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chap. xxxviii. Falsehood of the assertion of this Jew of Celsus, that

Jesus gained over to His cause no one during His life, not even His

own disciples—chap. xxxix. Jew goes on to assert that Jesus did

not show Himself to be pure from all evil: Answer-chaps. xli., xlii.

Falsity of the statement, that Jesus, after failing to gain over those

who were in this world, went to Hades to gain over those who were

there-chap. xliii. Celsus asserts further, that other individuals who

have been condemned and died miserable deaths ought to be re-

garded as greater and more divine messengers of heaven than Jesus :

Answer-chap. xliv. Argument of Celsus against the truth of

Christianity, from the different behaviour of the actual followers of -

Jesus during His life and that of Christians at the present day:

Answer-chap. xlv. Falsehood of the assertion, that Jesus when

on earth gained over to Himself only sailors and tax-gatherers of

the most worthless character-chap. xlvi. Answer to the question,

By what train of argument were Christians led to regard Jesus as

the Son of God ?-chap. xlvii. Assertion of Celsus, that Jesus is

deemed by Christians to be the Son of God because He healed the

lame and the blind and is asserted to have raised the dead: Answer

-chap. xlviii. Statement of Celsus, that Jesus convicted Himself

of being a sorcerer: Refuted by His predictions regarding false pro-
phets, etc.—chaps. xlix., 1. No resemblance between the works of
Jesus and those of a sorcerer-chap. li. Inconsistency of the Jew
in raising the objections which he does, seeing that the same ob-
jections might be raised against the divinity of Mosaism—chaps. li-
liv. Jew objects further, that the predictions, although actually
uttered, prove nothing, because many have been deceived by jug-
gling tricks; asserts also, that there is no satisfactory evidence of
the resurrection of Jesus, the report of which can be explained in
other ways: Answer-chaps. lv.-lxii. Celsus proceeds to bring, as
a serious charge against Jesus, that He did not appear after His
resurrection to those who had ill-treated Him and condemned Him,
and to men in general: Answer-chaps. lxiii-lxvii. Celsus asserts,
that it would have helped to manifest His divinity if He had at once
disappeared from the cross: Answer-chaps. lxviii., lxix. Incon-
sistency of Celsus' statement (that Jesus concealed Himself) with the
facts of the case, pointed out-chap. lxx. Certain declarations of
Jesus regarding Himself, noticed — chap. lxxi. Celsus asks why,
if Jesus wished to remain hid, a voice was heard from heaven pro-
claiming Him to be the Son of God? or, if He did not seek conceal-
ment, why was He punished ? or, why did He die? Answer-chap.
lxxii. Celsus asserts, that no witness is needed to refute the state-
ments of the Christians, because these are taken from their own
books, which are self-contradictory: Answer—chap. lxxiv. Impos-
sibility, according to Celsus, that a god, who was expected to appear
among men, should be received with incredulity on his coming, or


should fail to be recognised by those who have been looking for
him: Answer-chap. lxxv. All objections brought by the Jew
against Christianity might be retorted on himself: Illustrations-
chap. lxxvi. Jew professes his belief in a bodily resurrection and
in eternal life-chap. Ixxvii. Asks if Jesus came into the world to
produce unbelief in the minds of men: Answer—chap. lxxviii. Con-
clusion of the Jew is that everything proves Jesus to have been a
man: General refutation.

BOOK III., . . . . . . . . . . 85-160

Object of Book Third to refute the charges which Celsus makes
against Christianity in his own person. Assertion of Celsus that the
controversy between Jews and Christians is most foolish ; that there
is nothing of importance in the investigations of Jews and Christians;
because, although both believe that a Saviour was predicted, yet
they do not agree on the point whether He has actually come or not.
Refutation of these statements generally-chaps. i.-iv. Celsus al-
leges that both Judaism and Christianity originated in rebellion -
against the State; impossibility of this-chaps. V.-vii. Jews shown
from their language not to be Egyptians—chap. viii. Falsehood of
the assertion that Christians do not desire to convert all men, even if
they could-chap. ix. Proof of Celsus in support of his assertion :
Answer-chaps. X.-xiii. Union of Christians alleged to rest upon
no substantial reason, save on rebellion and fear of external enemies:
Answer-chaps. xiv., xv. Falsity of the charge that Christians in-
vent terrors-chap. xvi. Comparison of the articles of the Christian
faith to Egyptian temples, where, after passing through imposing
avenues, nothing is found as an object of worship save a cat, or an
ape, or a crocodile, or a goat, or a dog: Refutation of this-chaps.
xvii.- xxi. Celsus asserts that the Dioscuri, and Hercules, and
Æsculapius, and Dionysus, are believed by the Greeks to have be-
come gods after being men; but that we refuse to recognise them as
such, although they manifested many noble qualities, displayed for
the benefit of mankind : General answer-chap. xxii. Comparison
of our Lord's character with that of individuals referred to-chap.
xxiii. Unfairness of Celsus in requiring Christians to believe the
stories regarding such beings, and yet refusing his assent to the
credibility of the Gospel narratives regarding Jesus—chap. xxiv.
Examination of the case of Æsculapius_chaps. XXV., xxvi.; of Aris-
teas of Proconnesus—chaps. xxvi.-xxix. Superiority of the churches
of God over the public assemblies-chaps. xxix., XXX. Comparison of
the cases of Abaris the Hyperborean and of the Clazomenian with
Jesus—chaps. xxxi., xxxii. Examination of the story of Cleomedes of
Astypalea-chap. xxxiii. Celsus alleges that there are many other
similar instances : This statement, even if true, shown to be inapplic-
able-chap. xxxiv. Celsus challenged to say whether he believes

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such beings really to be demons, or heroes, or gods : Consequences
which will follow-chap. XXXV. Comparison of case of Antinous,
the favourite of Hadrian, shown to be absurd-chaps. xxxvi.-xxxvii.
Allegation of Celsus that faith alone leads Christians to give their
assent to the doctrines of Jesus : Examination of this statement
chaps. xxxix.-xli. Comparison of mortal flesh of Jesus to gold,
silver, or stone, shown to be inept-chap. xli. Celsus asserts, that
in ridiculing the worshippers of Jupiter, who was buried in Crete,
while worshipping Jesus, who rose from the grave, we are guilty of
inconsistency: Answer - chap. xliii. Various objections against
Christianity, gathered from the more unintelligent Christians, ad-
duced by Celsus; enumeration of these : Answers—chaps. xliv., xlv.
Christians do desire that there should be wise men among them-
chaps. xlv.-xlviii. Allegation that only the low, and the vile, and
the ignorant, with women and children, are desired as converts,
shown to be false in the sense in which it is advanced by Celsus,
chaps. xlix.-liv. Charge brought against teachers of Christianity of
surreptitiously inculcating their doctrines upon children without
the knowledge of their parents-chap. lv. Examination of this
charge-chaps. lvi.-lviii. Answer to charge of Celsus, that Chris-
tians invite the wicked alone to participation in their sacred rites-
chaps. lix.-Ixii. Refutation of the charge that God does not decide
in accordance with truth, but with flattery-chap. lxiii. Answer
to question of Celsus, why sinners are preferred over others—chap.
lxiv. Falsehood of the assertion that Christians are able to gain
over none but sinners—chap. Ixv. Error of Celsus in denying the
possibility of a complete transformation of character-chap. Ixvi.
His meaning probably was, that such transformation could not be
effected by punishment; this shown to be false—chap. lxvii. Trans-
formation of character, in certain cases, by means of philosophical
discourses, not a matter to excite surprise : character of Christian
preaching-chap. lxviii. Examination of Celsus' statement, that to
change a nature entirely is exceedingly difficult-chap. lxix. God
can do all that it is possible for Him to do without ceasing to be God
---chap. lxx. Falsity of statement that God alleviates the sufferings
of the wicked through pity for their wailings, but casts off the good
-chap. Ixxi. No truly wise man could be misled by any statements
of an unintelligent Christian-chap. lxxii. Falsity of statements,
that the ambassador of Christianity relates only ridiculous things-
chap. Ixxii. That he seeks after the unintelligent alone-chap. Ixxiv.
That he acts like a person who promises to restore patients to bodily
health, but who prevents them from consulting skilled physicians,
who would expose his ignorance-chap. lxxv. That the Christian
teacher acts like a drunken man, who should enter a company of
drunkards, and accuse those who were sober of being drunk-chap.
lxxvi. That he is like one suffering from ophthalmia, who should


accuse the 'clear-sighted of blindness. Assertion of Celsus that -
Christians lead on men by empty hopes : Answer—chap. lxxvii.
Character of those who become converts-chap. lxxviii. Christianity
the best system which men were capable of receiving-chaps. lxxix.-

BOOK IV., . . . . . . . . . . 161-267

Subject of Fourth Book mainly to show that the prophecies re-
garding Christ are true predictions—chap. i. The position main-
tained by certain Christians, that there has already descended upon
the earth a certain God, or Son of a God, who will make the inhabit-
ants of the earth righteous, and by the Jews, that the advent of this
being is still future, asserted by Celsus to be false: Answer-chap.
ii. Question of Celsus as to the meaning of such a descent: An-
swered-chap. iii. Argument of Celsus turned against himself-
chap. iv. Celsus misrepresents Christians as saying that God Himself
will come down to men, and that it follows that He has left His
own abode-chap. v. Celsus represents the object of God's descent
to be a desire to make Himself known, and to make trial of men; and
this, he alleges, testifies to an excessive and mortal ambition on the
part of God: Answer—chaps. vi.-ix. Celsus asserts, that Christians
talk of God in a way that is neither holy nor reverential, and likens
them to those who in the Bacchic mysteries introduce phantoms and
objects of terror: Answer-chap. x. Celsus endeavours to prove
that the statements in the Christian records regarding floods and -
conflagrations are neither new nor wonderful, but may be paralleled
and explained from the accounts of the Greeks: Answer—chaps. xi.-
xiii. Celsus returns to the subject of the descent of God, alleging
that if He came down among men, He must have undergone a
change from better to worse, which is impossible in the case of an
immortal being: Answer-chaps. xiv.-svi. Superiority of the scrip-
tural accounts of these matters over those of the Greek mythology-
chap. xvii. Celsus repeats his objections: Answer-chaps. xviii.,
xix. Celsus' representation of the manner in which the Jews main-
tain that the advent of Jesus is still future-chap. xx. Absurdity
of the statement of Celsus that the overturning of the tower of Babel
had the same object as the Deluge, viz. the purification of the earth
-chap. xxi. Proof that Jews brought on themselves the divine
wrath, because of their treatment of Jesus — chap. xxii. Celsus
insolently compares Jews and Christians to bats, and ants, and
frogs, and worms, etc.-chap. xxiii. Answer-chaps. xxiv., xxv.
Superiority of Christians in their opinions and practice to idolaters

-chaps. xxvi., xxvii. Celsus misrepresents the language of Chris-
tians as to God's descent among men, and His intercourse with them
chaps. xxviii., xxix. Celsus, not understanding the words, “Let us
make man in our image and likeness," has represented Christians as

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saying that they resemble God because created by Him: Answer—chap.

xxx, Celsus again asserts that the Jews were fugitives from Egypt,

who never performed anything of note, and were never held in any

account: Answer-chaps. xxxi., xxxii. Celsus, in very ambiguous

language, asserts that the Jews endeavoured to derive their origin

from the first race of jugglers and deceivers, and appealed to the

testimony of dark and ambiguous words: Answer—chaps. xxxiii.-

xxv. Celsus adduces instances of alleged great antiquity put
forth by other nations, and asserts that the Jews wove together
some most incredible and stupid stories, regarding the creation of
man, the formation of the woman, the issuing of certain commands by
God, the opposition of the serpent, and the defeat of God, who is
thus shown to have been weak at the very beginning of things, and
unable to persuade a single individual to obey His will: Detailed
answers to these misrepresentations—chaps. xxxvi.-xl. Celsus next
ridicules the accounts of the Deluge and the Ark: Answers-chaps.
xli., xlii. Goes on to carp at the histories of Abraham and Sarah,
of Cain and Abel, of Esau and Jacob, of Laban and Jacob-chap.
xliii. Explanation of the statement that “God gave wells to the
righteous;" other matters, also, to be allegorically understood -chap.
xliv. Celsus does not recognise the love of truth which characterizes
the writers of Scripture; figurative signification of Sodom, and of
Lot and his daughters; discussion on the nature of actions—chap.
xlv. Spirit of hostility which characterizes Celsus, in selecting from
the narratives of Scripture whatever may serve as ground of accusa-
tion against Christians, while passing without notice whatever
may redound to their credit: Instances-chap. xlvi. Celsus refers
vaguely to the dreams of the butler and baker in the history of
Joseph, and endeavours to find ground of objection in the history
of Joseph's conduct towards his brethren-chap. xlvii. Asserts that
the more modest among Jews and Christians endeavour to give
these things an allegorical meaning, because they are ashamed of

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