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1827.] New CHURCHES.-St. Luke's, Norwood.

395 variation consists of a square pedestal, objection to this plan being effected, formed on the apex of the conical as many Churches have galleries in roof of the tower, and which sustains which a single range of windows are the ball and cross, as in the other in- ainple for the purposes of lighting the stances. The south and north fronts spaces below and above the galleries. of this Church have each a single range Whoever sees Norwood Church in its of windows, with arched heads. The present state, will lament that these cast front is made into three divisions alterations have been effected, and it is by antæ, and has an attached staircase, to be hoped that the parish will do built against the centre division, one away with the effect of them, by taking of the alterations which took place in down the present eastern gallery, and consequence of the erection of galleries building others in the usual way, to be noticed subsequently. The en- An organ is situated in the western tablature is continued from the west gallery, and the decalogue, &c. are infront round the whole of the building, scribed against slabs of marble on the and the eastern elevation is finished wall, where the altar is placed, and with a pediment.

which are the only indications of it. The INTERIOR

Upon concluding the description of would have more exactly resembled the last of Mr. Bedford's Churches, I the Churches before alluded to, ifit had cannot help noticing the bad taste be-n originally fitted up with galleries which has induced that gentleman to in the manner in which they are; in assimilate so closely his designs to each the present it was only intended that a other, and in the present instance it is gallery should be erected across the the more to be regretted, as the Church western end of the Church. Since now under consideration stands in the building was finished, it was deter- what may be called the country, where mined to make further accommoda- a spire would have been a far more aption, the western gallery was in conse- propriate ornament to the neighbourquence enlarged, and an additional one hood than a pepper-box tower and a 10 correspond built at the east end. Corinthian portico. What could inIn consequence of which, an attached duce the parish to select such a design, vestry was heightened and converted in preference to the pointed style, is into a staircase, and the window which difficult to imagine, nor can I help would have been over the altar, if the lamenting the want of taste, or whaioriginal plan had been adhered to, is ever other cause it was, which has led now made into a doorway. No ar- to the preference. rangement could possibly have effected Norwood Church was commenced so great an injury to the building as in the latter part of the year 1822, and the present has done. The altar being was consecrated on the 15th July, 1825. displaced by the new gallery, has been The building affords accommodation set against the centre of the south wall, for 1412 persons, and the estiinale was and the pulpit and reading-desk against 12,3871. 8s. 3d. the opposite one, so that the internal Yours, &c.

E. I. C. arrangement of the building is quite to enter

Mr. URBAN,

May 10.

Holfacing the spectator, he finds it on his left hand, and the pulpit on his right, illustrate, in some degree, the extraoran arrangement which it is obvious must dinary phenomenon of Subterraneous have greatly defaced the building. It Fire existing within its interior rewould be unfair to charge these injudi- cesses, &c. cious alterations upon the architect, but Holworth Cliff forms the southern it is difficult to account for the making boundary of a farm called South Holof them, from whatever quarter they worth (anciently written Oleworth, proceeded. It is obvious that north and Holeworth, and Holwerde), the prosouth galleries might have been erected perty of J. J. Lambert, Esq. of Dorwithout any disparagement to the chester; it is situate about iwo miles building; the altar and pulpit would eastward of Osmington, and forms a then have retained their stations, and very prominent object from Weymouth not have appeared in such awkward Bay. situations as they do at present, and This Cliff is composed of a blue the windows would have afforded no slaty lime stone, somewhat similar to

ing from the west, instead of the altar The following noticed in p. 359),

396
Observations on Holworth Cliff, Dorset.

(May, the Charmouth Cliff, but exhibiting a sionally continued its sinking progress more advanced state of decomposition; downwards, to the extent of nearly yet bearing a much stronger and closer five hundred feet, when it made a stand; affinity to the Kimeridge Coal, and exhibiting the entire cottage, with its indeed

may be fairly considered as the accompanying garden, well stocked connecting link between them. This with gooseberry and currant trees, and stone, which is used as an article of various vegetables, all in the most fuel by, the neigbouring poor, is in- Aourishing condition, and still retainAlamoiable, and of a strong bituminous ing its position. The cottage has been and sulphureous nature; it burns free, lately taken down, the materials being and produces a very brilliant light, but removed by its former occupier, to emits at first, and until the gaseous build him another habitation on a spot particles are all evaporated, a very near, but presumed more secure and offensive smell ;-it afterwards conti- apparently less liable to a similar disnues to burn for a long time pleasantly, aster. The fruit trees and vegetables and notwithstanding the disagreeable continued in an equally thriving coneffluvia atising from its first igniting, dition, until the late eruption, but it does not appear that any injurious now the numerous trespassing visitors effect has ever attended the use of it. hare nearly obliterated every vestige of It does not burni entirely to ashes, but so remarkable an occurrence. leaves a substance like burnt slate, As portions of the Cliff along the which is, after a time, reduced to whole extent of this coast are conpowder, on being subjected to the action stantly falling down, particularly after of the aj mosphere. It is worthy of heavy rains and breaking up of frost, remark, that blocks pf this stone, which this slide, as it is called, did not at the have been exposed to, and washed by, time excite any particular notice, al. the salt watei, burn better than what though so extensive, but was looked is recently taken from the Cliff.

on as merely an incident natural to the The soil contains Pyrites, Marca- peculiarity of the soil;—nor was there site, Cornu Pramonis, with remains of any thing, for some time, after this other shells and Belemnites. These deiached portion of Cliff had become substances are not found in regular stationary, which caused any remark, strata, but are ioterspersed in masses, until about five years ago, a vapour through the soil, which is impreg was observed to exhale from that 'side nated, more or less, with bitumen, to of it, facing the sea, and the same apan uncertain depth. There are occa- pearance has occurred occasionally sionally found pieces of a darker sub- since, at irregular intervals, particularly stance of stone, resembling charcoal, after heavy rains, varying materially in but much harder.

extent and also as to locality. It has About twelve years since, that por- been noticed, that the vapour bas been tion of the Cliff which has lately at- more offensive, and has issued from the tracted so much of public curiosity, interstices in much larger quantities, at was observed to change its appearance, the spring tides *, than at other times: and a quantity of ground, about an - but that the greatest effusion of acre and half in extent, gradually sunk smoke has occurred about the Vernal about thirty feet below its former level, and Autumnal Equinoxes. in a direction towards the sea, and re- In the months of September and mained there for a short period; on October 1826, a very considerable porthis detached piece of ground there tion of vapour was, for the first time, was a cottage, inhabited by a fisher- observed to rise from two or three man (named Baggs) and his family, apertures, on the summit of this Cliff, who prudently left it after perceiving and continued to issue therefrom for the first symptom of an alteration; some time, until fissures were opened however the cottage remained, with the exception of a slight crack in one

* To persons unacquainted with the naof the walls, perfectly entire. Some

ture of the tides, and unaccustomed to pautime afterwards this piece of ground meaning of spring tides :-it is the fus of

tical terms, it is necessary to explain the made a further gradual slide in the the ocean, which regularly occurs at the same direction, carrying the cottage New and Full Moon, when the attractive with it, without any additional injury; power of that planet causes the tide to rise and during a period of nearly three or spring to a niuch greater height thar at years from its first removal, it occa- other periods.

1827.]
Observations on Holworth Cliff, Dorset.

897 by its contending strength, in the side part of a lime kiln, in its most active of it, large enough to permit its escap- progress of operation. The massy ing in that direction. The quantity bloeks of stone on fire, displayed at exhaling from the summit, was (to use first sight a most vivid and somewhat the language of an eye-witness) as awful appearance; throwing out a very much, as is usually caused, and passes intense heat, accompanied with a powout of a chimney, at the first lighting erful sulphureous effluvia, highly opof a common fire. On a calm

day it pressive, so much so, as to cause a has been seen to rise in a majestic co- visible effect on the respiration of those Jump to the height of twenty feet, and persons who remained any length of had a very curious and imposing effect, time within its infuence. in such a situation : since the vapour This interesting appearance was vihas forced down a portion of the Cliff, sible five or six days, and would proand found an uninterrupted passage bably have remained so much longer, through the fissures thus opened, it but the unadvised curiosity of the learnhas, with scarce any intermission, con- ed as well as the unlearned, eager to tinued to exhale, only varying as be- dive into the secret workings of nature, fore mentioned, in the number of induced them to apply crow-bars, pickapertures, from four to ten, and in the axes, and other powerful implements, space of ground over which they are for removing the surface, as well as extended.

portions of the rock, any way offering On the 15th of March, 1827, Ni. an obstacle, in order to ascertain (as cholas Baugs observed iive vapour aris. they imagined) the cause of this woning from the side of the Cliff, to be in derful phenomenon ; which, after all larger quantities than usual at that their efforts, proved fruitless ; Nature, spot, and having occasion for fuel, in her operations, being too subtle and curiosity urged him to direct the per- impenetrable for human ingenuity to sons he employed for the purpose, to develope her designs. The consequence dig at that part; after removing a is that, owing to the quantity of rock small portion of the surface, they were and soil removed from the principal very much surprised at seeing fire, . apertures, a very large portion of the and what at first sight seemed to them upper part of the Cliff, being partially a small flame. The appearance of undermined, has fallen down, and fame was momentary--it died away buried the precise spot that first exalmost as soon as it became visible, cited so large a share of curiosity; and, and there has not been the least sem- although the quantity of vapour now blance of flame since, except on the issuing is not so profuse as originally, application of some combustible ma- still the exhalation is considerable, and terial, to either of the fissures in the emits a very powerful effluvia from rock, in which the fire was percep- three apertures, which proves how vast tible, which immediately ignited. Dry a mass of fire exists, mouldering besticks, or any inflamable substance, neath this heap, feeding on the perishwould, on being thrust into any of able mementos of a former world. The the apertures from whence smoke outward surface of the rock, at thi issued, instantly, kindle and produce part of the Cliff, is very hot, as wel flame, and remain burning as long as ihe soil around the apertures, and fed with such matter ; but as soon as small fragments of the stone retair a the substance so applied was consumed, very considerable degree of heat fo a the Alame would invariably die away long time, after being detached fom instantly. It is necessary to state, in the larger blocks. consequence of the multiplicity of idle The ground shakes with a trifing Teports of a contrary tendency, that and sudden pressure of the foot, and there never has been the least fame

even by a blow with a slick, which issuing spontaneously from any part of evidently proves the internal recisses the Cliff, since the first appearance of of this mass of earth to be hollow, and fire.

of course dangerous to a certain dgree. The apertures from whence the va- It is very probable, that at some future pour or smoke issue, are about forty period, perhaps not very distan, after feet above high water mark; the ap- the partial consumption of the mate. pearances within the interstices of the rials feeding this immense bay of fire, rock, at the depth of five or six feet, the present crust or surfac, may sink were very similar to that of the lower down, and exhibit all th incidental

898
Observations on Holworth Cliff, Dorset.

[May, peculiarities of an extinct volcano; or mouth in this county; and at the possibly astonish us, with the more mouth of the river Shannon in Tre awful characteristics of an existing land, in the year 1753: and in the one, in active operation.

Philosophical Transactions mention is Previous to the disruption of this made of a like circumstance in Caer. portion of Cliff from its neighbouring narvonshire. soil, there was a spring of excellent There is no doubt of the communiwater, constantly bubbling out a co- cation of salt water with the interior pious chrystalline stream, but which part of this Cliff, perforating through this convulsion entirely suppressed. A the loose pebbles at its base, and which liule water now oozes out from another communication originally effected the part of the adjoining cliff, and imme- separation and removal of this mass of diately hides itself amongst the soil, earth from its former situation; as a being as it were ashamed of its insig- proof of it, if proof was wanting, it nificance. About one hundred feet it has been observed that the spring from the summit of this disjointed tides, and more particularly the equiCliff, where the exhalation issued last noctial tides (owing to their increasing August, there is in a hollow formed Auxes coming more immediately in by its separation from its former site, a contact with these active internal pond of stagnant water, abounding agents), have invariably produced very with the common Water Lizard. visible effects on the discharge of va

There are not at this tiine any in- pour from this cavern : as at these pedications that will warrant the expec- siods a much larger quantity issues tation of a violent eruption, nor are out, and a far stronger efíuvia is the peculiar local properties of the soil emitted than at any other times. of such a description as to excite any The whole line of coast exhibits in alarming apprehension. After a time, the various strata, and numerous alluit is very probable the vapour may' par- vial deposits contained in them, very tially subside, till another convulsive remarkable features of violent conruleffort of nature may shew the wonder- sions; and although no record exists ing visitor the astonishing working of to inform us of the precise period of her hidden and inexplicable machinery. their occurrence, it is not less certain That there is an extensive body of sub- and demonstrable, that they have hapterraneous fire accumulated here, is too pened ; leaving us incontestible proofs evident to be doubted; the least casual of their amazing effects in the many observer cannot justly draw any other varied contortions of the soil, interconclusion from even a superficialview, mixed with such a vast profusion of and it is to be hoped that the mighty organic remains*, with other strong operations in constant progress under concurring testimonies. VIATOR. neath will never meet a resisting impediment to a ready vent upwards, for the free discharge of its increasing

Mr. URBAN,

May 5. " The 'Slide before alluded to, which YOUR Correspondent « SEXAGE

NARIUS," in p: 215, might have jappened in the year 1816, was un- mentioned another instance in which questionably caused by the operation the epitaph he cites is in part copied ; o subterraneous fire, being the first for he has brought it to my memory. vsible effect of the impulse upwards, It will be found in the church-yard of pnduced in consequence of its having Bishop Stortford, where I copied it on me with an obstruction to a free con- 24 May, 1823: on “Mary the daughduaing channel beneath, and which ter of J. and E. Clifford, aged 4 years." proportionably increased the force of It has only the last stanza of the epitini dreadful element.

taph given by your Correspondent, is being ascertained that the Cliff inuch altered, thus: contains a mixture of pyrites, sulphur, and iron-ore, the effect to be produced on such a combination of materials by cliffs, the Nautilus, Cornu Ammonis, Pec

• In Holworth and the neighbouring the acion of salt water, must be pre- ten, Pinda, Nomia, Trigonia with vertecisely tiat which has happened. There bræ, and other fragments of the lethyosauare instances on record of similar oc

Tus, &c. &c. are frequently found. This currences from the like causes, viz.

coast presents a wide and interesting field in the morth of August 1751, at Char. for the geologist and natural philosopher.

1827.]
On Epitaphs in Churchyards.-- Ireland.

999 " When the Archangel's trump shall sound, Mr. URBAN,

May 1. And souls to bodies join,

HE deterioration of English poetry Thousands will wish their lives on earth

of Had been as short as thine."

Goldsmith, has been observed and laThere is more plagiarism and adapt

mented. Lord Byron's “English ation in sepulchral writings than in

Bards and Scotch Reviewers" has left any other : and many a parish clerk is the circumstance on melancholy refurnished with a collection from which cord; but it was reserved for the year for some small fee he deals out to the

1827 to exhibit from one of the first amicted widow and to filial concern, publishing houses in London a specisome of those "uncouth rhymes,”

men of the pitch to which the art of which yet "implore the passing tri- sinking in poetry has arrived, and to bute of a sigh!” A serene gratifica

offer to an enlightened community a tion is always afforded to a contem

farrago under the imposing title of plative traveller in every church-yard,

Three Months in Ireland, by an far from melancholy, and as wholly English Protestant," which would in distinct from distress” as it is from le other days have been considered disvity; and it is calculated to give him a

graceful to Grub-street. A preface of moral lesson for his study, not unduly thrice-quoted quotations occupies an intermingled with the opportunities hundred and fifty pages of this little presented to him in his day's journey

book. The poetry, if such it be of contemplating the glory of Divine called, a small kernel in a capacious Beneficence in the dawn which awa

nut-shell, fills but forty pages, and an kens him from refreshing sleep, and appendix of ninety pages of garbled grants him the blessing of another glo- extracts from the Parliamentary evirious Sun to direct his way! While dence on the state of Ireland in 1825, he feels renovated for his journey, he brings up the rear. receives the purity of the reviving

The learned Selden has observed, morn, and considers that he has ano that verses prove nothing but the ther day allowed him for pursuing his quantity of syllables. These prove course, in order to obtain his temporal more, the folly of the writer's attacks object, and at the same time for reflect- upon the characters of the lords spiriing that it will be perhaps but a short tual and temporal, the judges, juries, distance before his own steps may be magistrates, clergy, corporations, and arrested, and his vigour and strength landed proprietors of Ireland. They be mingled in the same silence which moreover prove the author's intellecshrowds the spirits of those whose hal tual capacity, and the lowness of the lowed turf he had so lately reviewed !

sphere in which he has been educated, In fact, death is so certain, that it if we may judge from the following admits of very little variation in the and many other such lines of his crude study of it, and most mortals neces

performance: sarily think of it with similar senti- “Such is the present Bishop, let him pass, ments. Thus it is that the beauties of And notice what his predecessor was, expression may vary the representation, Fortune on him a double rank conferred, but they can add little or nothing to Of Derry Bishop, and of Bristol Lord." the experience of which we are possessed.' The green turf that covers the words “ was" and “ lord," may be as

The author's pronunciation of the remains of the humble cottager, differs but in quality and ornament from the certained from these lines, and with splendour of masonry which enshrine many other such, may indicate that his the great ; for the same bell has tolled conversation would be little less disthe knell, and the same dust has quali- * Three Months in Ireland,” which

gusting than his verses. In fact the fied them both for the same grave!

is neither a tour nor a diary, nor a phiMors equo pulsat pede ! -The losophical tract, might be safely sufchurch-yard of Sittingbourne will fur-fered to descend into the tomb of all nish the lesson in common language the Capulets, and migrate quietly to which all ranks can comprehend: the trunk-liners and other purchasers “As once we were so you must be,

of waste paper, were it not that the Therefore prepare to follow we."

repetition of such calumnies as it con

tains requires that they should be as Yours, &c.

A. H. repeatedly contradicted, situated as the

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