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1827.)
Literary Intelligence.

347 parts, the first containing the prose“ Life The reading was beguo of a paper on exof Roberte the Deuyll," from the Edition by perimentals for determining the density of Wyokyn de Worde. By N. I. Thoms. the earth, made withi invariable pendulums,

A Concise History of the Transmission of at the mine of Dolcouth, in Cornwall; by Ancient Books to Modern Times; or an Ac- W. Whewell, M.A. F.R.S. count of the means by which the genuine- March 22. The reading of Mr. Wheness and authenticity of Historical Works, well's paper was finished, and an Appendix especially of Ancient Literature in general, to it, by G. B, Airy, esq. Prof. of Matheare ascertained. By Isaac Taylor, jun., matics in the University of Cambridge, was Author of “Elements of Thought."

also read. Memoirs ; including Correspondence and

March 29. Davies Gilbert, esq. V.P. in other Remains of Mr. John Urquhart, late the chair : the reading was commenced of of the University of St. Andrews. By W.11. “On certain compounds of ChroOrme, Author of "The Memoirs of Owen." niuin;" hy Thomas Thomson, M.D.F.R.S.

A Natural History of the Bible ; or, a Regius Professor of Chemistry in the Uni-
descriptive Account of the Zoology, Botany, versity of Glasgow.
and Mineral ey of the Holy Scriptures : April 5. Mr Gilbert in the chair. The
compiled from the most authentic sources, reading of Dr. Thompson's paper was con-
British and Foreign, and adapted to the use cluded, and the Society then adjourned to
of English readers. By M. CARPENTER. Thursday April 26.

A Translation from the German of Flirsch's
Geometry. By the Rev. J. A. Ross.

Or the Connection of BATH wilh the Litera-
i he ea-side: a Series of short Essays
and Poems, suggested by a temporary resi-

fure and Science of England ; abstracted

from a Paper read before the Literary and dence at a Watering-place. By the Rev. J. East.

Philosophical Association of Bath. By the

Rev. Joseph HUNTER, F.A.Ş.
The Florist's Guide and Cultivator's Dic-
tionary. By Mr. Sweet.

Soon as the Romans became possessed
A 'Translation from the German of Count of the southern part of this Island, there
Von Bis'nark's celebrated “ Lectures on the arose around these springs what may truly
Tactics of Cavalry.” By Major F. Johnston. be called a beautiful and splendid city. We

The Memoirs and Correspondence of the know it, because its reinains are with us. late Admi. Lord Collingwood. By G. NEwn. When some one, walking with an Italian in HAM Coilingwood, Esq.

the streets of nodern Rome, enquired for One Hundred Fables, in Prose and Verse, its antiquities, the Roman stooped down, original and selected. By James North- and presented him with a handful of dust. COTE, R A., embellished with 270 Engrav. And we, whenever we descend a few feet beings ou wood, from original designs by the low the surface, I speak of what constitutes Author and Wm. Hervey.

the City of Bath, not of that uew and beauA Series of Practical Instructions in Land- tiful suburb in which, within the memory of scape Painting in Water-colours. By Mr. man, she hath renewed her youth, we never CLARK.

fail to meet with some relic of that all-conPart VI. of Skelton's Specimens of Arms quering, refined, and ever-to-be-honoured and Armour.

people. Two centuries ago there was such

a collection of the sculpture of Roman artRoyal Society.

ists as no city in this kingdoin could boast. March 1. A paper was read, entitled, Within the inemory of man a portion of one “On the Structure and Use of the Submix- of their temples was still standing, making a illary Odoriferous Gland of the Crocodile ; part of a Christian Church, known as the by Thomas Bell, Esq. F.L.S.: communi- Church of St. Mary ai Stalls. Those have cated by Sir E. Home, bart. V.P.R.S. perished. But enough of the works of that

The reading was commenced of a paper people still remains to shew that the City of “On the disinfecting liquor of Labarraque ; the Sun was adorned with obelisks and staby A. B. Granville, M.D. F.R.S.

tues ; that the sculptured tombs of its inhaMarch 8. A letter from M. Rünker bitants were placed along the sides of the was read, announcing his discovery of a roads which pointed towards it ; that it had Comet in the Southern Hemisphere; the numerous altars; and that there arose at reading of Dr. Granville's paper was con- least two Temples, of one of which enough cluded; and a paper was also read, “On remains to exhibit its form, its extent, and the permeability of transparent screens of its grandeur ; and to shew that the antient extreme tenuity by radiant heat; by W. architects of Bath had, at least, one model Ritchie, A.M." communicated by J. F. W. of just proportion and beautiful design. Hercshel, esq. Sec. R.S.

This then must be classic ground. It is March 15. A paper was read, entitled, remarkable, that there is no Romano-British « Correction of an error in the reduction Literature. Did such exist, we should assuof the observations of atmospherical refrac- redly have found the name of Aqua Solis, tion at Port Bowen ; by Lieut, H. Fort- the city of Apollo, the city in which a TemR.N. F.R.S."

dicated to the Goddess of Wisdom.

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348

Conneclion of Bath with Literature and Science. (April, As it is, we must content ourselves with the kings of Wessex and Mercia, there arose an proofs that the arts in those ages had a do- extensive and richly-endowed Monastery, micile at Bath. The remains of the Portico within whose precincts we are at this moof the Temple of Minerva* are sufficient to ment assembled. In the tenth century its shew that there were those who could design constitution was reformed by Elfege, a naand execute according to the chastest mo- tive of this district, for he was born at the dels of Grecian art. Some of our inscribed little village of Weston under Lansdown. marbles are cut with peculiar delicacy and in the earlier part of his life he lived at Glasbeauty. The bronze head † which is among tonbury and Bath. Here he presided over the ornaments of the Guildhall, part of a the monastery, the rule of which he had statue, the remainder of which one day may reformed. From hence he was called to be discovered, is the work of no ordinary preside over the See of Canterbury. The hand. It may be questioned, indeed, whe- history of his life is the subject of a partither it were the performance of any resident cular memoir by one of his contemporaries. artist. But that it was so is rendered pro- He appears to have possessed some great and bable by the discovery that the processes of good qualities. He perished at last by the metallurgy must have been carried on in this hands of the Danes. place to a considerable extent, because that The Monasteries were, in those ages, alhere was a manufactory of the instruments most the ouly seats of learning and science. used by the Romans in war. Hence it is We are not qualified to judge how far the inferred that here were the furnaces neceg- institution of Elfege went to form the mere sary for the casting of the bronze in question, devotee, or the far nobler character of the and some of the skill which such a work re- religious man who endeavours to gain knowquired in those who had to shape the en- ledge for himself, and to impart it willingly signs, or to form the devices on the shields, to others. But soon after the Conquest of the Roman warriors.

another change took place in the constituWith attention to the Arts a literary spi- tion of the Monastery, which was highly rit is generally united. But the dawn of the favourable to the introduction of the light Literature of England is to be fixed at a pe- of literature and science among us. To one riod after the retreat of the Romans from member of its body, soon to be mentioned, Britain, and when the anarchy which pre- Western Science has, perhaps, greater obvailed duriog the fifth and sixth centuries ligations than to any individual from the fall had given place to settled and regular go- to the revival of learning : and from this Before Eugland acknowledged

time to the Dissolution there appears never only one sovereign, it had begun to have its to have been wanting those who upheld the national literature. Alcuin and Berle were united lights of literature and science in the writers, of whom no age need to be ashamed. midst of the population of this city. A little before their time lived Gildas, a man And here I wish that we could recall the inferior to them indeed, but who is regarded spirit of John Chandler, who was Warden as the father of English History, having of New College in Oxford, and Archdeacon composed, in his monastery at Bangor, an of Wells, in the reign of King Edward IV.: account of the wars of the sixth century, or that we could recover a work of his which with a long and tedious lamentation over the existed in the time of Leland, “ De laudibus sufferings of his country. This was the first Baiarum et Fonticulorum Civitatum." How attempt at historical composition amongst much of the writings of the schoolmen

It is here that we read of Arthur, and would we give for this curious aud interestthe great battle of the Mons Badonicus. ing tract. How agreeable a picture it in These continue to this day to attract to Bath all probability presented of the state of the the attention of every critical enquirer into sister cities, at a period of which we have our early history. With the name of Gil- 80 few memorials : not inferior perhaps in das has descended the addition of Badoni- true and lively colouring to the description cus. It is hence reasonably inferred that he of London a few centuries earlier by Stephawas a native, or at least, at one period of his rides. How many of the more distinguished life, a resident of Bath.

inhabitants of the Monastery of Bath may Immediately after the second introduction it have recorded : for Chandler was one who of Christianity into Britain, a company of delighted to employ himself in maintaining Religious became seated near our healing the memory of the wise and good. But springs. There are traces of a society of since his spirit will not come, even though religious women in the earliest ages, doubt- we invoke it, to these which were once his less collected for the purpose of administer- favourite haunts, and since his work is lost, ing assistance to the multitudes of the sick it is to be feared irrecoverably, we must be and the infirm who sought the benefit of the content with such imperfect hints as are to But under the patronage of the be collected from other quarters.

The change in the character of the in

mates of this monastery was produced by Engraved in Archäologia.

that remarkable person called sometimes † Engraved in Vetusta Monumenta. JOHN DE VILLULA, and sometimes Joannes

vernments.

us.

waters,

1927.] Connection of Bath with Literature and Science. 349 Turonensis, from Tours the place of his birth. himself an enquirer into nature, and an oriThis person came to England in the train ginal discoverer. His writings are probably of the Conqueror, and seated himself at known to very few, as they are to me, but Bath, for the purpose of practising the heal- by their titles. He wrote on the Abacus ing art. William of Malmesbury, who has and the Astrolabe, which were the first atwritten his life, speaks of him as being me- tempt, at making the skill of the mechanic dicus probatus usu non literis. But he also ininister to the views of the philosopher : on speaks of him as a great encourager of lite- the causes of Natural Compositions, in rature, as possessed of great skill in his which it may be supposed that some of the art, and as surpassing all the physicians of principles of chemical affinities are to be his age in profit and honour. He purchased found : and Seventy-Six Problems in Natuthe antieat royal farın of the city : and such ral Philosophy, which Leland, no incompewas his influence, he prevailed with the tent judge, pronounces to be highly valuaKing to consent that the seat of the Bishop- ble. An account of his travels was once to rick of Somersetshire should be removed be read in a manuscript preserved in the lifrom Wells to Bath, and that he himself brary of Corpus Christi College in Oxford. should be made the Bishop. The Church Who but must join with Dr. Wallis in the of the Monastery then became the Cathe- sincere regret which he expresses in the dral of the diocese. He presided over the preface to his Algebra, that soine wicked See with great dignity for four and thirty hand has torn away the precious leaves ? years. At his death in 1122 he was buried In the next century there was one Regiin the Church of the monastery, where his NALD or Bath, a physician, who may be pretomb was still to be seen in the time of Le- sumed to have been eminent, as he was sent land. It was then however going fast to de- by King Henry III. to attend a Queen of cay. Weeds were springing about it, and Scotland at Edinburgh. Contemporary with the Church was unroofed. It was the old him was HENRY OF BATH, a lawyer, who is Church built by himself, superseded by the

described by Pitz as legum terræ peritissimus. present fabrick.

And to about the same period is to be reThe reigns of Rufus and Henry I. form a ferred a William of Bath, a divine, some of brilliant era in the history of Bath. Malmes-' whose homilies were collected, and the vohury expressly informs us that Villala col- lume was still in existence in the time of lected about him a society of religious who Leland. were eminently distinguished for their learn- The inhabitants of the Monastery of Bath ing. Amongst them was Adelard, a name had the benefit of a library which was richly which deserves to be held in everlasting ho- stored with works relating to the science of

the middle ages. John de Villula was a great It is well known that while learning and benefactor to it. This library excited the science were nearly extinct in Europe, they admiration of Leland, who was acquainted were cultivated under the Caliphs to a great with all the great libraries in the kingdom. extent, and with much success. Adelard There were books in it, which must have having acquired what could be learned at been precious volumes, the gift of King home, visited Egypt and Arabia. He made Athelstan. There were translations from himself master of the language of Arabia, the Arabic, perhaps the work of Adelard and possessed himself of much of the science himself. There were poems of the middle of that country. He brought from it trea- ages; the Roman Classics; and the writings tises in natural philosophy; and is, in fact, of the more eminent physicians. the link which connects western science with

There has been a time at Bath, when men that of the east. But he brought home a conspired to abolish the memory of the more precious volume than any of the wri- things that had been. One book remains. tings of the Arabian philosophers. This It is known as the Red-Book of BATH, was the Elements of Euclid, not in its ori- and is now deposited in the library of that ginal form, but in an Arabic translation, of noble family who derive their principal title which Adelard made a Latin version, which of hoogur from this place. It relates to continued to be used all over Europe till, the possessions of the Abbey. some centuries after, the Greek original was The Dissolution of the Monasteries forms discovered. This was a service such as few a grand epoch in the political, the religious, are able to render for science; and who shall and the literary history of our country. attempt to calculate how much is on this from that event, rather than from the beaccount due from all who love science, and ginning of the reign of Henry VIII. I should venerate those who advance it, to this Athel- be disposed to date what is called our inoardus Bathoniensis, who must a thousand dern history. times have crossed the very ground on which It will be found that here has been a suc* in these latter days we have raised this Tem- cession of persons in the various departe ple to Science. But beside having made ments of our literature,--in Natural Philohimself master of Arabian science, and in sophy, in Morals, in History, in Criticism, some measure of the science of a still more and Poetry,—some of whom may with truth enlightened people, he appears to have been be said to have been of the first order of

nour.

cessors.

350
Literature and Science,

[April, minds, and many of them eminent, and wor- jesty, and placed in a situation more favourthy of a lasting remembrance.

able for the prosecution of those observaEarly in the seventeenth century, the tions which finally produced such splendid names of Jones, and Venner, and JORDEN, results. While still a resident of Bath, and Johnson, and Pierce, all resident phy- many of his most important observations sicians of Bath, who, with others, attempted were made. Here, it is said, he obtained to clear away the mystery which hangs over the first glimpse of the planet which bears our springs, and by their writings to ad- his name; and here he constructed his first vance our botanical knowledge, or our me- telescope, having been led to consider the dical science. There was also a Dr. Mayow, structure of that instrument, by having acwho communicated to the world the result cidentally broken one of the lenses of an of his chemical researches in a treatise upon old telescope which he had borrowed in this nitrous salts : and Dr. Guidot, a man of va-' city. rious learning, who lived in close corre- In the department of Botany, our old spondence with the must eminent physi- physician Dr. Johnson is to be remembered, cians, naturalists, aud philosophers of his as having published the Herbal of Gerard, age, and who himself contributed to the which long continued to be the most popuadvancement of science and philosophy. lar and most complete work in that departThat all or any of them were great original ment of natural history. In later and betdiscoverers can hardly be maintained: but ter times the work of Mr. Sole on the they were men who fully came up to the plants belonging to the genus Mentha is standard of philosophical knowledge in their supposed to have exhausted his subject. own age, who maintained in their day the But the name of STACKHOUSE stands emireputation of Bath for science, and who nent among the cultivators of this attractive prepared the way for their more able suc- branch of natural history, the translator of

Theophrastus, and the able delineator of the At the beginning of the next century were Fuci and other marive plants found mpon CHEYNE and the elder Oliver, both Fellows our shores, in the work to which he gave the of the Royal Society, and both contributing appropriate and classical title of Nereis Briby their writings to the advancement of tannica. knowledge in the profession to practice of which they were devoted. A second OLIVER

(To be concluded in our next.) succeeded, pot inferior to the first; and during the whole of that century, among the

Polar EXPEDITION. medical practitioners of Bath were, many, who, through different channels, communi- On Sunday the 25th of March, the Hecla, cated to the public curious results of their under the command of Captain Parry, left professional enquiries, increasing in a greater her moorings at Deptford, towed by the or less degree the medical information of the Lightning steamer, to proceed on her incountry, and supporting through that cen- tended expedition to the North Pole, 10tury the reputation of our city for medical ticed in vol, xcvi. ii. 61. From Sheerness science; till at the close of it we arrive at the she was towed by the Comet steam-vessel, names of FALCONER and Parry, who will, which was to accompany her as far as Orprobably, be allowed to have surpassed all fordness. The navigators were not to stop at their predecessors as well in medical science the Orkneys, as in previous voyages, but as in polite and elegant literature.

proceed to Hammerfest in Norway, where The name of Sir William Watson be

some rein-deer will be provided for them, to comes honourably connected with the sci- assist in drawing the boats on the ice wlien ence of the country, and through him Bath they are used as sledges. Upon the arrival with that science, by another tie. In the of the Hecla at Spitzbergen, after securing band of musicians who once performed at her firmly in as good a situation as can be our evening Concerts was a young Ger- found, she will be left in charge of a lieuman who possessed considerable skill in his

The two expeditions, into which own art, but who was observed often to leave the rest of the officers and crew are to be the room, and employ himself during the divided (after leaving a few hands with the interval of his performances in the study of vessel) will then start on their adventurous the heavens. This excited the curiosity of routes. The first, which is to proceed diSir William Watson, who soon discovered rect for the North Pole, is to consist of two that he was no ordinary character, and who parties of ten men each and two officers, in from that moment extended his patronage to two boats, which inay be used on the ice him, assisting him in his studies, and intro- with wheels, or as sledges. The provisions ducing him to the acquaintance of other consist of fine biscuit powdered, and meat persous engaged in the same pursuit. I preserved in a peculiar manner. For fuel need not add that this was HERSCHEL, who there is highly rectified spirits of wine, ode continued to reside for many years at Bath, pint of which will make four gallons of water till, I believe, through means of his first from ice (by an ingenious apparatus), and at patron, he was introduced to his late Ma- the same time boil the water into soup. for those purposes:

tenant.

1927.]
Literature and Science.

351 They will cake provisions for ninety days, the The Rev. T. Williams's LIBRARY. time they expect to be absent; but will be A Latin MS. of the Gospels in this splenable to subsist upon the stock for 110 od did collection was sold April 11. It is the 120 days, should difficulties arise to detaio one that was presented by the Countess Mathem so long. The second division is un- tilda of Tuscany (the great patroness of the der Lieutenant Foster, R. N. an officer of church in the eleventh century), to the cegreat scientific attainments, and who acted lebrated monastery of St. Benedict de Padoas astronoiner in the last expedition with lirone, near Modena. It appears, by a MS. Captain Parry: it is his intention, if pos- note of Recanati on the margin, to have sible, to sail round Spitzbergen. It hav- been written previous to the year 1097. One ing been correctly ascertained to be au of its most distinguishing features is, the island, he will correctly lay down the ex. spirited designs at the beginuing aod end of act portions of the different bearings, and the text of the scriptures, which are highly mako many astronomical observations and interesting specimens of early art. The subexperiments on magnetism--the Board of jects treated, are Joseph's Dream, the Wise Longitude having furnished the expedition Men's Offering, the Flight into Egypt, and with many excellent and curious instruments various other passages in the Life of Our

Saviour. This valuable Codex, which Mr. The perils incident to this undertaking Dibdin says is the finest in existence, is in are probably magnified beyond reality; for folio, written upon vellum. It was put up the voyage itself by sea, as far as Spitzber- at fifty guineas, and, after much competition, gen, is not subject to any extraordinary de- was knocked down at 1721. to Mr. Singer, gree of danger; and the impervious barrier the librarian to the Royal Institution, who which the insurmountable accumulations of was understood to have purchased it for Sir icebergs and fixed masses, as well as ava- Thomas Phillips. The Duke of Sussex, we lanches of snow, present farther to the believe, was very desirous of possessing this northward, will probably soon compel the MS., and Mr. Pettigrew bid for it very spiadventurers to retrace their steps.

ritedly up to 1711. Evangelia Quatuor, a

fine Greek MS. upon vellum, bearing the Fossil REMAINS.

date of the tenth century, and apparently In the summer of 1826, as some work- copied from an earlier Ms., was sold for med were quarrying stones in Uphill Hill, 521, 10s. Somerset, they crossed a fissure containing "a quantity of bones. In the course of fur.

SALE OF THE CELEBRATED BREVIARIUM ROther search were discovered bones of the MANUM, PRESENTED TO ISABELLA, QUEEN elephant, rhinoceros, ox, horse, bear, hog,

of Spain. byæoa, fox, polecat, water-rat, mouse, and

The celebrated Missal which was presentbirds. Nearly all the bones of the larger ed by Francisco de Roias to Isabella, Queen species were so goawed and splintered, and of Spain, wife of King Ferdinand, and the evidently of such ancient fracture, that little munificent patroness of Columbus, was lately doubt can exist that it was a hyæna's den, brought to the hammer, by Mr. Evans, similar to Kirkdale, and Kent's Hole. The Pall Mall, and knocked down to Mr. Hurd, bones and teeth of the extinct species of hy of the Temple, at 360 guineas. This was æna were very abundant. The more autient one of the most interesting and important arbones were found in the upper region of the ticles in the very splendid library of the late fissure, firmly imbedded ; further down, in Joho Dent, Esq. F.R.S. and F.S.A., which & wet loam, there was an indumerable quan- was on sale by Mr. Evans. It was purchased tity of birds' bones only, principally of the by Mr. Dent at 300 guineas. In introducgull tribe. These Professor Buckland sup- ing this splendid work to the notice of the poses to bave been introduced by foxes. The company, Mr. Evans passed upon it an eleCavern extends about 40 feet from North to gant eulogium. This magnificent MS. upon South, varying from 14 to 6 feet, from East vellum, is illuminated by Flemish painters, to West.-At its entrance the floor was in Spain, about the close of the 15th cenfound covered with sheep-bones, and on dig- tury, containing 523 letves, interspersed ging into the mud and sand of which it con- with a variety of beautiful miniature paintsisted, several bones of the cuttie fish were ings. The portraits of De Roais and the foued, and the pelvis and a few bones of the Queen of Spain are introduced in the miniafox. The fissure is vertical, about 50 feet tures. De Roais is supposed to have been deep from the surface to the mouth of the of the noble fainily of Roccas; the name becave, and is situated at the western extre- ing written indifferently Roias, Rojas, and mity of Mendip, in a bold mural front of Roccas, in Spain. The Rev. Dr. Dibdiu has limestone strata. The greater part of the given, in his Bibliographical Decameron, an bones have been presented to the Bristol elaborate and admirable description of this Institution ; Mr. Buckland has a few speci- splendid Breviary, which contains some spemens, and the Geological Society in London cimens of art of a higher character than a few more.

are to be found even in the beautiful Bedford Missal.

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