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484 On Mr. Bowles's Observations on Wansdyke, Sc. (June, of literature would be thus much ad- ed at Bath in the year 1790 is the vanced by the exertions of a class of head of the Celtic Apollo, yet I also men often so well calculated to do jus- consider it to be that of Medusa, the tice to the subject, which would arise symbolic head of Minerva. I must adventitiously before them. I am not confess also I much doubt the human aware that the Parish of Bremhill, con- sacrifices of the Druids, the burning sidered in seipso, embraces within its of living inen in wicker images, their Binits any very extensive matter for the peculiar resort to oaken groves, their pen of the Historian, but the objects affection for the misseltoe, and the cutof antiquity, with which it is sur- ring it with the golden hook. These rounded, will present a discursive and subjects, Mr. Urban, open a wide field interesting field to the ingenious and for discussion, and I feel it impossible enquiring mind of Mr. Bowles. in the present Letter to enter on them

I think, Sir, that the new hypo- all. I'am well aware, that these hethesis of the author, that Abury was terodox views will raise against me a a Celtic temple of Teutates or Mer- host of opponents. The principles cury, is very ingenious, and the unit- and opinions we imbibe in our early ed arguments in favour of it tend years usually stick fast by us. We greatly lo establish the fact, and I look back on our scholastic exercises, agree also with your Reviewer, that and recall to our minds the delights his application of the elyınology of of our imagination, when we pictured Tan Hill (or St. Anne's Hill) is very to ourselves the white-robed Druid asfelicitous. I am, however, sure, from cending the sacred oaks, and with the my long and personal knowledge of golden hook cutting off the still more the author, that he will receive, with sacred misseltoe, when we heard the every liberal feeling, those remarks on deafening shouts of the assenabled mul. other parts of his hypothesis, which titude, as he waved in his hand the a sincere difference in opinion may mystic plant. We remember again the draw from me. I am confident, that horror with which we shrunk into his wish is to elicit inquiry, and as ourselves, when we viewed, as we nearly as possible on abstruse, indeed thought, the wicker image filled with almost hidden subjects, to gain the its living victims, when we saw their truth; and truth, we all know, is best writhings, heard their cries, and felt obtained by the collision of opinions. their pangs; bui, Sir, we will draw the lo tbus expressing a variance of sev- veil over these horrors, whether real or timent, I cannot but feel much dif- fictitious ; let it suffice to say, I doubi fidence, since it is to differ from one these things, that I receive the asserwhose well-earned literary reputation tions of classic authors (as to circumwill necessarily create a bias in favour Slances of which they do not assert of his peculiar views, and with whom to personal knowledge) cum grano salis, tilt a lance may, perhaps, argue a bold- and I believe thai assertiou and veness equal to audacity; yet, I trust, I rity are often at variance in their never shall appear disposed to contra- pages. vene the opinions advocated by others, In reference, Sir, to the Temples without candidly stating the reasons of of Stonehenge and Abury, I must beg my dissent.

permission to make the following quoWith these preliminary observations iation from a letter of mine, which apI must now avow, that I do not at all peared in your Magazine for Nor. agree with Mr. Bowles as to the ori. 1824, p. 406. gin of Wansdyke, and that, although « In all countries these ancient stone I think, with him, that Abury was structures have a strong correspondence in the British Temple of Teutates, yet I general character, are ever found in the doubt its being Druidical; that, al- most open and campaign parts, accompathough I accord with him in the sup

nied with sepulchral tumuli, and are situposition, that Stonehenge was a Cel

ate in realms far distant from each other; tic temple dedicated to Belenus as the they are to be found throughout the Bri British' Apollo, or Sol, yet I doubt land, and Ireland, in the Isles of Scilly, of

tish dominions, in England, Wales, Scotthat it was the Temple alluded to by Man, of the Hebrides, of the Orkneys, and Diodorus Siculus, or that it was a

of Iceland, in the Isles of the MediterraTemple of the Druids ; and that, al

nean, in almost every state of the Coptithough I agree with him that the nent, even in Russia, Denmark, and Swevery curious sculptured head discover. den; in countries where the foot of a Ro.

1827.]
On Abury, Stonehenge, and Druidism.

485 man never trod, where Druidism never rear- maritime wanderers touched on the ed her head, and where the oak with its' coasts of Britanny, and founded those? misseltoe never was a denizen. Why, then, states subsequently called by Cæsari Mr. Urban, should we not conclude, that the States of Armorica, and, pursuing All these venerable specimens of antiquity their course yet northward, that they were the religious temples of the most early seized on the Scilly Isles, seated themCeltic and Gothic tribes."

selves in Cornwall, on the coasts of Sach, Sir, was then, and such still Wales, in the Isles of Anglesey and is my opinion. Why should we take Man, and perhaps on the eastern an insulated view of Stonehenge and

coasts of Ireland, the western coasts Abury, and decide, that they were

of Scotland, and in the Hebrides, and

that from hence also arises the strong what we cannot for a moment be. lieve the similar stone temples in Ice correspondencies of language, idiom, land, in the North of Germany, in

or pronunciation, between the respecRussia, Denmark, and Sweden to have tive inhabitants of parts of the Media ever been? Why should we thus take

terranean coasts, of Bretagne, Corn

wall, Wales, and Scotland; the anaa partial and confined view of the arguments for the sake of establishing logies between the vernacular lana favourite hypothesis ? I. protest ish (now extince), the Welch,' and

of Bretagne, the ancient Cornagainst so narrow a mode of reasoning. Let us seek the truth, and hail

the Erse tongues, have ever been reit, wheresoever we find it.

marked and acknowledged. So far as Between the dispersion from Babel, these people extended their settlements and the foundation of Rome, elapsed to those limits, I think Druidism pre a period of nearly 1500 years; half that vailed, but I am not of opinion, that

the Druids were generally seated period again revolved between the foundation of Rome and the esta- throughout the inland parts of Britain blishment of its Empire, and within and Gaul, where the priests and the

rites of the Continental Celts more this very extended space of time surely all these temples might have been probably prevailed. In my belief, the raised without having recourse to the

Druids were monotheists, that they limited agency, or times of the Druids.

were peaceful sages, partly perhaps In fact, Mr. Urban, we know little, Pythagoreans in principle, and averse

from blood. The word Druid unforand imagine much, relative to these supposed burbarous sages. I am strongly tunately bears great analogy to the inclined to think we have been much Greek word Apūs, an oak, and from led astray in our estimation of them this incidental circumstance probably by the early classic writers.

arose their imaginary connection with greatly induced to believe they were

that tree; it is, however, a much more inuch more local than is usually re

rational conjecture, that the name of presented, and that the ancient au

this order of inen sprung not from ihors have occasionally transferred such a collateral circumstance, not their appellation to the "Celtic priests from such a comparatively trivial adof the barbarous continental tribes; junct, but that it directly' descended, that thus those dogmata and rites have

inore obviously and consistently, from in later agės been attributed to the the Hebrew Drewr, as may appear real Druids, to which they have been from the following note extracted from seal strangers.

Cooke's Enquiry into the Patriarchal It will now be asked, Mr. Urban, and Druidical Religion, &c. “The who I presume the Druids were,

word Drew or Druid I would derive from whence they sprung, and to not from Apūs, the oak, for the order what extent of country were they lin wus prior to ihe word, but from the mited ? To these questions I answer, Hebrew 7777 Drewr, signifying (acit is at present my opinion, that the cording to Marius de Caláshio) liDruids were Priests of the Phæni- berty, or an immunity and exemption cians and early Greeks, who came from all secular employment and serup the Mediterranean, and colonized vice." Dion. Vossius (Cæsar. Not. different parts of its coasts, and, puss- Var.) gives another Hebrew deriva'ing the Straights of Gibraltar, form- 'tion, perhaps still more consistent, as cd settlements also on the western more allusive to their office. shores of Spain. Sailing across the As to the peculiar resort of the Bay of Biscay, I further think, these Druids to oaken groves, and the just

I am

rect.

496
On Abury, Stonehenge, and Druidism.

(June, appropriation of the numerous stone my geological knowledge of the patemples to the Druids, I am still as rishes of Woodford and Boscombe, I much as ever in doubl. The obser- feel assured that they never at any vations of Mr. Bowles have not at time contained within their limits all reconciled my mind to the one or groves of oak. Stonehenge and Abury the other, If my hypothesis as to the are each some miles distant from any Druids, be really correct, Cæsar, Ta-' forest or wood, which either now or citus, Pliny, and Strabo, probably (judging geologically) ever did exist. knew little about them, and their I readily accord with Mr. Bowles, that accounts of them may be very incor- “a temple to the Suu would hardly

Their alleged connection with be built, where the Sun never shone." oaken groves, as I said before, arose Whether the woods alluded to by most likely from the analogy in sound the author then abounded with misof the word Druid with the Greek seltoe no man can say. From local word Apūs. The appropriation of the knowledge again, I aver, that the temples of Stonehenge and Abury to woods of Clarendon do not now abound them, is not to be relied on. All the with misseltoe. That curious parasitic stone temples throughout the world is by no means a common plant, alare obviously de eodem genere, are though, where it is found, it is geneever situate in the most open and cam- rally plentiful. On the oak, however, paign parts, are ever accompanied by it is very rarely found. I never saw sepulcliral tumuli, and never connected the misseltoe on the oak, and it is obwith oaken groves. Stone temples are served by Dr. Hunter, in his notes on found in the Isles of St. Mary and St. Evelyn's Sylva, “the misseltoe is comMartin, iwo of the Scilly Islands; monly found on the white-thorn, the in the Isles of Lewis and Arran, two apple, the crab, the ash, and the maof the Hebrides ; in Pomona, one of ple, but is rarely seen on the oak.” the Orkneys, and in Iceland; but, With the feeling that I ought not Sir, can we for a moment imaginé longer to trespass on the patience of in these instances the existence at any your readers, I must now take my time of oaken groves.

leave of the subject at present, with Before I conclude this letter, I beg the declaration (Gent. Mag. April, leave to quote the following passage 1824, p. 315) reiterated, " iterum itefrom a note appended to the pamph. rumque,

that “the ancient authors let of Mr. Bowles, and referring to certainly represent the Druids as rethe Temples of Stonehenge and Abury. sorting to woods and groves, and I must “ We are told these could not be Dru, such representations with the faci,

confess I know not how to reconcile idical Temples, as the Druids worshipped that the structures of stone usually dein woods! now Stonehenge was within two hour's walk of Woodford, Buscombe, the nominated Druidical Temples are ever immense sweep of forest extending from found in the most open and campaign Clarendon to the sea, and Abury was nearly countries."

Edw. DUKE. at the same distance from the vast woody tract of Pewsham, Melksham, and Chippenham forests, all abounding with mis

Mr. URBAN,

June 8.

a the Temples for public assemllies; and a Temple to the Sun would hardly be built, of De la Zouche, of Ashby, and a where the sun never shone! How many note descriptive of their estates, exlearned objections would a little reflection changed with the house of Rohan. and common observation obviate !"

The line of descent here deduced is On the most mature reflection, Sir, not known to your readers, though I sincerely assure you that the difficul- there are parts, requisite to connect the ties which have arisen to my mind are whole, familiar to some of them. It as great as ever. From my local know. concludes with the 3d Baron, by whose ledge of Stonehenge and Abury, and influence the inhabitants of Ashby de of their respective neighbourhoods, I la Zouch obtained their charter. confidently assert, they are placed " in Scarcely any vestige of the old baronial the most open and campaign parts of hall now remains. The owners of the the country.” I speak neither without manor are the family of Hastings, King “reflection, "nor observation.” From Edward IV. having granted it to Wil.

perele. The woods were for secret mites

. I of the early lineage of the family

1827.] Family of De la Zouch.-- Planta-genista.

487 liam Lord Hastings, his chamberlain, “ Ivanhoe Place.”. A description of who erected the castle. Under the Ashhy de la Zouch is to be found in auspices of the late Marquis the Nichols's History of Leicestershire, town is rising into distinction, as a vol. III. p. 635 ; and in the same vowatering place of fashionable resort. Jume the interesting ruins of its magA novel of Sir Walter Scott's portrays nificent castle are finely delineated. some beautiful and imaginary scenes

Yours, &c. Henry W. WHATTON. here; hence part of the town is called

Descent of the Baronial Funily of De la Zouche.

Arms: Gules, 10 besants, 4, 3, 2, 1. Eudon I. Viscount de Porrhoët, andEmme Alain Fergent, Count ofErmengarde, de Rennes, 1066; he was at the bat- de Bretagne, Marit. 2. ob. dau. of tle of Hastings, and acquired various Léon. 1120. (Hist. de Bret. Foulques IV. fiefs from the Conqueror. (Archives

Lobineau. Ord. Vit. p. Count of de la Maison de Rohan.)

544. c.)

Anjou.

[blocks in formation]

Geofroi, Viscount de Porr->Havoise, de hoët and de Rennes, la

Bretagne, Souche, 2d son and heir, 3d dau. his eld. bro. Joscius, ob.s.p. sister Geof. ob. 1142. (Cartul. de of l'abb. de Lantenac.)

Conan III.

Alain de Porrhoët, la Souche, 3d son, Viscount de Bretagne, Adeliza, dau. and heiress

Lord of Ashby (Ascebi), co. Leic. jure ux. (Reg. of Lilles- of Philip de Belmeis, hull Abb. Roper MS. ex Col. R. Cot. Mil.)

temp. Hen. II.

Amicia. William la or le Zouche, Belmeis, 1st Roger* la Zouche, 2dMarga

Baron of Ashby, ob. 1 Joh. s. p. Baron, Lord of Swa- ret.
Charte de Savigni. (Nicolas's Sy-

vesey, &c. 14 Hen.III.
nopsis of the Peerage.)

(Reg. of the Priory.) William la

Sir Wm. Har-Alice. Alan Lord de la Zouche, Helen, dau. and Zouche. court, knt. Ld.

3d Baron, Constable of coh. of Roger (Dugd.Bar. of Ayleston, co. the Tower, &c. (Claus.

de Quincy, vol. 1. Leic.&c.(Dugd.

51, H.3. m. 12. ob. 54, Earl of Winp. 688.) Mon. Ang. vol. H. 3.)

chester. III. p. 54.)

Mr. Urban,

June 8. likewise Geoffrey le Bel. The origin p. 203 of your Magazine, an en- gevine family, though much more regraving of the Planta-genista, or Broom mote; it arose with Fulco the third Plant, I request permission to offer a Count of Anjou, a warrior of high few remarks upon a subject which has reputation and impetuous passions, occupied the attention of many critics which may be well imagined from the and antiquaries. It should be observed tragic rencontre expressed, by an emithat in the 10th century one appella. nent historian, in these words: “Foultion was often substituted for another, quest IIl. Comte D'Anjou, défit Coas warlike habits or other propensities nan I. Comte de Bretagne, son beauprescribed. Geoffrey, Count of An- frère, au combat de conquereux, et le jou, who married the Empress Ma- iua de sa main le 27 Juin l'an 992." tilda, was called Geoffrey Plantagenet The Count made several penitential (not by Bourdigne or Manége), and journies to Jerusalem, for the effusion

* He ceded to Alain IV. Viscount de Rohan the parish of Plemieuc and the priory of Bodieuc, in the diocese of St. Brieu, in Bretagne, for the manor of Swavesey and lands in Fulbourn, co. Cambridge, &c. confirmed by King John and his successor. (Pat. 14 H. 3, 1, m. 2.)

† Ermengarde, the sister of Foulques III. married Conan I.

488

Broom-plant. -Study of Hebrew recommended. [June, of blood he had shed in this and the that of a youth, who, after being edu. many other baules in which he had cated in their School, was by the imbeen engaged ; and as the symbol of prudence of his father driven to the - his humiliiy, wore in his cap or bone necessity of going to India as a coin• net a sprig of the broom plant* (ge- mon soldier. The knowledge of Henista, pistillum deprimens curi- brew which he had acquired, so facilinam)," a decoration adopted by seve- tated the acquisition of the other eastral of his descendants. The penance, ern languages, that by this means he however, ascribed to him upon that attracted notice, obtained his first steps occasion is a sort of monasiic disci- of preferment, and ultimately died a pline unworthy of belief. In such es- Major-general in the British Army." ieem was it to wear a sprig of broom, -Thus far the Courier. The notice that an order of knighthood was insti- is indeed most interesting, and may it tuted by St. Louis, King of France. speak forcibly to the numerous schoThe habit of the order, though known lars, not only of one, but of other to many of your readers, may perhaps Grammar Schools in the country, in be amusing to some. It was a cloak which the Hebrew language is taught. of while damask, with a violet colour. At Westminster it has been taught for ed hood; the collar, a gold chain of many years; and I hope that some broom flowers enamelled proper, in- one of ihat stabilita domus" will in. terlaced with lozenges of gold, fleurs form us, when the instruction of it de lis pendent ; a cross flory with this commenced. inscription : "Exaltat humiles." The At St. Paul's School the late worthy order, it is said, continued till the High Master, Dr. Roberts, introduced death of Charles V.

it more than half a century ago; and Yours, &c. HenRY W. WHATTON. when he used to return from his an

nual examination of the scholars of

the neighbouring establishment of Mr. URBAN,

Glamorgunshire, Christ's Hospital, he used to reproach
June 28.

his own boys with the superior prompbe a vehicle for the promotion of he had been examining went through useful learning, I would wish to give, the paradigms of the Hebrew verbs. not publicity merely, but permanency I would not add to this too long, and in your pages, to a most interesting perhaps too late, communication, exanecdote, mentioned in the Courier

cept by addressing Hebrew students in of the 12th of ihis month. At the

well-known words, altered but in one, usual Dinner at the Hall of the Merchant Tailors' Company, after the an

“ Vos exemplaria sacra nual examination of the scholars be. Nocturnå versate manu, versate diurna." longing to their School, the Master of

Yours, &c. the Company, Mr. Dixon, very laudably enumerated the numbers of distinguished persons

sent from that school who had filled, and were then

A. B. remarks, on our Memoir of the filling, elevated stations upon the epis- Harriet, his daughter by his first wife, is

Earl of Onslow, in p. 269, that “ Lady copal and judicial benches. He also living. For some years before his death he mentioned that “theirs was, he be

lived constantly at his seat at West Clandon, lieved, the only Grammar School in

where the poor of that place was most libethe country in which the Hebrew lan- ral, nor was it confiued to them. On reguage was taught. By many this presentation of distress his hand was always might be thought a useless acquisition, open. His tradesmen were paid with the except for youths intended for the most regular punctuality.” Church. One instance, bad, how

The Editor will be obliged by communiever, come to their knowledge, which tended to correct this opinion. It was

cations, informing him who are the present representatives of Sir Rich. Leveson of Lils

bull, co. Salop, K. B. anno 1638; Francis The genista, or broom-plant, was al- Blyth, esq.of Allesley, co. Warw.eod anno.; ways considered as an emblem of humility by Rob. Arden, esq.; Hen. Ferrers, esq. ; Digthe classical ancients : Virgil says : bies of Coleshill; all of Warwickshire, in “ Salices humilesque genistä."

the 17th century.

K

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