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(May, attaches to History, because actions ditions which Mr. Hutton obtained and events cannot be determined by from elderly people born on the preopinions. As soon as these interfere, mises, and firmly believed by them, they become, where there is ignorance are these. While Owen with others of archæology, prejudices, and of was dancing with Queen Catharine, course are unjust modes of ratiocina- his knee happened to touch her. He tion. At the same time, a knowledge tied a ribbon about his knee. “Why of the history of man is, in certain do you use that ribbon, Sir?” “Please points, indispensable, and there Anti- your Grace, to avoid touching you." quaries fail ; for instance, Sir Williain “. Perhaps you may touch me in anoDugdale never considered superstition, ther.” Tradition does not say that her popery, and folly, but as matter of eyes spoke in plainer language than praise, and had no enlarged views her tongue, language which could not whatever.
be mistaken. Here we shall suspend The work before us, edited anony- our narrative to notice a curious coinmously, but excellently, by Mr. Nico- cidence. Henry's courtship of Queen las, partakes both of the philosophical Catharine is among the most indeliinferences and archæological informa- cate parts of Shakspeare, and these adtion, to which we have alluded in our vances of the Queen herself are of no preceding remarks, and which will be better character. That courtship in duly appreciated by those who read those days was conducted in a very such works as history ought to be read, coarse manner we believe (see En. namely, for instruction in the know- cyclopedia of Antiquities, ii. p. 530); ledge of men and maoners. We shall but our readers will see the oddity of endeavour to notice, according to our the coincidence, that Henry should be limits, some curious historical matters. made in Shakspeare to woo indeli
The following passage occurs con- cately, and his Queen to do the same cerning Owen Tudor:
in Welch traditions, where our great « This same yere (1436), on Oweyn, no
poet was unknown. To resume. The man of birthe nother of lyfode, brak out Queen sent privately into Anglesca, to of Nengate ayens nyght at serchynge tyme, inquire into particulars. Owen bribed thorugh helpe of his prest, and wente his the messengers, and apprised his mowey, hurtynge foule his kepere ; but at the ther of their errand. Arriving at Plas laste, blessyd be God, he was taken ayeyn ; Penmynidd, they found the mother the whiche Oweyn hadde prevyly wedded dining on a dish of potatoes upon her the quene Katerine, and hadde iij pr iiijor knee. To their interrogatories she rechyldren be here, unwetyng the comoun plied, “She fed upon roasted and boilpeple tyl that sche were ded and beryed.” ed (potatoes cooked two ways), that
she would not take a 1001. for her taAs this affair of Owen Tudor and ble (her knees), and that she kept six Queen Catharine is an entertaining male and six female servants constantly piece of gossip in English history, we under arms for her defence (goats with shall, for the entertainment of our horns).” Potatoes were then unknown, readers, give some curious traditions and this tradition may be ascribed to concerning it, collected by Mr. Hut- Welch wit. Catharine married Owen ton on the spot of Owen's residence, in 1428, and the Chronicle before us Penmynidd in Anglesea. The chief
The chief states that the marriage was kept sethat is said of Owen in history is, that cret (at least as to the public) till after he was an accomplished and handsome the Queen's death, when Owen was Welsh gentleman. His private estate persecuted for his presumption. We was not quite 400 acres, which he oc- have seen a petition by her, complaincupied himself. It must have been ing of neglect in the payment of her then about 15l. a year in value; now dower, and it is very probable that her 1501. The house is stone unhewn, character, perhaps from its levity, was the walls of which are three feet thick, held in great disrespect, because, when and consists of only two stories, four Henry VII. her grandson, built his rooms on a floor, all low and little. chapel, her body was taken up (for she By what means Owen found his way had been buried at Bermondsey), and to court is uncertain, but at his first never interred after, but lay neglected introduction, being unacquainted with in a shabby coffin near her husband's the English tongue, he was called monument in Westminster. “The Dumb Welshman." The tra- Concerning the interment of Sir
1827.] Review.-Bowles on Wansdike and Avebury. Henry Percy (Hotspur), there have wey; and if thei wol com to us, let every been conflicting accounts. The Chro- man preve hymself a good man this day, nicle before us, under the year 1402—
and avaunt banere in the best tyme of the 1403, says,
yere.' And he rode furth with his basnet
upon his hedde, and all other men of armes “ Forasmoche as som peple seyde that Sr
went upon theire fete a fast paas in holle Herry Percy was alyve, he was taken up arraie, an Englysshe myle er thei assemblid. agen out of his grave, and bounded upright And thrugh the grace of God the Kyng betwen to mill stones, that alle men myghte made his heigh wey thrugh the thikkest se that he was ded.” P. 88.
prees of alle the bataile." P. 159. There have been various representa- The notes and illustrations are valutions made of the number killed at the able accessions to the Chronicle, and battle of Towton. In this work it is the whole work does the Editor great said of the battle of Agincourt,
credit. “On oure syde were sclayn the Duke of York, the Erle of Suffolk, and Sr Richard
70. Some Observations on those singular of Kygble, and David Gamme, squyer, with Monuments of Antiquity, Wansdike and a fewe mo bthere persones, to the noumbre
Avebury, in the County of Wilts. By the of xviii." P. 101.
Rev. W. L. Bowles. (Privately printed, That the battle of Agincourt was
in anticipation of Mr. Bowles's History of won with the loss of only eighteen
Bremhill.) 8vo. Pp. 19. men is absurd, and it may be supposed
MR. BOWLES presumes that that our
ancestors thus spoke from Stonehenge is the round temple of boasting; but a passage soon to be the Sun mentioned by Diodorus; and quoted will show how important it is that Abury was the Tan fana, the ceto judge by contemporary manners.
lebrated Belgic temple mentioned by Our ancestors did not always reckon Tacitus, to which the elevation now those below the rank of esquire. The called Tan Hill alludes. He says, Chronicle, speaking of the siege of “ What is the Tanfana of Tacitus ? eviHarfleur, says, that there died
dently in Latin Tanaris FANUM! The “The Erle of Suffolk, the Bysshop of temple of Avebury, then, was the Tanfana, Norwych, Courtenay, Si Jola Philip, and
the temple of Celtic Tanaris. Silbury we manyé othere knyghtes and squyers, and night suppose to be the hill on which the othere commoun peple whiche uere nought priests of Tanaris after sacrifice appeared, nombred.” P. 100.
whilst the people below assembled round it.
The British Trackway led directly to the hill When the English held Calais, the
which in a straight line over Marden (anoCinque Ports were of the first utility ther Celtic temple) looks on to Stonehenge. in preserving the communication. At To this extraordinary spot the whole asthe Parliament of 1440—1441, it was sembly annually proceeded, headed by the ordered that the town of Caleys be Priests, as to the locus consecratus of Cæmade ageyn, and the see be kept with sar; and Tan Hill Fair is the remains of the V portus of Engelond." P. 127. this annual assemblage, with the altered The assertion that pennies were
character of modern times." P. 13. broken into halves and quarters for We are not inclined to dispute the currency as halfpence and farthings, application of Tan Hill to Tanaris, for has been disputed. But besides a pas- we think it as felicitous as it is an insage in Whitaker's Richmondshire, genious hypothesis ; but we hesitate corroborating the opinion, the follow- as to Abury being dedicated to Taing paragraph, because it uses the naris
. We say hesitate only, because words "alle" round,” is a further at. Tanaris was only a subordinate god. testation.
Taran, in the Celtic, signifies thunder. “ In this yere (8 Ed. I.) the Kyng made The Celtic god Tanaris or Tarænis annewe money of silver, called halfpenys and swered to the Roman Jupiter Tonans, farthynges, alle rounde, of whiche were non but among the Gauls he was not the sen before." P. 29. ,
chief god. He was inferior to Hesus; According to one of the Chronicles human victims were, however, offered here quoted, the battle of Agincourt 10 him. Nevertheless, though the was won by breaking the centre. magnificence of Abury, in application
“And the Kyng seyng wele that thei to an inferior deity, has made us hesiwolde not suffre hym to passe withouten tate, yet we adınit the force of the bataile, seid to his title mayny, “Sires and argument drawn from the Tan Fana felawes, the yonder men leiten us of oure of Tacitus, as a celebrated temple of
420 Review.-Bowles on Wansdike and Avebury. [May, the Belgæ. But the Belgæ were set- the Church of Rome, the Inquisition, the tlers in Britain far subsequent to the Revolution of France, the universal War, Aborigines, and the construction of and the real Triumph of Christianity; leAvebury is much earlier than Stone: ing a new Interpretation. By the Rev. henge.
George Croly, M.A. H. R.Š. L. 8vo. Mr. Bowles very happily conjectures that Silbury Hill was originally Sul- IT was the observation of a most BURY, from the British goddess Sul, reputable philosopher, that the Apocathe Minerva of Cæsar. H
lypse was the sealed book of Daniel, make some observations. Mr. Bowles written in hieroglyphics, upon which quotes Mr. Lysons's splendid plates of (says Bishop Hurd) the prophetic style the Antiquities at Bath, one of which was fashioned, and communicated to was a temple to Sul Minerva, the Bri- St. John in an undeciphered state tish Minerva Medica. The etymon (Tilloch on the Apocalypse). Mr. of Sul is utterly unknown. But in Harmer, in his useful work on OrienMr. Lysons's Bath, besides several in. tal Customs, says, "St. John evidently scriptions to the Deæ Suli, we find supposes paintings, or drawings, in that (p. il) some to the Suleve, rustic dei, volume which he saw in the visions of ties, three in number, who are found God, and which was sealed with seven upon an ancient marble, seated, hold- seals.” It is, therefore, our opinion, ing fruit and wheat-ears. Montfaucon upon the strength of such respectable (Supplem. II. 6, 8, c. 7) has an in- authorities, and the internal evidence scription to the Sulfes, tutelar Gaulish derived from the construction of the gods, whence some have derived Sylphs. Apocalyse (where depicted objects are Supposing then Sul to have a sense only changed into verbal descriptions), similar to the Sulevæ of Fabretti (de that this is a just and true account of Aqueduct.) as above, or the Sulfes of the mysterious book in question. Unthe Gauls, Sul-Minerva may imply“ tu. til, therefore, the language of the bietelar Minerva,” or “ rural Minerva.” roglyphics in which the prophecy is Sul, whence or where derived, seeins written be understood, no exposition to us in all the instances to be of tute- that can be pronounced authoritative, lar meaning. All the inscriptions re- ex cathedra,' is to be received. But fer to this sense.
though no interpretation in its present As to Tan-Hill being now called state may be susceptible of such so St. Ann's Hill, Mr. Bowles shows lemn decisive adjudication, yet there that the Roinan Catholics
are strong circumstances, preponderat“ Translated the old heathen names into ing probabilities,- for surely a man the names of their own saints, and adopted inay understand the representation of a those names from their own calendar, which horse or a cow, though he may not be approached nearest in sound to the names of able to give a descriptiop of it in the those heatheb deities which were thus sup- Linnaan nomenclature. Certainly we planted. The Feriæ of Tanaris became the think the Apocalypse must refer to Fair of St. Ann; but ) produce from indis- prominent historical events in church putable authority a case in point. The history; nor do we conceive that it feast of MITHRAS was changed to the feast requires any knowledge of ancient bieof St. Michael. See Brucker's Hist. of Philosophy, vol. VI. p. 160."
roglyphical language to see plainly
what city is meant by Babylon, and Country compositors so dreadfully who was the mistress of that enormous disfigure learned terms, that we shall brothel. begin from hence to notice such ble- Taking, therefore, hypothetical mishes. In
P 19 we have Keister for ground as fair, under the circumKeysler ; and Arc Latense for Arcla- stances, and the obvious reference, as tense.
we think, to prominent events, we The name of Mr. Bowles is too well doubt not but our readers will admit known to require praise from us. A the interpretation of Mr. Croly to be pretty girl has only to show herself to ingenious. It is from striking coincibe accounted pretty; and ingenious dences that Mr. Croly deduces his preworks, like "good wine, need no mises, stated in the manner hereafter bush."
These premises form a curious in. 71. The Apocalypse of St. John; or a Pro- troduction, , viz. the coincidence of
phecus of the Rise, Progress, and Fall of prosperity and Protestantism, in our
491 national history, since the Reforma- cluding the chief names of the kingdom, tion; and the infliction of disaster and hostile to her succession and religion ; in ill-success by Providence, whenever Scotland, a rival title, supported by France ; Popery was directly or indirectly en- in Ireland, a perpetual rebellion, inflamed couraged. The truth is unquestion- by Rome ; on the Continent, the force of able, that wherever Popery is sincerely Spain roused against her by the double stiprofessed, political well-being withers when Spain commanded almost the whole away; and whoever has had the mi
strength of Europe. sery of living with devotees, well
“But the cause of Elizabeth was Proknows that reason never enters into testantism: and in that sign she conquered. their consideration. That Popery She shivered the Spanish sword; she parahas the essence of devoteeism vested lyzed the power of Rome ; she gave freedom in its nature, is self-evident; and how to the Dutch ; she fought the battle of the it has succeeded is plain, from the French Protestants ; every eye of religious troops of the Papal siates and Italy; suffering through Europe was fixed on this and the utter want of political conse- magnanimous woman. At home she elequence wherever it is sincerely profess- vated the habits and the heart of her peoed. In short, success in worldly af- ple. She even drained off the bitter waters fairs depends upon reason (i. e. under of religious feud, and sowed in the vigorous Providence of course); and it being soil, which they had so long made unwhole
some, the seeds of every principle and instiutterly impossible that reason and re- tution that has since grown up into the velation, if correctly understood, can be at variance, we know that Protes- work was the establishment of Protestant
strength of the empire. But her great tantism does not impede, like Popery, ism. Like the Jewish King, she found the the action of common sense. But Mr. Ark of God without a shelter; and she Croly takes higher ground. He shows huilt for it the noblest temple in the world ; that the hand of Providence visibly she consecrated her country into its temple. interfered in making political good or She died in the fulness of years and hopolitical evil follow respectively the nour; the great Queen of Protestantism adoption of Protestantism or Popery.
throughout the nations ; in the memory of
England her name and her reign alike im“A glance at the British history since mortal. the Reformation is enough to show how “Charles I. ascended'a prosperous throne, closely this Providential system has been England in peace, faction feeble or extinct, exemplified in England. Every reign which the nation prospering in the full spirit of attempted to bring back Popery, or even to commerce and manly adventure. No reign give it that share of power which could in of an English King ever opened out a longer any degree prejudice Protestantism, has or more undisturbed view of prosperity, been marked by signal misfortune. It is a But Charles betrayed the sacred trust of striking circumstance that almost every Protestantism. He had formed a Popish reign of this Popish tendency has been fol- alliance, with the full knowledge that it eslowed by one purely Protestant; and, as if tablished a Popish dynasty. He had lent to make the source of the national peril himself to the intrigues of the French Miplain to all eyes, those alternate reigns have nister stained with Protestant blood;
for his not offered a stronger contrast in their prin- first armameut was a fleet against the Huciples than in their public fortunes. Let guenots. If not a friend to Popery, he was the rank of England be what it might under madly regardless of its hazards to the Conthe Protestant Sovereign, it always sunk stitution. under the Popish; let its loss of honour, or “ Ill-fortune suddenly gathered upon of power, be what it might under the Popish him. Distracted councils, popular feuds Sovereign, it always recovered under the met by alternate weakness and violence, the Protestant, and more than recovered ; was loss of the national respect, finally deeperdistinguished by sudden success, public re- ing into civil bloodshed, were the punishnovation, and increased stability to the free- ments of his betrayal of Protestantism. The dom and fortunes of the empire.
sorrows and late repentance of his prison “ Protestantism was first thoroughly es- hours painfully redeemed his memory. tablished in England in the reign of Eliza- “Cromwell's was the sceptre of a broken beth.
kingdom. He found the reputation and in“ Mary had left a dilapidated kingdom; Auence of England crushed; utter humiliathe nation worn out with disaster and debt; tion abroad; at home, the exhaustion of the the national arms disgraced ; nothing in vi- civil war; and furious partizanship still teargour but Popery. Elizabeth, at twenty. ing the public strength in sunder. five, found her first steps surrounded with « Cromwell was a murderer; but, in the the most extraordinary embarrassments ; at high designs of Providence, the personal hrome, the whole strength of a party, in- purity of the instrument is not always re
[Ma", garded. The Jews were punished for their “ But the principle of William's govern-' idolatry by idolaters, and restored by idola- ment was Protestantism; he fought and le
'Whatever was in the heart of the gislated for it through life; and it was to Protector, the policy of his government was him, as it been to all before him, strength Protestantism. His treasures and his arms and victory. He silenced English faction ; were openly devoted to the Protestant cause he crushed the Irish war; he then attacked in France, in Italy, throughout the world. the colossal strength of France on its own He was the first who raised a public fund shore. This was the direct collision, not for the support of the Vaudois churches. so much of the two kingdoms as of the two He sternly repelled the advances which faiths; the Protestant champion stood in Popery made to seduce him into the path the field against the Popish persecutor. Beof the late King.
fore that war closed, the fame of Louis ** England was instantly lifted on her feet was undone. England rose to the highest as by the power of miracle. All her battles military name. In a train of immortal vicwere victories; France and Spain bowed tories, she defended Protestantism throughbefore her. All her adventures were con- out Europe, drove the enemy to his palace quests ; she laid the foundation of her colo- gates, and before she sheathed the sword, dial empire, and of that still more illustrious broke the power of France for a hundred commercial empire to which the only limits years.” pp. ii.-ix. in either space or time may be those of mankind. She was the most conspicuous power
Thus it appears certain that the of Europe ; growing year by year in opu- reigns of Elizabeth, James, Cromlence, public knowledge, and foreign re- well, William 1II. Anne, &c. were Down; until Cromwell could almost realize prosperous; and it is equally certain the splendid improbability, that, Before that the Charleses, one conniving at he died, he would make the name of an Popery, the other secretly prosessing Englishınan as much feared and honoured it, and James the Second, were polias ever was that of an ancient Roman,'
tically unfortunate. « Charles the IId. came to an eminently Mr. Croly brings up the inquiry prosperous throne. Abroad it held the
down to more recent events. He foremost rauk, the fruit of the vigour of the
states that the Administration pledged Protectorate. At home all faction had been
10 support the Catholic cause forgotten in the general joy of the Restora
marked by disgraceful events (viz. the tion. But Charles was a concealed Roman Catholic*. He attempted to introduce his
retreat from Sweden; Egypt evacuatreligion. The Star of England was instantly ed; Whitelock pulverized at Buenos darkened; the Country and the King alike Ayres, and Duckworth repulsed at became the scorn of the foreign courts ; Constantinople (all in 1807); but that the national honour was scandalized by mer- on the succession of the “ No Popery cenary subserviency to France ; the national Administration," things again revived, arms were humiliated by a disastrous war Providence having crowned our arms with Holland; the capital was swept by the with success ever since. These are memorable inflictions of pestilence and con- facts, and while the troops and interflagration.
nal government of the Papal states re* James the IId. still more openly vio- inain what they are, we shall think lated the national trust. He publicly be- that circumstances actually vindicale came a Roman Catholic. This filled the the hypothesis of Mr. Croly in a cool, cup. The Stuarts were cast out, they and their dynasty for ever ; that proud line of dry, mathematical view of things. Kings was sentenced to wither down into
We now proceed to the substance a monk, and that monk living on the alms of the work itself; the application hiof England, a stipendiary and an exile.
therto unregarded of certain prophe“ William was called to the throne. He cies to the French Revolution and its found it, as it was always found at the close results. Here Mr. Croly shall again of a Popish reign, surrounded by a host of speak for himself: difficulties ; at home the kingdom in a ferment; Popery, and its ally Jacobitism, the Apocalypse, I was struck with the appa
“Some years since, in a casual reading of girding themselves for battle ; fierce disturb ance in Scotland; open war in Ireland, of the two witnesses,' to one of the most
rent reference of the eleventh chapter, that with the late King at its head; abroad the extraordinary events of our time, or any French King domineering over Europe, and other, the abjuration of Religion by a Gothreatening invasion. In the scale of natious England nothing !
vernment and People! a circumstance perfectly alone in the history of the world. But
I further found that this event was declared *.“He had solemnly professed Popery to mark the conclusion of an æra, in which on the eve of the Restoration.
the whole chronology of the Apocalypse