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1827.]
Coins of Mercia and Northumberland.

299 “ Here lyeth the body of Mrs. JANE of Northumberland belongs to the DALE, sister to the Rector of the second son of Offa, as I shall attempt to shew portion of Pontesbury, daughter of Hugh when I come to the coins of that Dale, M. A. formerly Fellow of Brazepnose kingdom. College, Oxford, Chaplain to ye Duke of

ColwuLF I. and II.-Two coins Bridgewater, Rector of Middle, afterwards of Settrington and Donnington in Yorkshire, II. from their resemblance to the coins

are attributed by Ruding 10 Ciolwulf who married a daughter of Pontesbury Owen, of Burgred, who reigned before him. esq.; she died the 14th of Oct. 1788, The moneyers' names, however, Here. aged 31."

On a tablet against the north wall berht and Oba, do not occur amongst of the chancel :

those of Burgred, whilst they are to be

found, as well as most of those of “ In memory of the Rev. William PUGH, Ciolwulf I., amongst those of Coenformerly Curate of this parish. Died Feb.

wulf the predecessor of Ciolwulf l.; 18th, 1775, aged 74."

besides, a similar kind of reverse apThere are several other memorials

pears on the coins of Edbert II. of to the families of Phillips, Heighway, Kent, particularly No. I., and the cus&c.

.tom of placing the legend of the reverse, and sometimes even that of the

obrerse, in lines in the field of the Mr. URBAN, Cork, March 23.

coin, was more common before the I SHALL now proceed to notice the time of Burgred, than it was after it.

Coins of Mercia ; with respect to which fewer mistakes appear to have coins were ascribed by Sir Andrew

Mr. Woolston acknowledges that these been made than in those of any of the Fountaine to Ciolwulf 1., but conother kingdoms, a circumstance pro tends they must belong 10 Ciolwulf II., bably arising from the coins of that and says, they are evidently, copied kingdom being more numerous, and from Burgred's coins, but why may the succession of its princes and their

not Burgred's be copied from ihem? names better ascertained.

Sir Andrew, therefore, I think, was KINGS OF MERCIA.

undoubtedly right, and these two coins EGBERT.—These rare coins are at- ought to be transferred to Ciolwulf I. tributed to the son of Offa, for no There is one coin, however, given other reason, I believe, than that the by Ruding to Ciolwulf I., which seems moneyers names, Babba and Udd, oc

to belong to Ciolwulf II. ; it is Pl. 7, cur on the coins of Offa ; but I think No. 2, and is quite different in type it much more probable that they be- from all the other coins which bear long to Egbert of Wessex, who as- the name of Ciolwulf; it has on the cended the throne of that kingdom in reverse the name of Dealing, who was 800, only six years after the death of one of Alfred's moneyers, whereas no Offa, and might well have had some name nearer to it than Dealla occurs of his moneyers, as he certainly had on the coins of Coenwulf; the legend, many of those of Coenwulf; indeed indeed, is capable of another reading, the name of Oba, one of Egbert's mo- ALINI MON DE or DEV, which neyers, appears on the coins of Cene- last syllable may be intended to denote dred the queen of Offa; and the name Chester, but this would make it still of Eoba on the coins of the latter,

more probable that it belongs to Ciolwas possibly the same naine; Osmund wulf II., as the places of mintage began also,' another of Egbert's moneyers, at that time to appear more frequently perhaps worked for Offa himself, as

on coins. we fiod on the coins of the latter the names Olhmund and Osmod, which

Kings Of NORTHUMBERLAND. may both have been intended for Os- EGPRID. – That this little coin mund.

should have been assigned to NorthIf Offa had really a son named Eg- umberland, is by no means to be bert, I should certainly have ascribed wondered at; no stycas have been disthese coins to him; but in all histories covered which could with any degree I believe in existence, he is called Eg of certainty be attributed to any of the frith, Egferth, or Egfrid. A still other kingdoins, and Egfrid was one further reason will exist in support of of the most celebrated of the Northummy opinion, if it should be supposed brian princes; it is therefore not withthat the styca attributed to Egfrid out considerable hesitation, that I can

300
On Funeral Ceremonies.

[April, bring myself to express any opinion that all these, except No. 36, begin that would disturb this arrangement; the name of the

prince with an A. but for several reasons which I shall EARDULF.-Ruding does not appear offer, I am strongly inclined to doubt to have noticed those stycas which the propriety of so classing it, and I have Eardulf on both sides, probably think it far more likely that it belongs conceiving them to bear only the name to Egfrid, the son of Offa, king of of a moneyer of Eanred or Ethelred. Mercia.

Pinkerton has classed them with the This coin appears rather too elegant kings, but has given them the date for the seventh century, and seems to 910; and Mr. Woolston has followed have been struck when a considerable him, and put them at the end of the degree of improvement had taken place stycas, I know not on what authority, in the coinage, for which improve- as I cannot find any such king of that ment the reign of Offa was inost re- date. I should much rather suppose markable, as his coins are the best ex- they belong to Eardulf, who began to ecuted of all those of the Heptarchy. reign in 796. All those of Eardull I

The letters LV on the reverse, (for have seen, appear to have the name on the X seems rather to be a cross,) pro- both sides, but want the word Rex; bably denoted the moneyer's name, as the letters, and the manner in which the word LVL for LVLLA is found they were struck, seem very different on the coins both of Offa and Coco- from those of Eanred or Ethelred. wulf; besides, the cross, according to I here conclude my observations on Speed, was the ensign of Mercia, and such of the Heptarchic coins as have the highly-ornamented one on the re- been already classed and assigned to verse of this coin is not unlike that on the different kingdoms. In a future several of Offa's coins. To these argu- letter I purpose offering some remarks ments may be added that, as I have on the sceattas published in Ruding, before observed, the word Rex occurs a subject certainly of the greatest diffion all the coins of Mercia, but does culty, and which I never should have not appear on any of the earliest coins attempted to undertake but for the of Northumberland.

purpose of inducing others of more ETHELRED I. A. D. 774.-In a for- experience to investigate the matter. mer letter I expressed an opinion that Yours, &c. John LINDSAY. the sceatta,' noticed by Mr. Woolston belonged to Northumberland ; if this Mr. URBAN,

April 3.

"HERE is the probable it belongs to this prince, who began his reign in 774, was dethroned singular, than that which regards the in 779, and was afterwards restored in funeral rites and memorials of barbarous 794, I am also strongly inclined to and pagan nations. Trilling as such think that a few of the Stycas aitri- particulars may appear to the general buted to Ethelred II. 836, belong to observer, the slightest facts which reibis prince, particularly Nos. 28, 29, Aect light upon ancient and widelyand 36 of Pl. 10, and the styca in spread customs, have still their value. App. Pl. 27, as we find the word Rex They present us with a page in the wanting ou them, as it is on all the history of human nature, and often inearly coins of Northumberland, whilst, cidentally develope the combinations on the contrary, it occurs on the stycas of varied passion. Amidst the vast of Eanred and almost all the subse- diversity which here crowd upon our quent ones, those of Osberht and observation, there are several customs those we are now considering, form- which seem reasonably traceable to ing, I believe, the only exceptions, those natural emotions and wishes and on those of Osberht we generally which are excited by death in the find the letter R for Rex. This opic mindsofthesurvivors; to the poignancy nion derivés, I think, additional of sorrow, and the warmth of affecstrength from the name Eanbald, which tion; some owe their origin to an exwe meet with on No. 29, and which travagani admiration of departed worth; was probably intended for Eanbald I. in others we mark the strong influence or II. who were Archbishops of York of religious prejudice or philosophical from 780 to 812, neither of whose theory, or perhaps the wanderings of namés could occur on the coins of imagination in the fields of poețical Ethelred II. It will also be remarked, allegory. Sometimes also they furnish

conjecture

should be right, in cis mht Thistory or human manners note

1827.)
on Funeral Ceremonies.

301 us with striking coincideices in opil house for the reception of his father's nion and practice between the most soul, formally purchased it, and then remote nations, which are either so after setting forth a rich repast, with general as to mark the wide operation four profound bows, he requested the of certain principles and passions, of spirit to accept of his new habitation. so minute as to illustrate the original Accordingly, a statue, representing the identity of nations, and the uniforin soul, upon which the King's name préservation ofancient tradition. Lastly, was written, was conveyed thither there are some customs of this class so with great pomp, and to conclude the peculiar and extravagant, that it is ex- ceremony, this palace with all its costly. tremely difficult to reduce them to any furniture was set fire to, and consumed. more satisfactory causes than mån's Another traveller relates, that the Javain and wanton caprice, or the sense- panese, upon a yearly festival, visit less corruptions of rustic ignorance. the tombs, where they have familiar

My present purpose is to throw into intercourse with the dead, whom they one view a few of the more remarkable invite to follow them back to the city. of these phenomena.

To this the souls consent, but after 1. It is well known that the ancient two days sojourn among the living, Greeks and Romans attached the they are driven back to the tombs by a highest importance to the due per- great shower of stones ; for any further formance of the obsequies of their des continuance of their visit would be parted friends, and that the souls of esteemed highly unfortunate. In these The unburied were believed to wander practices we may readily trace a belief for the space of an hundred years upon in the immortality and immateriality the disconsolate banks of the Siyx. of the human soul, mingled with a The Hindoo also (who speak of a confused notion of its partiality to the river of fire to be crossed by the disem- body, and its subservienoy to human bodied spirit, and are accustomed to influence. place a piece of money in the mouth Another instance of extraordinary of the corpse,) declare that the souls care bestowed upon the rites of burial, of those who remain unburied, wander may be found in the custom prevalent as evil deities through the earth. In both in ancient Greece and modern conformity with such prejudices, where Scotland, of preparing the shroud of a the exequies could not be strictly per- sick or aged person even long before fornied, certain ceremonies by way of the approach of death. Although this substitution were allowed. It is no- anxiety may not be very easily actorious, from the testimony of Horace counted for upon principles of reason, and other writers, that three handfuls it may be acknowledged as the natural of soft earth thrown upon the body, result of the affection of ignorant perwere considered effectual for this pur- sons, attaching identity to the body inpose; and we know that Andromache, stead of the soul. Hence also the cusin Virgil, raised an empty sepulchre to tom common among pagan nations, of the memory of. Hector. But similar lacing food beside the tombs of the customs are also observed in the re- deceased, which was in some cases carmote kingdom of Tonquin. Father ried so far, that provisions were let down Marini relates that," when any friend by a pipe into the grave, and sometimes is dead, and his body is no where to be were even applied to the mouth of the found, they write his name on a piece dead person. An Ethiopian nation, of board, and perform the same funeral according to Herodotus, preserved the solemnities to that representation of bodies of their relations enclosed in him, as if it were bis real corpse.” coffins made of a sort of glass.

In the third Æneid, v. 67, 68, parti- Strangely mingled with these marks cular ceremonies are specified, by of affection, are symptoms of a superwhich the souls of the dead were in- stitious dread of the relics of the devited to the sepulchres, and made, as parted. The touch of a corpse was, it were, inhabitants of them, "ani- and is now in many parts of the mamque sepulchro condimus. So in world, thought to in part a pollution Ausonius," voce ciere animas funeris which much time and ceremony alone instar habet." Now it is curious that could cleanse. The Kings of some according to Father Tissanier's account countries were not allowed even to of Tonquin, a king of that country behold one, and the Pontifex Maxihaving made choice of rent mus of Rome was, according to Se.

[graphic]

309
The Poly-Olbion of Drayton.

[April, nieca *, laid under the same restraint. Captain Kotzebue, in a similar manThe Hindoos, we are assured, consider ner. Yet more strange is the usage of carcasses as evil deities, and the bodies the Kamschadales, who regularly, we of those who die under an unfortunate are told, deliver up their dead as food constellation, are carried out of the for dogs, and this not from intentional house, not by the door, but through a neglect, but because they think it a hole made in the wall, and the house means of procuring fine dogs for their is deserted for a considerable time. spirits in the other world, and that the This last peculiar custom is, according evil powers, who are the authors of to Kolbens, general among the Hot- death, may be satisfied with seeing the tentots, who carry out a corpse through bodies abandoned without the houses *. a hole in the back of the hut; for they , The Gaures or Guebres of the East, imagine, he adds, that the dead are are well known to abandon the remischievously inclined to injure the mains of their friends, in uncovered cattle confined in the midst of the vil- enclosures, to the birds which live lage. Lastly, the Kamschadales fre- upon carrion. The same practice prequently desert the hut in which a rela- yails in Tibet, where these receptacles tion has breathed his last, and carefully have covered passages below to admit throw away all the clothes which he the beasts of prey: some bodies are used in lifet.

thrown into a river, but burial is quite When we consider the splendid ob- unknown. The inhabitants of the sequies and expensive mausolea so parts near the Pontus Euxinus were, common in most ages and countries, we are told, in ancient times so monthe solicitude so generally manifested strous, as to devour the bodies of their to ensure the rites of burial, and the deceased parents ; and the Balearic frequent practice of deifying the de- islauders used to cut them to pieces, paried, it may appear abstractedly im- and place the mutilated fragments in probable that any nations are to be earthen pots. found by whom these marks of respect It were endless, however, to enuare neglected; yet instances of such merate the extravagancies with which disrespect are discoverable even in ci- the funeral rites of barbarous nations vilized regions. In Mexico, Mr. Bul- are replete. The very follies of men lock observed no memorials of the may become instructive, not only bedead ; neither monuments nor inscrip- cause such relations extend our know

to be in use. In Switzer- ledge of the human mind, and conseland also, though funerals are con- quently of ourselves, but because they ducted with becoming solemnity, no may induce us more highly to value service is read over the

grave. Among those blessings of pure Religion and ruder nations may be perceived marks general improvement, which have deof a studied and even contemptuous livered us from their debasing influence. disrespect. The ancient Troglodytæ, Yours, &c.

A. R. C. as Diodorus relates, were in the habit of covering the bodies of their relations Mr. URBAN,

April 10.

THE Poly - Olbion of Drayton is this unceremonious treatment with peals of laughter t. Whether this point performances the ingenuity of a poet may be illustrated by the conduct of ever devised. He appears to have inthat people who were said to lament at tended to make it the great repository every birth, and to rejoice at funerals, of whatever was connected with the from an opinion of the misery of hu- land of Britain, its history, antiquities, man life, it is difficult to say, The religion, natural history, and geoclassical writer abore cited, speaks also graphy; its customs and manners, and of an Ethiopian tribe who abandon romantic legends : and this, as far as their dead upon the coast, below low- the poem gues, he has accomplished water mark, from the express desire with a minuteness and accuracy, rather that they may become food for fishes.

to be expected from the prose folios of The inhabitants of Radack, an island

one whose life had been devoted to in the Pacific Ocean, act, according to science, and the graver studies of liteMarc. 15.

rature, than from the pen of a votary + History of Kamschatka, translated from of the Muses, the Russian, 1764. #Bibl. I. üi. c. 32.

Hist. Kams.

tions appear

with a shower of stones, accompanying T perhaps one of the most

ringraber

ness

of

1927.)
The Poly-Olbion of Drayton.

303 Yet great and elaborate as is the work, where are harmless shepherds, some and correct and interesting as are its exercising their pipes, some singing details, it has never, and from its very roundelays to their grazing Aocks *. nature can never, become popular, or He mixed in the sports of the hamlet, be read with pleasure as a poem. There mingled with the jokes of its rustic inis nothing more opposed to the genius habitants, and listened to their tradiof poetry, than a minuteness and con- tions and legendary tales. He followed tinuity of detail. Like the bee which the huntsman and his hounds in the sips not at every flower in regular pro- field, and the falconer and his hawk gression, but flies as its fancy dictates, by the river. The habits and notes of poetry must not be bound down or the feathered tribe from the wren to encumbered with a weight of particu- the eagle, and the virtues and prolarity and enumeration : it must be perties of plants from the thistle to the free and wandering, and deal in gene- pine-tree, were alike the objects of his ralities, or it ceases to be poetry. Had attention. Nor did he, in his devotedByron, in his fourth Canto of Child

to rural simplicity and truth, Harold, instead of selecting some of forget the severer studies which a work the most striking objects in his beauti- on such a plan would necessarily reful descriptions of Rome or Venice, quire. The old chronicle and book of attempted a complete and detailed ac- science, the monkish and minstrel count of their temples or statues, even legend were pondered, and many a long his mighty genius would have failed hour must have been spent in extracito make his verse less tedious or lessing from these sources the food of prosaic than the greater part of the learning and research, apparent in Poly-Olbion. This is the great, the every page of his poem. This overstaring fault of Drayton. He gives Aowing of ancient lore, this fidelity of you the name and particulars of every detail, has rendered the Poly-Olbion king, from the first landing of Brutus; one of the most interesting monuments

every saint from Joseph of Arima- in our language to the literary and gethea ; the properig of almost every neral antiquary, and to him it will known herb or tree; of every stone, always be a store of pleasure and debeast, fish, or fowl: add to this pro- light; there is still, however, somelixity, the unharunoniousness and mo- thing wanting to complete his satisfacnotony of the measure he has chosen, tion, and that is a well and ably-written and it will require but little discern- commentary. What the learned Selment to account for the neglect which den has written is excellent, yet even as a poem it has met with. Yet Dray- his notes are not numerous enough, ton was a poet in the strictest sense, and they are far from including the and superior to most, if not all his im- whole poem. But where is the man, nediate contemporaries. His Nym, at the present day, who will undertake phida is a gem that has not its equal to compose a commentary to the Polyfor sportive fancy and imaginative Olbion that shall be perfect, or even beauty in the whole circle of our poetry. approach perfection? Many of the poems in his Muse's Ely. In the preface to his poem, Drayton sium, partake of the same character; ranks among the causes which make and detached pieces abound in the him fearful of its success, the want of Poly.Olbion, of the highest beauty and a prior model. It is true there is no poetic feeling : indeed there is scarcely other poem in English on the same one of his compositions from which plan, but still the claim of complete something could not be called, indica originality is not, I think, quite clear. tive of his talents and his taste. Compositions both in verse and prose,

Drayton was the poet of the country of a somewhat similar nature, were not and of nature, and to this, in great at all uncommon in the middle ages, measure, is owing his superiority over only the plan was not confined to a those of his times. He is compara particular country, but embraced the tively free from cold metaphorical sub- universe. Such, for instance, is the tilties, and the worn-oul pedantry of poem L’Image du Monde, of Gauthe Grecian Mythology. 'He aban- tier de Metz; in prose the Speculum doned the thick fogs and lay-stall of Historiale of Vincent de Beauvais, the city, and betook himself to the and the popular work of our countemple and fields of the Muse, to delightful groves and pleasant downs,

# Preface to the Reader.

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