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MEMOIR OF His ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE FREDERICK,
DUKE OF YORK AND ALBANY, K. G. &c. &c. &c.
On Friday, January 5, at 20 minutes under the paternal eye of George the past 9 p. m. at the house of his Grace Third, was strictly attended to; and the ibe Duke of Rutland, in Arlington- pictures wbich are left us of the domesstreet, died, in bis 64cb year, his Ma- tic life pursued under bis Majesty's jesty's next brother, bis Royal Highness sanction, are such as to convince us of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and bis paramount regard for the blessings Albany in Great Britain, and Earl of of a tranquil life. Ulster in Ireland, Bishop of Osnaburg, From his earliest age bis Royal HighKnight of the Garter, First and Princi- ness was destined to the military propal Knight Grand Cross of the Batlı, fession, the study of wbich formed an Knt. Grand Cruss of the Guelphic Order, essential part of his education. In purKnight of St. Esprit, a Field-Marshal, suance of this object, and the acquire. Commander in Chief of all the King's ment of the French and German lanland forces in the United Kingdom, Co. guages, he was sent to the Coutinent at lonel of the Ist regiment of foot guards, the end of 1781, and continued abroad Colonel in chief of the 60th or Royal till 1787, his established residence durAmerican regiment of foot, and of the ing that period being Hanover, from Royal Dublin regiment of infantry, Lord whence be made excursions to various Warden of Windsor Forest and Great parts of Germany, visiting Vienna, Ber: Park, High Sieward of New Windsor, lin, and other capitals, and also attendWarden and Keeper of the New Forest, ing tbe reviews of the immortal Frede. D. C. L. and F. R. S.
rick, and acquiring a knowledge of the His Royal Highness was born Aug. 16, theory and practice of Prussian tactics, 1763, ibe second son and cbild of their then considered the model for every late Majesties King George the Third military commander. (Several referand Queen Charlotte. On the 27th of ences to accounts of his reception at the tbe following February he was elected various places he visited will be found Bishop of Osnaburg, a nominal prelacy, in our General Index, vol. 1. p. 335, v. to which the Elector of Hanover has the Osnaburg.) His Royal Highness's first power of influencing the election aller- commission in the Army was that of Dately with another European power. Colonel, which was dated Nov. 1, 1780; A medal, commemorative of the preser- he was appointed to the command of the ment, whicb was issued in gold and silver 2d regiment of Horse Grenadier Guards on his first birth-day, is described in vol. March 23, 1782; Major-general 20th xxxy. p. 393. Prince Frederick was of November following; and Colonel ul invested with the ensigns of the Bath, the Coldstream Guards, with the rank ol Dec. 30, 1767, and installed at Henry Lieutenant-general, Oct. 27, 1784. the Seventh's Chapel June 15, 1772; On the 27th of the following month, he was elected a Companion of the Most Prince Frederick, who had hitherto been Noble order of the Garter June 19, generally known by the title of the 1771, and on the 95th of the next Bishop of Osnaburg, was created Duke month was installed at Windsor, in of York and Albany in Great Britain, company with his two brothers, the and Earl of Ulster in Ireland. These Prince of Wales and Prince Ernest Au. titles had then been extinct for seven. gustus (Bow Duke of Cumberland). teen years, from the period of the death
The education of his Royal Highness, of bis uncle Edward in 1767.*
• It is a singular coincidence in the history of the two last Dukes of York, that each of tbem should bave died in the seventh year after the accession of bis brotbei to the Crown. The resemblance which may be traced in the personal character and disposition of these two Dukes of York claims likewise some attention. The following description of the former Duke, from the Annual Register for 1767, ap plies exactly to ihe personage whose death the country is now deploring :-“ It is needless to delineate bis charaeter, for it is engraved in the beart of every English: man. His affability, good nature, humanity, and generosity, endeared him to al ranks of people. He was fond of company and pleasures, wbich induced him to visit most places of public resort ; and contributed to make him very generally knowr and much beloved. He was particularly kind and tender to his domestics, who regarded bim with the most real affection, and lament bis loss with the most un. feigoed sorrow.” This Royal person was the godfather of the late Duke of York Being employed in oaval affairs, he was not present at the baptism, but the Earl o Huntingdon stood as his proxy. - A folding plate of bis funeral procession embel
[Jan. In the beginning of August 1787 the day for an answer from each ; their Duke of York returned to England (see silence to be considered as a declaration an account of the consequent rejoicings that no such words could be recollected. in vol. Lvii. 734). On the 27th of Nov. On the expiration of the term limited following he was introduced to the House for an answer to the circular letter, the of Lords; but the first instance of his join. Lt. col, sent a written message to bis ing in the Debates, was on the 1516 of Royal Highness, to this purport : “ Tbat, December 1788, when the Settlement of not being able to recollect any occasion the Regency was under discussion. On on which words had been spoken to this occasion (as, we have good reason him, at Daubigny's, to which a gentleio hope, on the more recent and memo- man ought not to submit, he had taken rable one,) he acted as the organ of his the step which appeared to him most elder Brother, who, having engaged his likely to gain information of the words affections in early youth, (for in their to which his Royal Highness had al. childboud they were remarkably at- Juded, and of the persons who had used. tached,) bad the happiness of pre- them ; that none of tbe members of the serving that friendship unbroken to Club had given him information of any the last. This speech, wbich such insult being in their knowledge, beard with the greatest attention, and and therefore he expected, in justice to excited a vast degree of interest at his character, that his Royal Highness the time, may be seen in vol. Lix. p. 47, should contradict the report, as publicly as in the same volume, p. 722, will be as he bad asserted it.” This letter was found the few sentences be delivered delivered to bis Royal Highness by the Jan. 31 following, on representing the Earl of Winchelsea, when the answer Prince of Wales's and his own desire to returned not proving satisfactory, a have their names omitted in the Com.
message was sent to his Royal Highness, mission for holding Parliaments, desiring, a meeting : time and place example immediately followed by the were settled that evening. The meetDukes of Cumberland and Gloucester. ing accordingly took place ; and the
In May of the same year, 1789, the seconds published the following statename of bis Royal Highness was brought ment: “In consequence of a dispute, prominently before the public, on nis of which much has been said in the pubhaving engaged in a duel with Lieut.-col. lic papers, his Royal Highness the Duke Lennox, nephew of the then Duke of of York, attended by Lord Rawdon, and Richmond, alterward in 1806 the suc- Lt.-col. Lennox, accompanied by the cessor to that title, and the father of Earl of Winchelsea, met at Wimbledon his present Grace. This dispute origi- Common. The ground was measured at nated in an observation of his Royal twelve paces, and both parties were to Highness, “ that Lt.-col. Lennox had fire at a signal agreed upon. The signal. heard words spoken to him at the club being given, Lt. col. Lennox fired, and at Daubigny's, to which no gentleman tbe ball grazed bis Royal Higbness's ought to have submitted.” Tbis obser- curl. The Duke of York did not fire. vation being reported to the Lt. col., he Lord Rawdon then interfered, and said, took the opportunity, while bis Royal • That he thought enough bad been Highness was on the Parade, to address done.' Lt.-col. Lennox observed · Tbat. bim, “ desiring to koow, what were the his Royal Highness bad not fired.' Lord. words which he had submitted to bear, Rawdon said. It was not the Duke's inand by whom they were spoken?" To tention to fire : bis Royal Highness had tbis his Royal Highness gave no other come out upon Lt.-col. Lennox's desire answer than by ordering the Lt.-col. to to give bim satisfaction, and had no bis post. The parade being over, his animosity against him.' Lt. col.Lennox Royal Highness went into the orderly- pressed that the Duke of York should room, and sending for the Lt. col., inti- fire, which was declined, upon a repetimated to him, in the presence of all the tion of the reason. Lord Winchelsea officers, that he desired to receive no then went up to the Duke of York, and protection from bis rank as a Prince, expressed his hope 'That bis Royal Highand his station as Commanding Officer, ness could have no objection to say, but that, wben not on duty, be wore a that he considered Lt. col. Lennox as a brown coat, and was ready as a private · man of bonuur and courage.' His Royal gentleman to give the Ll.-col. satisfac. Highness replied, “That he should say tion. After this declaration, Le.-col. nothing; he bad come out to give Lt.Lennox wrote a circular to every mem- col. Lennox satisfaction, and did not ber of the club at Daubigny's, request- mean to fire at bim; if Lt. col. Lennox ing to know wherber any such words was not satisfied, be might fire again.' bad been used to him, and appointing a Lt.-col. Lennox said he could not pos
1927.) OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York.
71 sibly Gre again at the Duke, as his Royal Queen's House Nov. 23. The ceremo. Higlaness did not mean to fire at him.- nials of both marriages are preserved in On this, both parties left the ground. vol. Lxf. p. 1057. By the Duchess his The seconds think it proper to add, that Royal Highness had no issue. Her doboth parties bebaved with the most per- mestic and charitable virtues are well fect coolness and intrepidity. (Signed) known, and 'a short memoir of ber,
“ RAWDON. WINCHELSEA. written on her death iu 1820, is printed "Tuesday evening, May 26, 1789." in vol. xc. ii. 181.
A meeting of the officers of the Cold- On the occasion of his marriage, the stream Regiment took place on the 29th Duke bad voted him by Parliament the of May, on the requisition of Lt.-col.
sum of 18,0001. per unnum, and the Lennox, to deliberate on a question King settled on him 70001. from bis wbich be bad submitted, .Whether he Irish revenue, which, in addition to the had behaved in the lace dispute as be- 12,0001. per ann. he before enjoyed, concame a gentleman and an officer ?' and stituted a yearly income of 35,00vl. The after a considerable discussion, adjourued sum of 8,0001. per ann, was at the same to the 30th, came to the following reso- time voted to the Duchess, in case she lution :-. It is the opinion of the Offi- sbould survive. There was, however, cers of the Coldstream Regiment, that some opposition to these grants. Sesubsequent to the 15th of May, the day veral Members deemed tbe revenue proof the meeting at the Orderly-room, Lt. posed by the Minister too large, as the col. Lennox has behaved with courage ; Duke received a very considerable one but, from the peculiar difficulty of bis from the Bishopric of Osnaburg, stated situation, not with judgment."
by some at no less than 35,0001. a year. It has been considered strange that But this appearing an object unfit for Lt. col. Lennox's second in this duel was parliamentary discussiun, tbe votes proone of the Lords of the Bedchamber to posed by the Ministry passed in his the King, and his mother, Lady Win- favour. chelsea, was employed in rearing ibe In 1793 the Duke was called into Duke of York. "The Duke of Rich active military service. A Britisb army mond died in 1819, but it is remarkable was ordered for Flanders, to form part that the other three personages engaged of the grand army under the Prince of in this affair bave all died within six Saxe Cobourg. The Duke was appointed months,-the Earl of Winchelsea the 2d to the command of that armý, aided by of last August (see our Sept. Mag. p. Sir Ralph Abercrombie, Sir Wm. Erskine, 270), Lord Rawdon (the Marquess of and other officers of distinction. It is Hastings) Nov. 28, and the Duke of generally allowed that the plan of the York Jan. 5.
campaign was bad, and the failure canAmid the political agitations of the not iherefore be placed to the conduct year 1791, the marriage of bis Royal of bis Royal Highness. The royal assent Highness to the Princess Royal of Prussia for the embarkation of the brigade of served to cement more closely the rela- Foot-guards was obtained February %, tions which the Courts of St. James's and it landed at Helvoetsluys March 4. and Berlin had found it their interests Scrong reinforcements were soon after orto contract, with the view of counter- dered, with Hanoverian and Hessian conpoising the inordinate ambition and tingents. The first military operations in mighty projects of the restless Empress which bis Royal Highness assisted, ocof Russia. The treaty touching this al- curred in the neighbourhood of Tournay, liance was sigued at Berlin on the 26th and near St. Amand and Vicogne, in the of January, and its leading articles are month of May, in the course of which recorded in vol. LXII. p. 172.
he was promoted to the rank of Generala On the 28th of September the King In the subsequent battle of Famars, on of Great Britain declared in Council his the 230 May, be commanded a principal consent to the contract ; and it was on column of the allied army, and bore a the following day that the Duke of York distinguished share in the success of that was married, at Berlin, to Frederica- brilliant day; the result of which was Charlotta-Ulrica-Catbarine, only child the investment and siege of Valenciof King Frederick William, by his first ennes. The direction of this' operation consort Elizabeth - Ulrica - Christiana, was entrusted to bis Royal Highness, to Princess of Brunswick - Wolfenbüttel ; whom the city was 'surrendered, after a and half-sister of the present King of considerable part of it had been reduced Prussia. Their Royal Highnesses left to ashes, on the 26th of July. Berlin Oct. 27, and baving spent some Having joined the main army, the weeks in Germany, were, on their ar Duke of York co-operated, on the 7th rival in England, re-married at the and 8th August, in the movements
[Jan: against the enemy's positions at the frontier of West Flanders (the beadCamp de Cesar, Bois de Bourlon, &c. quarters being at Dixmude and Thoupon the line of the Scheldt, from all raut), occasionally co-operating with which they were dispossessed, or retired, General. Beaulieu in repelling the enealthough without material loss, owing my's attacks upon Menin and other to the indecision and slowness of the points. Towards the middle of October allied army, against which his Royal his Royal Highness moved with 6,000 Higbness had in vain remonstrated in men, chiefly British, to the support of frequent communications to Prince Ho- the Prince of Cobourg, then before Mauhenlohe, their Quarter-master-general, beuge. He made a rapid march to who bad objected to an earlier and more Englefontaine, where he arrived on tbe decided movement of the army on the 16th, the day on which was fought the 8th, by which the enemy's retreat would battle of Wattignies : in consequence of bave been intercepted.
which, although both parties, considerThe Prince of Cobourg, after these ing the advantage to be with the elemy, operations, laid siege to Quesnoy, and bad retired from the field, and although subsequently invested Maubeuge, while the Austrian army was superior in numlbe Duke of York continued his march bers and quality of troops, the Prince of in the direction of Orchies, Tourcoing, Cobourg thought fit to abandon the opeand Menin, with the British, Hano- ration in which he was engaged. verian, and Hessian troops, to which The Duke of York returned to Tourwas added a body of Austrians, under nay, in which place, and the neighbourthe orders of Lieut.-General Alvintzy. hood, be continued until the close of the The object of this separation was the campaign. After some trifling affairs siege of Dunkirk, which had been de- the army went into winter quarters, the termined upon by the British Cabinet, Duke of York's head-quarters being at and which was viewed with regret, not Ghent, whence, attended by Gen. Mack, only by the Austrian Generals, but also he proceeded to England, to concert by his Royal Highness, wbo had remon- with the British Government the plan strated against it, as far as he could ; at and measures for the ensuing campaign. the same time, when he found bis repre- His Royal Highness returned, in the sentations, unavailing, he proceeded with month of February 1794, from England the utmost zeal to the execution of a to Courtrai, to which place the British measure, from which may reasonably be bead-quarters bad been removed, upon dated the subsequent reverse of fortune a forward concentration of the cantonon the French frontier.
ments. The army bad been consideraAfter a succession of severe and san- bly reinforced by drasts from the British guinary actions, fought by the besieging regiments, and by additional, corps of and covering armies with success, though Hanoverians, Hessians, and Darmstadt without any positive effect, the principal troops, taken into British pay. The of which occurred on the 24th of Au- troops under his command moyed sucgust (when the gallant General d'Alton cessively to Tournay, St. Amand, and fell), and on the 6th and 8th of Septem- the Plains of Cateau, where the greater ber, the Duke of York found himself part of the allied army was united, under under the necessity of raising the siege. the command of the Emperor, on the His Royal Highness had contended with 16th of April. On the following day a perseverance against numerous and in- general and successful attack was made creasing difficulties, arising from the upon the enemy's positions at Vaux, rapid accumulation of the enemy's Premont, Marets, Catillon, &c.; and means of resistance, the delay on the Landrecies was immediately invested. part of the British Government in for- His Royal Higbness commanded the right warding the necessary ordnance and wing of the covering army during ibe stores, and the neglect in providing any siege. A detachment of cavalry from means of naval co-operation, even such bis corps gained a considerable advanas might secure his Royal Highness's tage, on the 24th of April, near Villers positions from molestation by the ene- en Cauchia, towards Cambrai ; and on my's small craft on the coast. The re- the 26th bis Royal Highness completely treat was effected in good order, and defeated, near Troixville, with great without any other loss than that of the slaughter, and the loss of 35 pieces of heavy iron ordnance, which, being on cannon, a corps of 30,000 men, wbich, ship carriages, could not be removed ; under the orders of Gen. Chapuy,, at-.' and the army re-assembled at Furnes tacked his position. General Chapuy and Dixmude,
was taken prisoner, with a considerable His Royal Highness's corps, after number of officers and men. On the this, was stationed for some time on the 30th' Landrecies surrendered ; and his
1827.] OBITUARY.-H. R. H. the Duke of York. Royal Highness's dispatch, announcing Duke of York was well aware of these this event, may be seen in vol. exiv. feelings, and had himself ample reason p. 463.
to be burt and mortified by the inattenOn the 10th of May the French, to the tion shewn to his advice, and the turn number of 30,000, under Pichegru, made wbich affairs had taken; but his endea
furious attack on the Duke, near vours were invariably directed to the Tournay. They were repulsed. But in preservation of harmony'; and while the & sobsequent engagement at the same Austrian Generals resisted bis urgent replace, they defeated the Allies on the presentations, they acknowledged the 14th. On the 18th the Duke of York's spirit of conciliation which influenced bis division was attacked, and obliged every Royal Highness's language, and the zeal where to give way, and the Duke bim- with which he was ever ready to coself was on the point of falling into the operate in any measure tending to the enemy's hands. It was with prodigious support of the general cause. efforts that Generals Fox and Abercrom- The rest of this disastrous campaign be found means to restore sufficient was a succession of disappointmenis, in order among tbe troops to save them which the brave and persevering spirit from total destruction and effect a of the British Commander vainly strug retreat,
gled against the insincerity of allies, and To prove, however, that no blame was the coldness of his own government, considered to attach to the Duke of after retreating without dishonour from York, or the gallant troops under his post to post. The Allies were at length orders on that oecasion, it is only neces- no longer able to oppose the enemy. sary to quote the following extract of a A reinforcement of 10,000 British troops, letter from the Prince of Coburgh, ad- under Earl Moira, having arrived at dressed to bis Royal Highness soon after Ostend, and marched with all speed to cbe event:
the relief of the Duke, on the 8th of "Sa Majesté m'enjoint de donner a July effected a junction. On the 14th SepV. A. R. les assurances les plus positives tember Pichegru attacked the several que non seulement elle est parfaitement posts which the Duke bad taken along satisfaite de la maniere, pleine de zêle, the river Dommel, and compelled bim to d'intelligence, et de valeur, dont V. A. R., retreat across the Meuse. The French ses braves généraux, et ses braves troupes crossed the Meuse in Oetober, and on ont executé tous les mouvemens qui on the 19th attacked the Duke's army. eu lieu successivement dans les journées The Duke, after suffering severely, withda 17 et du 18, mais qu'elle lui donne drew his troops across the Waal. On par cette lettre le témoignage certain et the 27th of October the French again bien décidément irrécusable que V. A. R. compelled the Duke to move further off, t'a fait aucune maneuvre, qui n'ait été for security. A series of disasters sucune suite essentielle de la disposition ceeded, which terminated in the retreat générale, ou qu'elle n'ait engagé V. A.R. of the British and their German auxà faire par les messages successifs, que iliaries through Westphalia. On the dans le courant de l'affaire elle a recu de 14th April 1795, the different British ce Monarque."
brigades embarked in the Weser for Recent measures had confirmed the England. And thus terminated the suspicion for some time entertained by warfare, under the Duke of York, in the Duke of York, that the Austrian the years 1793, 1794, and 1795. Cabinet bad determined on the aban- In February, 1795, his Majesty was donment of the Netherlands, and cer. graciously pleased to nominate the Duke tainly of West Flanders,- for the main- of York to the situation of Commandertenance of which the British Cabinet, in-chief, an office not less important than en ibe other hand, was most solicitous. at that time it bad become arduous, His Royal Highness had in vain remon- from the deplorable effects of the instrated against the establisbment of a efficiency and abuse which prevailed in system of warfare so injurious to Great every branch and department of the miBritain ; and had equally in vain urged, litary service. His Royal Highness unupon every occasion, the adoption of dertook the duties of this situation with more vigorous attempts towards check- a firm determination to correct the ing the enemy, by a concentration of errors and abuses which had crept into means and efforts. This jarring of in the administration of the army; and terests between the two couniries in the zeal and indefatigable attention with creased the irritation and jealousy which which he persevered in this arduous task had resulted from the failure of the Ilth were equalled only by the judgment May, upon which occasion the British which directed bis labours. But of this troops aecused the Austrians (not without more hereafter. reason) of baving sacrificed them. The In 1799, the Duke again appeared in Gent. Mag. January, 1827.