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OBITUARY.-H.R. H. the Duke of York.

[Jan. founder. Again we repeat that, if the Bri- of the debate; and the officer would des tish soldier meets his foreign adversary, not serve both to be shot and hanged that should only with equal courage, but with equal act otherwise. I trust all British officers readiness and facility of manoeuvre-if the would be as unwilling to execute an illegal British officer brings against his scientific command, as I trust the Commander-inantagonist, not only his own good heart and Chief would be incapable of issuing one." hand, but an improved and enlightened The religion of the Duke of York was knowledge of his profession—to the memory sincere, and he was particularly attached to of the Duke of 'York, the army and the the doctrines and constitution of the Church country owe them.

of England. In this his Royal Highness The character of his Royal Highness was strongly resembled his father; and, like admirably adapted to the task of this ex- his father, he entertained a conscientious tended reformation, in a branch of the sense of the obligations of the Coronation public service on which the safety of Eng- Oath, which prevented him from acquiescing land absolutely depended for the time. in the further relaxation of the laws against Without possessing any brilliancy, his judg- Catholics. ment, in itself clear and steady, was inflexi- In his person and countenance the Duke bly guided by honour and principle. No of York was large, stout, and mauly; be solicitations could make him promise what spoke rather with some of the indistinctness it would have been inconsistent with these of utterance peculiar to his late father, than principles to grant; por could any circum- with the precision of enunciation which disstances induce him to break or elude the tinguishes the King, lis Royal brother.promise which he had once given. At the Indeed, his Royal Highness' resembled his same time, his feelings, humane and kindly, late Majesty perhaps the most of any of were, on all possible occasions, accessible George the Third's descendants. to the claims of compassion; and there In social intercourse the Duke of York occurred but rare instances of a wife widow- was kind, courteous, and condescending ; ed, or a family rendered orphans, by the general attributes, we believe, of the blood death of a meritorious officer, without some- royal of England, and well befitting the thing being done to render their calamities Princes of a free country. It may be remore tolerable.

membered that when, in “ days of youthful As a statesman, the Duke of York, from pride,” his Royal Highness had wounded his earliest appearance in public life, was the feelings of a young nobleinan, he never guided by the opinions of Mr. Pitt. But thought of sheltering himself behind his two circumstances are worthy of remark: rank, but manfully gave reparation by reFirst, that his Royal Higliness never per- ceiving the (well-nigh fatal) fire of the mitted the consideration of politics to in- offended party, though he declined to refluence him in his department of Commander

turn it. in-Chief, but gave alike to Whig as to Tory, We would here gladly conclude the subthe preserment their service or their talents ject; but to complete a portrait, the shades deserved ; Secondly, in attaching himself as well the lights must be inserted, and in to the party whose object is supposed to be their foibles as well as their good qualities, to strengthen the Crown, his Royal High- Princes are the property of history. Oecuness would have been the last man to invade, pied perpetually with official duty, which to in the slightest degree, the rights of the the last period of his life, he discharged People. The following anecdote niay be with the utmost punctuality, the Duke of relied upon :- At the table of the Com- York was peculiarly negligent of his own mander-in-Chief, not many years since, a affairs, and the embarrassments which young officer entered into a dispute with arose in consequence, were considerably inLieut.-Col. ---, upon the point to which creased by an imprudent passion for the turf military obedience ought tu be carried. “ If and for deep play. Those unhappy propenthe Commander-in-Chief,” said the young sities exhausted the funds with which the officer, like a second Seid, “should com- nation supplied him liberally, and somemand me to do a thing which I knew to be times produced extremities which must have civilly illegal, I should not scruple to obey been painful to a man of temper so honourhim, and consider myself as relieved from able. The exalted height of his rank, all responsibility by the commands of my which renders it doubtless more difficult to military superior." “ So would not 1," look into and regulate domestic expendireturned the gallant and intelligent officer ture, together with the engrossing duties of who maintained the opposite side of the his Royal Highness's office, onay be adquestion. “I should rather prefer the risk mitted as alleviations, but not apologies, for of being shot for disobedience by my com- this imprudence. mandivg officer, than hanged for transgress- A criminal passion of a different nature ing the laws and violating the liberties of proved, at ove part of the Duke's life, the country.”,

“ You have answered like fraught with consequences likely to affect his yourself," said his Royal Highness, whose character, destroy the confidence of the attention had been attracted by the vivacity couutry in his efforts, and blight the fair

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OBITUARY.— The Marquess of Hastings.

85 harvest of national gratitude, for which he what greater probability was there, that she had toiled so hard. It was a striking illus- should explain to him her mercenary specutration of the sentiment of Shakspeare :- lations, or distinguish them from the inter"The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices able motives? When the matter of the

cessioos which she made upon more honourMake whips to scourge as.

accusation was thus reduced to his Royal The Duke of York, married to Frederica, Highness's having been, in two or three Princess Royal of Prussia, Sept. 29, 1791, instances, the dupe of an artful woman, lived with her on terms of decency, but not men began to see that, when once the guilt of affection; and the Duke had formed, of entertaining a mistress was acknowledged, with a female called Clarke, a connexion the disposition to gratify such a person, justifiable certainly neither by the laws of who must always exercise a natural influreligion nor morality. Imprudently he suf- ence over her paramour, follows as a matter fered this woman to express her wishes to of course. It was then that the public combim for the promotion of two or three pared the extensive and lengthened train of officers, to whose preferment there could public services, by which the Duke had disbe other objection than that they were re- tinguished himself in the management of commended by such a person. It might the army, with the trifling foible of his doubtless have occurred to the Duke, that having granted one or two favours, not in the solicitations of a woman like this were themselves improper, at the request of a not likely to be disinterested; and, in fact, woman who had such opportunities to press she seems to have favoured one or two per- her suit; and, doing bis Royal Highness sons as being her paramours, several for the justice le well deserved, welcomed him mere prospect of gain, which she had su- back, in May 1811, to the situation from bordinate agents to hunt out for,-and one which he had been driven by calumny and or two from a real sense of good nature and popular prejudice. benevolence. The examiuation of this wo- İn that high command his Royal Highman and her various profligate intimates, ness continued to manaye our military afbefore the House of Commons, occupied fairs. During the last years of the most that assembly for nearly three months, and momentous war that ever was waged, his that with an intenseness of anxiety seldom Royal Highness prepared the most splendid equalled. The Duke of York was acquitted victories our annals boast, by an unceasing from the motion brought against hini by a attention to the character and talents of the majority of eighty; but so strong was the officers, and the comforts and health of the outcry against him without doors — so Trained under a system so admirable, much was the nation convinced that all

our army seemed to iucrease in efficacy, Mrs. Clarke said was true, and so little power, and even in numbers, in proportion could they be brought to doubt that the to the increasing occasion which the public Duke of York was a conscious aod partici- bad for their services. Nor is it a less' pant actor in all that person's schemes, that praise, that when men so disciplined res his Royal Highness, seeing his utility ob- turned from scenes of battle, ravaged counstructed by popular prejudice, tendered to tries, and stormed cities, they re-assumed his Majesty the resignation of his office, the habiis of private life as if they had never which was accepted accordingly, March 20, left them. 1809. And thus, as according to Solo- This superintending care, if not the most mon, a dead Aly can pollute she most pre- gaudy, is amongst the most enduring dowcious unguent, was the honourable fame, ers which will bloom over the Duke of acquired by the services of a lifetime, ob- York's tomb. It gave euergy to Britain in scured by the consequences of what the gay war, and strength to her in peace. It comworld would have termed a venial lev ty. bined tranquillity with triumph, and moThe warning to those of birth and emincoce rality with the habits of a military life. If is of the most serious nature. This step our soldiers have been found invincible in had not been long taken, when the mist in battle, and meritorious in peaceful society which the question was involved began to when restored to its bosom, let no Briton disperse. The public accuser in the House forget that this is owing to the paternal care of Commons, Col. Wardle, was detected in of him to whose memory we here offer an some suspicious dealings with the principal imperfect tribute. witness, Mrs. Clarke, and it was evidently expectation of gain that had brought this lady to the bar as an evidence. Next oc

The MARQUESS OF HASTINGS, K.G. curred, in the calm moments of retrospect, the great improbability that his Royal Nov. 28. 0.1 board his Majesty's Highness ever could know on what terms ship the Revenge, then lying in Baia she negociated with those in whose favour Bay, near Naples, baving nearly comshe solicited. It may be well supposed she pleted bis 720 year, the Most Noble concealed the motive for interesting herself Francis Rawdon Hastings, Marquess of in such as were liis own favoured rivals, and

Earl of Rawdon, Viscount

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OBITUARY. - The Marquess of Hastings.

[Jan. Loudoun, Baron Hastings, Botreux, Mo. engaged was the bloody Rght of Bunker's lines, Hungerford, * and Rawdon, and a Hill, where his conduct obtained the Baronet, in England; Earl of Moira, particular notice of General Burgoyne, and Baron Rawdon of Moira, co. Down, who was pleased to express in the most in Ireland; Governor and CommanderAattering terms to the British Guvernin-Chief of Malta and its dependencies; ment, the admiration he felt of our Constable and chief Governor of the young officer, and, in a letter written tu Tower of London, and Lord-Lieutenant England, to make use of this remarkand Custos Rotulorum of the Tower able expression :-“ Lord Rawdon bas division ; a Privy-counsellor, and one of this day stamped his same for life." In the Council of the King in Scotland and 1775 bis Lordship was appointed to a Cornwall; Colonel of the 271h regiment cumpany in the 63d, and suon after of foot : a Governor of the Charter Aid-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton, house; K.G. G.C.B. G.C.H. P.R.S. F.S.A. He was at the battles of Broohlyn and and M.R.I.A.

White Plains, attack of Fort WashingThe family of Rawdon, from which ton, Port Clinton, and other affairs in the Marquess was paternally descended, 1776 and 1777. is of high antiquity at Rawdon near In 1778 Lord Rawdon was nominated Leeds. The head of the pedigree, Pau- Adjutant-General to the British army in lyn de Rawdon, is stated to have com- America, with the rank of Lieutenantmanded a band of archers in the servire Colonel; be was actively employed both of the Conqueror; and this tradition is on the retreat of the British army alluded to in the family arms, a fess through the Jerseys from Philadelpbia between three pheons (or arrow.heads), to New York, in tbe action at Monand their motto " Nos quoque te la sparsi- mouth which followed, and at ihe siege mus." The estate of Rawdon, of wbich tbc of Charlestown. Marquess died possessed, is said to have As the American line was chiefly combeen the reward of this faithful archer, posed of the very lowest order of Irishthough the poetical deed of gift recorded men, bis Lordship undertook to raise a by Weever, in his Funeral Monuments, corps at Philadelphia, called the Volunis probably fictitious. George, eighteenth teers of Ireland, which was soon rein descent from Paulyn, having distin. cruited from the enemy's ranks, and guished himself by bis military services became eminently distinguished for its in Ireland, was advanced to a baronetcy, services in the field. In ibe first batile May 20, 1665, and added to the order in of Camden, under the command of his England, though styled of Mvira in the Lordship, exactly one-balf of the regiCounty of Down. His great grandson, ment was killed or wounded, and in Sir Jobn, the fourth baronet, was ad- that of Hobkirk Hill a still greater provanced in 1750 to an Irish Peerage, by portion. The officers, who were selected the title of Baron Rawdon of Moira; and from the regular regiments, could not, having married in 1752, as his third bowever, with all their zeal and abilities, wife, the Lady Elizabeth Hastings, el extirpate that desire of change wbich dest daughter to Theophilus, 9th Earl impelled the men to desert, until his of Huntingdon, was created in 1761 Lordship adopted an extraordinary ex. Earl of Moira.

pedient. A man caight in the act of The deceased Marquess, bis eldest son going over to the enemy was brought by this latter union (bis two former on the parade before the wbole regiladies baving died without male issue), ment, to whom he was delivered up by was born Dec.7,1754. Having completed his Lördship in a most impressive way, his education at Oxford, and made a short to be judged, punished or acquitted. tour on the continent, Lord Rawdon The officers were ordered to withdraw, embraced the military profession, for and leave every thing to the private which he bad felt an early prepossession, soldiers, who, in a few minutes, bung and entered the army in 1771 as Ensign their offending comrade on the next in the 15th foot. He obiained a Lieu- tree; and the example was most effectenancy in the 5th in 1773, aud em- tual, barked for America. The first ballle His Lordship was next appointed to of any importance in which he was the command of a distinct corps of the

army in South Carolina, which province The ancient baronies of Newmarch, was invaded by the American General, Peverel of Nottingham, Moel of Cad- Gates, and his Lordship had so arranged bury, and De Homet, bave been added his plans, as with a very inconsiderable to the above titles; but are not attri. force to maintain his principal positions. buted to the Marquess in Nicolas's Sy• Notwithstanding the superiority wbich nopsis of the Peerage. See some queries the enemy possessed in point of numrespecting them in vol, LXXXII. ji. 626. ber, some favourable opportunities were

1821) OBITUARY.-The Marquess of Hastings.

87 not wanting to have induced bim to Rawdon discerning Green's design, imseek a battle, if his own glory had been mediately extended the whole of bis consulted instead of the public good ; line, and thus completely disconcerted but be adbered to the measures con- the enemy's plan. This foresight of certed with Lord Cornwallis, who, on Lord Rawdon gained him a complete reaching the army, found all the forces victory. Having pursued the Americans collected and disposed to his utmost to the summit of the hill, after silencing satisfaction. At the memorable battle their batteries, be charged them, and of Camden, which succeeded on the put the whole to the route. General 16th of August, 1780, Lord Ruwdon Green rallied his troops several times, CUID Datided one wing of the army. but the continual charges of the British, When Lord Cornwallis pursued soon and the ardour with which they adafterwards the American army towards vanced on the enemy, were irresistible, Virginia, Lord Rawdon with a very and they were put to Aight on all sides. small force, was left to defend tbe ex- This success enabled Lord Rawdon to terior frontiers of South Carolina against concentrate his army, and, being joined the provincial Generals, Marion and by some reinforcements from the coast, Cumpter ; but General Green, having be succeeded in driving the enemy to a contrived after the battle of Guilford to considerable distance; but the eapture torn Lord Cornwallis's left, fell sud- of Lord Cornwallis, which soon followed, denly on Lord Rawdon, who had only a and the declining state of our American few redoubts 10 defend his sick and affairs, rendered it necessary that the magazines at Camden, The intention troops should be withdrawn towards of General Green was evidently to carry Charlestown, wbere both armies rethese by assaolt; and, as this was likely mained inactive from the excessive heat, to be attempted during the night, the and perhaps a mutual conviction tbat troops were withdrawn from them at the contest was nearly at an end. dusk, and prepared to surprise the A severe and dangerous attack of illenemy on the open ground at the mo- ness obliged Lord Rawdon to quit the ment when they commenced their at- army for England, but the vessel in tack on the works. General Green, wbich he embarked was captured and however, was induced to act more cau- carried into Brest. Lord Rawdon was tiously, and wait for the arrival of his almost immediately released, and on his artillery; and Lord Rawdon, who saw arrival in England was bunoured with all the difficulty of effecting a retreat, repeated marks of distinction and kindresolved to become the aggressor. Ac- ness by his Sovereign, who appointed cordingly, on the 25th of April, 1781, him one of his Aid-de-camps, and was he chose the bour of mid-day to make graciously pleased to create him an his attempt, when it was' least ex- English Peer, by the title of Baron pected, and his march was concealed by Rawdoll, of Rawdon in Yorkshire, March a circuitous route i brough thick woods. 5, 1783. He had received the rank of

Having by this sudden and rapid ma- Colonel, Nov. 20, 1782. næuvre reacbed Hobkirk Hill, even During his Lordship's command at before the American General Green was Charlestown, an American prisoner, aware of his Lordship's movements, and named Isaac Haynes, who, not content who not only supposed himself secure with remaining on parole, had volunfrom any attack on account of the vast tarily taken the oath of allegiance, and superiority of bis force, but also from a received his liberty on that account, very extensive swamp which protected contrived in the most artful manner to bim on the weak, and perhaps only corrupt a numerous body of our militiaassailable point of the bill. Lord Rawo men, baving first, in violation of bis don approacbed with a narrow line of oath, obtained the rank of Colonel in front, and the enemy's piquets being the hostile army. The detection of his driven in, an alarm was immediately villainy did not take place till the enemy spread through the American camp. were already advancing on Charlestown, General Green, who possessed a great- and when be was carrying off his band ness of mind far superior to any other of deserters to join them. A court of of the American generals, perceived the enquiry immediately set, entirely by the danger of his situation, and with the direction of the Commandant of Charlesutmost promptitude decided upon the town, to whom this duty appertained means most likely to repel the British. independently of Lord Rawdon, and Finding that Lord Rawdon advanced in Haynes was publicly executed, but not a narrow front, be immediately com- before bis Lordship had endeavoured to manded a heavy fire of grape-shot from procure the man's pardon by a private his batteries, and under their protection communication with some loyalists, charged down Hobkirk Hill. Lord whom his Lordship requested to petition

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OBITUARY.— The Marquess of Hastings.

(Jan. in his behalf. Notwithstanding his hu- the late General Sir Charles Stewart, mane exertions, he was actually charged one of the best officers of the age, ofwith being the author of the mau's fered to waive the seniority of ralik, death, which was termed a wanton act and be under the command of the Earl of military despotism. The affair made of Moira on this occasion. But before considerable noise at the time, buth in any etfective movements could be made, and out of Parliament, but his Lordship the Republicans had triumphed comamply vindicated himself, and obtained pletely. The Earl's own exposé of the an apology in the House of Lords from enterprise, made in the House of Lords, his Grace the Duke of Ricbmond. may be seen in yol. LXIV. p. 437.

In that House Lord Rawdon proved In the summer of 1794, when the himself a clear and able orator, and a situation of the British army and that judicivus man of business. His bene- of the allies in Flanders was extremely volent and persevering exertions on the critical, and the former was obliged to Debtor and Creditor Bill, to relieve the retreat through Brabant to Antwerp, distresses of persons imprisoned forsmall the Earl of Moira was dispatched with debts, will remain a monument of phi- a reinforcement of 10,000 men, and Janthropy upon our parliamentary re- most fortunately succeeded in effecting cords ; while his manly deporiment a junction with the Duke of York, throughout every debate, both in the though bis Royal Highness was then English and the Irish Parliament, proved nearly surrounded by hostile forces much bis steadiness as a statesman not inse- superior in number. The dispatch which rior to his intrepidity as a soldier. bis Lordship bad employed in embark

Having formed an intimate friend- ing his troops without either tents or ship with the Prince of Wales, lis Lord heavy baggage from Southampton, and ship took an active part in the Prince's in debarking them at Ostend, the 301 favour on the memorable discussions of June, 1794, prevented the enemy's respecting the Regency; and on the ascertaining the actual strength under 26th of December, 1789, mured in the his Lordship's command, which was an House of Lords the amendment in bis object of serious importance; and to Royal Highness's favour. His speech on maintain it, the Eart directed his this occasion may be seen in vol. lix. Quarter-master-general, the late Gen. p. 328. With the late Duke of York Weļbore Ellis Doyle, to issue orders tb4c his intercourse was equally constant, quarters should be provided at Bruges and in May, 1789, his Lordship acted as for 25,000 troops, although his furce did becond to bis Royal Highness, in bis not exceed 10,000. The delusion was duel with Lieut.-Col. Lennox, the parti. admirably maintained, and the French culars of which are given in our Memoir General Pichegru, who was in the viof his Royal Highness, in p. 70.

cinity of Bruges with a furce much In October of the same year, on the greater than ihe British, completely death of his maternal uncle the Earl of deceived. Huntingdon, he came into possession of He soon afterwards returned to Engthe bulk of that nobleman's fortune; land; bad a command little more than a very seasonable acquisition, for by nominal at Southampton; was regular bis great liberality he had involved hin- and active in the discharge of bis parself in considerable pecuniary difficul- liamentary duties; was accustomed to ties. His mother then succeeded to the take the chair at masonic and other baruny of Hastings, and the other ba- anniversary meetings; and acquired ronies in fee possessed by her father, great popularity throughout the counwhile the earldom of Huntingdon was try. As a Freemason his Lordship was unclaimed, and remained durmant till particularly enthusiastic and active; confirmed to the present Earl in 1819. and from the time the Prince of Wales

In 1791 was published in 8vo. the was elected Grand Master, undertook substance of Lord Rawdon's speech in the efficient discharge of that office. the House of Lords, on the i bird read. He was the author of an elegant ading of the Bank Loan Bill.

dress, presented by the Grand Lodge to On the 2015 of June, 1793, his Lord the King in 1793, wbich was considered ship succeeded his father as second Earl a complete refutation of the charge of Moira, and on the 121b of October brought against the brotherhood by Abthat year he was advanced to the rank bé Barruel and Professor Robinson. of Major-General. At the same period In. 1797, was published, in 8vo, a he was appointed Commander-in-chief Speech by Lord Moira on the dreadful of an army intended to co-operate with and alarming state of Ireland ; and in the Royalists in Brittany, and all the 1798 appeared Letters by bis Lordship ancient nobility of France were to serve to Col. Mac Mahon, on the subject of a under him. It is remarkable too, ibat change in his Majesty's Ministers. In

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