceived its name as a memorial of that transworks. These we have not room to action. And this I say, without partiality notice; but one puzzle we cannot pass for him, whom we call Saint Augustin, but by. Adjacent to a considerable British induced by historical evidence alone. fortress, is an earthwork called Ban- “ The original Author who mentions this well Camp, though containing only conference is Bede*. He says, that it was Ihree quarters of an acre.

A.D. 603, in a place which to this day is

called, in the language of the English, “ It is a small plot of ground nearly Augustinaes uc [i. e. Augustine's Oak), at square, surrounded with a rampart of earth the confines of the Huiccii and the West ouly three feet high, and a slight ditch ; it Saxons. Alfred's translation of the passage is about 55 yards long from West to East, is, on Ahære stowe, che mon nemneth and 45 yards broad from North to South. Agustinus Ac on Hurina gemære and West The entrance is on the East. In the area is · Sexna. Austin died in 605. Now the a raised ridge about two feet high, and four place of conference is supposed by all our or five feet wide, forned in shape of a cross, Antiquaries to be in Worcestershire ; asedged on all sides by a slight ditch or trench, suming that the Wiccii or Huiccii lived in scarcely half a foot deep. In the midde of Worcestershire alone, and that the West the cross is an excavation, apparently the Saxon kingdom extended to the same county, mouth of an old well." P. 85.

neither of which assumptions is true. With We have seen another print of it in

regard to the latter, Gloucestershire was Sir R. C. Hoare's Ancient Wilts (ii.

not a part of the West Saxon kingdom, as

will be proved below; and therefore the 43). Now a raised ridge only four or confines of the West Saxons could not five feet wide, could not be intended

touch Worcestershire at all. And secondly, for a place of residence, barn, or church, the Gloucestershire men were Wiccii, as or if ever built upon, for more than well as the Worcestershire men; and therepassages. That the whole fortification fore Austin's Oak must be at some place, was, however, meant to refer to the where the Wiccii in Gloucestershire touch well, we doubt not, because the place the West Saxons in Wiltshire or Somersetis called Banwell. If Ban be derived shire, and all along that line. I know no from Bane (Interfector), some murder place, the name of which has any relation or murderer may have been connected

to this conference, except St. Augustine's with its history; perhaps the cruciform

Green in Bristol, nor any place, where a ridge may have been intended to denote number of Bishops from South Wales would

so conveniently meet as in Bristol. And a pagan assassination of a British Christian Saint ; or as Bane also means deGent. May, February, 1827.

Hist. ii. 2.

146
Review.-Seyer's Bristol,

[Feb. nothing is more probable, than that the other authority, than because the Dobuni pious founder of the Abbey gave it its name possessed it. Next, there is sufficient proof in memory of St. Augustine ; and that that the Wiccii extended over GloucesterHarding his father, named one of his sons shire also *. Kepulph, King of the MerJordan, in memory of the preacher Augus- cians, in his Charter to the Monastery of tine's companion."

Winchcomb in Gloucestershire, A. D. 811, “ Mention was made above of the Wic- says, that he built it at a place called ancii. I shall speak of them more at large; ciently by the inhabitants Wincelcombe, in not only because I suppose that Bristol was the province of the Wixes t. Adelred, Goin their own country and inhabited by them, vernor of the Wixes, about A.D. 740, gave but also because former historians have said lands in Barton to the Monastery of Glouvery little concerning them. They have cester. Asser, in his life of Alfred, A.D. hitherto been considered as inhabitants of 879, speaks of Cirrenceaster I,' which is Worcestershire exclusively; but in fact, called in the British language Cair Ceri, they inhabited Gloucestershire also, and which is in the southern part of the Wiccii. part of Wiltshire, being nearly, if not Add to this, that Gloucestershire was until wholly, the same as the ancient Dobuni, the 16th century, part of the diocese of the with a new name. They were a British Wiccii, and subject to their Bishop; which tribe, and not Saxon, as we find from the alone would be a sufficient argument that following passage. Austin“, with the Bi- its inhabitants were Wiccii. Moreover the shops Mellitus and Justus, invited to con- Wiccii extended far into North Wiltshire, ference the Bishops, and Chief Doctors, and as the Dobuni did before them, for BrompPriests of the country of the Britons, at a ton mentions the cities Chipenham and Ciplace which is still called, in the language of recestre, which are on the's South of the the English, Augustine's Ok, in the confines Wiccii. And a battle || was fought between of the Britons and the West-Saxons. And Kanute and Edmund Ironside, at a place another writer +_proves the same. Bede, called Scorstan, in the province of the Wicwho died in A.D. 735, is the first writer cii ; which is supposed by Camden to be who mentions them; but after him, they Sherstone in Wiltshire, but others place it continue to be spoken of by historians until differently: Stowe says it was Sherestane in after the Norman Conquest.”

Worcestershire." Here Mr. Seyer proves, that Worces- cerning the situation of Austin's Oak, it

« On the whole of this question, contershire formed part of the province has been proved to a certainty, that the Hwiccia. As this, according to our Wiccii were the inhabitants of Gloucesterknowledge, was never disputed, we shire, as well as of Worcestershire; and pass over the proofs, and give those therefore the boundary between them and which show that Gloucestershire was the West Saxons, must be far away from also another province of Hwiccia. The Worcestershire, and can be only near the principal proof is the diocesan union Avon of Bristol ; and if so, the reasons of that county with the See of Worces- which have been given above, make it ter; besides which, Mr. Seyer quotes probable, in the highest degree, that the the following circumstance :

conference of Augustio with the British

Bishops, A. D. 603, was holden at our Col“ Ethelred, King of Mercia, appointed lege Green.” Pp. 229, 230. Osree, son of Peada, a former King of Mercia, to be Governor of the Wicces; and

Here we shall take our leave of the gave him among many gifts the royalty of Memoirs of Bristol. As an historical the town of Glocester, for the purpose of Writer, we do not deny the considerbuilding and endowing the monastery there. able merits of Mr. Seyer; and as BarHe finished the nunnery, settled on it all rett had made a Topographical compilawhich he had received from Ethelred, and tion on the subject, it might be thought made his own sister, Kyneburg, the first expedient, at least agreeable to take Abbess." " But the conference at St. Augustin's to Whitaker's Manchester being made

new ground. But we utterly object Oak makes it necessary to enquire particu- a model for any Topographical work. larly how far the Wiccii extended. The Provincial history, conducted upou loose men of Worcestershire were certainly Wiccii; the Latin name of that city and county confirms it; Wig-or-nia being derived from Atkyns's Gloucest. Winchcomb, page the Saxon Wic-wara. Gibson says 1, that they also inhabited Oxfordshire, which is + Sir R. Atkyns, in Barton, quotes likely enough, but he has apparently no Domesday-book as his authority for this fact.

Cirenceastre adiit, quæ est in meriBrompton.

dianâ parte Huicciorum. + Aunal. ad cale. Flor. Wigom.

§ Bromton, anno 879. Somner de Portu Iccio, p. xi.

Il Bromton's Chron.

435.

1827.]
Review.-Frost's Botanical Oration.

147 general principles, is like founding the hope, therefore, that Mr. Seyer will biography of an eminent individual, noi consider the example of Dugdale upon dissection of his corpse, in which beneath him in his third volume; and it will merely appear that he had the then we doubt not but we shall have same anatomical conformation as the an archæologically orthodox work. rest of mankind. The best book which we have seen as a model for the History of Towns, is that of Shrewsbury. The 25. An Oration delivered before the Medicoillustration of ancient manners and Botanical Society of London,

Friday, Oct. customs is the grand object, and the 13, 1826. By John Frost, F.A.S. F.L.S. local documents are consulted with &c. &c.&c. Dedicated by permission lo this interesting and curious porpose in

his K. H. the Duke of York. 4to, pp. 15. view. Rapin and the History of Eng- IT is a fact, and a very disgraceful land do not form the foundation (be- one, in the annals of Medicine, that cause it is trite and threadbare), but the medical properties of vegetables the display of ancient manners for en. should be a study consigned of late tertainment and instruction, and of years to old women; for it is to be reoriginal documents and records, for the collected, that the medicine furnished authentication of facts. Whitaker has by Providence consists chiefly in the merely made Manchester a peg whereon knowledge of those properties. Their to hang his dissertation upon the Ro- power over the human frame is evident, manized Britons, but certainly has and yet the study of them has been proved nothing beyond what was evi- neglected. Mr. Frost very justly obdent. And what has be done for the serves, Britons, and Roman Stations and Roads, “ There is no substance in Nature, howcompared with Sir R. C. Hoare?

ever poisonous, as it is termed, that would The subject has been treated by produce unpleasant effects, were it not for means of the spade and local survey, the want of a proper judgment to apportion upon the plan of philosophical experi.

its dose. As we advance in the state of ment; and the civilization, arts, and knowledge, we shall be convinced, that it statistics of the Britons, have been

has been our paucity of it, which has led us

to form such erroneous conclusions." placed upon an authentic foundation.

“ As it is admitted, that the power to By merely parsing Topography from

ameliorate disease is of the first importance the History of England, like school

to mankind, so it will be allowed, that the boys from a Grammar, no accession can be made to knowledge ; and book study of those agents by which it is to be after book must be wearisome from What can be more laudable than the objects

effected, cannot be too much inculcated identity. But minute local investiga- of the Medico-Botanical Society, whose tions (in which Mr. Seyer excels), re- sole purpose is the investigation of vegetable searches into ancient records, exami- medicines.” nation of old remains, and the other

The utility of this science is particuminutia of Archæological science, larly conspicuous on foreign service. present not only very curious informa- Medical men stationed abroad, iion concerning the habits of our an

“ ought to be conversant with the plants cestors, but, like coins and marbles, confirm and illustrate History in its able to treat maladies more successfully by

indigenous to the place ; they would be most interesting points; whereas mere employing native medicines, than by having political events are only the same things recourse to mineral ones (except under pardone at different times and places. ticular indications), and by collecting the

However, Mr. Seyer promises us a names of the herbs used by the natives, and third volume, which we hope will be attaching to them their provincial, when founded upon the school of Dugdale, their scientific names are not known, they not that of Whitaker; for manuscript would, in the course of time, form a very and record we hold to be metallic cura complete catalogue of Materia Medica, to rency in works of Topography. Whit- hand down to successors to their station, aker was a dashing fellow-one, in cols which would render benefits to medical loquial language of a great deal of vous science that are not now appreciated.” P. 12. (nous), but very little of the needful in We need only mention the immense his coffers, very little of archæological good resulting from the discovery of science. He was a capital quack, and Bark, to show the importar- of shnge abused regular doctors of course. We

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" No

148

Review.-Scott's Beauties of Eminent Writers. [Feb. medicines daily received from Mexico 27. The Christian Review, and Clerical and South America; and if, as Mr.

Magazine. No. 1. Frost says, from a Roman poet,

IT is well known that the Clergy bis vivere carè,” the means of prolong of the Church of England are now diing life cannot be too much amplified. vided into two distinct classes, the This position is as plain as that two Orthodox and the Evangelical. The and two make four; but as in manage- former exercise their functions accordment of money, so in life, they may be made much more.

ing to what Bishop Mann calls RaWe are glad that Mr. Frost has timents and ideas of Religious Enthu

lional Piety; the other adopt the senbrought the subject, by his excellent siasts. The imposture* before us afOration, before the public, and hope firms that the great enemy of souls that it will excite much attention.

maintains his strongest hold among High-Churchmen--Anti-Calvinists

admirers of the Liturgy-and the Or26. Beauties of Eminent Writers, selected and thodox ;— with the latter he classes

arranged for the instruction of Youth, in
the proper reading and reciting of the Eng- us, and calls us errant bunglers

, superlish Language, &c. By William Scott, eminently bad theologians, blasphemlate Teacher of Elocution and Geography ers, &c. (see pp. 70–78.) We assure in Edinburgh. 2 vols, 12mo.

our readers that we feel no anger at IT is certain that few people read these slanders, because they are quite well. The leading cause seems to be harmless in comparison with the modes ignorance, that the voice is a Aute, fanatics employ when opposed. — To

aspersion not to be named, which which has various stops for the infec.

take
any

other notice of such vituperations of sound, but which they treat as a mere hollow stick; and blow through tions would be unnecessary; for the it in one continuous tone. The words Bishop of London is called upon (p. 8)

“ to determine between his conscience they articulate, but that is all. Every and his God,” because his Lordship such reader is in consequence a mere automaton ; and as it is the property of does not approve of rank fanaticism;

-and such is the character of this all uninteresting sounds to send us to sleep, that is the natural consequence

violent calumnious publication, its of such wretched recitation. The ge

authors, and its friends.

We have never thought it necessary neral rule, that people should read as

that a man should become a fool or a they speak, and modulate the voice according to the sense, is unquestionable ; and we know that the Constitution in

inadman, in order to be a Christian ; and it is best to begin young in this, Church and State is the principle upon as in many other things, for schoolboys particularly require attention.

which this Miscellany is conducted. Men may, and inostly do drone, but Who we are, and what we are,—what schoolboys gabble in prose, and chant

are our pretensions, in regard to chain poetry. They should be taught to Editor. We could successfully appeal

racter and literature, are known to the pronounce their words distinctly, and be told the proper places for the

to the Episcopal Bench for the former, emphasis. This will teach them to

and to the public favour for the latter. read with expression and correctness, thodox from principle, and we shall

We therefore observe, that we are Orby sinking the particles, and other more connecting links of the sentence. However, this cannot be done without pracbe a civil and political evil, (1) be

Religious enthusiasm we hold to tice; and of course exercises should be connected with rules.

cause Spain, Italy, Portugal, and In both these respects, Mr. Scott's Wales, show that a country retrogrades work is not only inexceptionable, but when filled with devotees ; (2) beof superior character. 'The passages

cause it is a known state-principle, selected are not only instructive, but that no person shall be made Archin most instances such as are suited to bishop of Canterbury, who is intempoint out the absolute necessity of in- perate in his principles ; (3) because Aection in the delivery, and by conse

religious enthusiasın' substitutes feelquence to overcome ihe greai evil 10 which reading is especially obnoxious, * No Clergyman would choose or daro c'íz. monolony.

to write this work. See hereafter.

state our reasons.

1827.]
Review.–Christian Review No. I.

149 ings for actions, makes faith a cover- Bishops have recommended our oppoing for sins, and lays no stress upon nents' nostrums in their Charges ? and the qualities useful to society; (4) be- whether the Society for Promoting cause it confounds the purity of prin- Christian Knowledge has expunged ciple inculcated by Christianity, with from its catalogue dissuasives from rea war against harps and piano-fortes ; ligious enthusiasm ? Surely these high (5) because it foments all the low pas- and virtuous persons would so do, if sions consequent upon strong party- they were not satisfied that it is not feeling, and is shockingly uncharita- their duty to recommend quacks. ble; (6) because it depreciates the The violent attack made upon us arts, sciences, and knowledge, and originates, it seems, in a critique by thus injures improvement; and, lastly, us of a work entitled “Is this Reli. because it is a BUBBLE; for eminent gion?”. We gave to the author high philosophers have justly observed, praise for his talents in sentiment, but ihat religious fanaticism has often at- we objected to his Calvinistic princitempted to revive the golden age, j. e. ples, his condemnation of all the Canproduce a race of men without vice or tabrigians who do not attend Mr. Si-. misery, and has always failed in the meou's church, and his innovations on attempt. The only result which it the Liturgy, by demanding, profeshas ever had, is the convulsion of so- sional knowledge from the sick whom ciety by violent faction. We appeal he visited. The Liturgy requires only to History, civil and ecclesiastical. a confession of faith in Jesus Christ;

Instead of fanatical preaching and and this author, for going beyond incautious doctrines, either separating the Rubric, we consider10 have or tending 10 separate faith from incurred the same censures as Bishop works, we have strongłyinculcated Tomline has applied to the Athareligious and moral education, the be- nasian Creed, in the following words : nefits of which have been proved in “ It is utterly repugnant to the attriScotland. We will put a case. There butes of God, nor can it be reconare two adjacent parishes. In A, is a ciled to our ideas of common justice, very violent preacher, who detracts that a person should be consigned to the congregations from all the neigh- eternal punishment because he did not bouring churches. In B, a reasonable believe certain articles of faith, which man preaches temperate, practical, and were never proposed to him, or of the edifying explanations of the Scriptures, truth of which he was not qualified to and also supports a large school, from judge." (Art. viii.

p: 223.) If a viwhich fifty or a hundred children are siting Clergyman affrights the sick, he sent into the world “ with (in the destroys the operation of the medicines phrase of Archbishop Secker) the bias proposed for his relief; and though of good principles. Men may be ihe sick man's life may not have been better, bui cannot be worse for educa- praiseworthy, still, in the words of Bp. tion. Now which would a sensible Tomline (p. 424), “ he must be left io father of a family prefer for a child, - the uncovenanted mercies of God.” a good and moral education, or the The last and grand accusation of all enthusiasın of a fanatic?

is, that we have railed against CalvinBut we have a few questions to ask ism, not knowing what Calvinism is, of these violent slanderers of the Or- and by so doing have committed blasthodox Clergy. It is irregular in an phemy. Now, risum teneatis ? the very Episcopal Church for the Clergy of passages selected in proof of this accuany diocese 10 belong to religious so- sation are mere quotations by us from cieties which the Bishop does not pa- - Milton, Bishop Burgess, and Bishop tronize, or to make any innovations in Tomline. its doctrine or discipline, unsanctioned We have said, “if the system of by authority,—to do so, only belongs Calvin be true, God is the author of to the congregational plan which ob- evil.”—This is called blasphemy!-10 lains among sectaries, and has caused, our readers will refer to our Review according to Bishop Middleton, sound in our last Supplement, p. 611) of doctrines to be sacrificed 10 popular Milton's " Protestant Union,” they and dangerous mistakes. Before, will see that the sentiment and words therefore, these calumniators slander here called blasphemy are taken fronı us Orthodox-men, we beg to be in the above work, page 9. By referformed whether the Archbishops

to Bishop Tomline (page

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