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Books vii. and viII. have been translated by the late W. H. CAIRNS,

M.A., Rector of the Dumfries Academy, and the rest by






BOOK I., . . . . . . . . . . 393-478

PREFACE.—Origen undertakes this treatise at the desire of
Ambrose, but thinks it unnecessary, as the facts and doctrines
of Christianity form its best defence-work begun on one plan
and carried on on another.

First objection of Celsus is, that Christians enter into secret
associations, some of which are illegal, -his object being to discredit
the “ love-feasts” of the Christians : Answer of Origen-chap. i.
Second objection of Celsus, that Judaism, on which Christianity
depends, had a barbarous origin : Answer—chap. ii. Celsus objects
that Christians practise their doctrines in secret to avoid the penalty
of death : Answer-chap. iii. Morality of Christianity neither vene-
rable nor new : Answer-chap. iv. Celsus approves of the views of
Christians respecting idolatry, but asserts that these views are prior
to Christianity: Answer-chap. v. Asserts that the miracles of Chris-
tianity were performed by means of the invocation of demons: Answer
-chap. vi. That Christianity is a secret system of belief : Answer
-chap. vii. Maintains that a man should die for his belief ; inconsis-
tency of this with his profession as an Epicurean-chap. viii. Main-
tains that reason ought to be the guide of men in adopting opinions,
and charges Christians with inculcating a blind belief: Answer
chaps. ix.-xi. Boast of Celsus, that he is acquainted with all the
opinions of the Christians, shown to be unfounded-chap. xii. Mis-
representation by Celsus of the statement in 1 Cor. iii. 18, 19 : Cor-
rection and explanation-chap. xiii. Inconsistency of Celsus in accept-
ing the accounts of Greeks and barbarians as to their antiquity, while
rejecting the histories of the Jews-chaps. xiv.-xvi. Celsus objects
to giving an allegorical signification to the Jewish history; incon- +
sistency of this—chap. xvii. Challenges a comparison between the
writings of Linus, Musæus, etc., and the laws of Moses: Answer-
chap. xviii. Celsus holds that the world was uncreated, and yet is
led to admit that it is comparatively modern-chaps. xix., XX. Celsus
asserts that Moses borrowed his doctrines from wise nations and
eloquent men, and thus obtained the reputation of divinity: Answer


-chap. xxi. Circumcision, according to Celsus, first practised by
the Egyptians : Answer-chap. xxii. The followers of Moses, shep-
herds and herdsmen, were led to believe in the unity of God through
delusion and vulgar conceit: Apswer-chap. xxiii. Various names
given to the one God by the followers of Moses, all evincing their
ignorance of His nature: Discussion regarding the significance of

the divine names in various languages-chaps. xxiv., xxv. Celsus

- charges the Jews with worshipping angels and practising sorcery:

Answer—chaps. xxvi., xxvii. Inconsistency of Celsus in introducing

a Jew, as an opponent of Jesus, who does not maintain the character

of a Jew throughout the discussion: This Jew represented as

accusing Jesus of having "invented his birth from a virgin," and

upbraiding Him with “ being born in a certain Jewish village of a

poor woman of the country who gained her subsistence by spinning,

and who was turned out of doors by her husband, a carpenter by

trade, because she was convicted of adultery; and after being

driven away by her husband and wandering about for a time, she

disgracefully gave birth to Jesus, an illegitimate child, who, having

hired himself out as a servant in Egypt on account of his poverty,

and having there acquired some miraculous powers, on which the

Egyptians greatly pride themselves, returned to his own country,

highly elated on account of them, and by help of them proclaimed

himself a god"-chap. xxviii. Preliminary remarks to a full an-

swer to these charges-chaps. xxix.-xxxii. Proof that the birth of

Christ from a virgin was predicted by the prophets—chaps. xxxiii.-

xxxv. Proof that prophets existed among the Jews—chap. xxxvi.

Possibility of the miraculous birth of Christ-chap. xxxvii. Answer

to the assertion that Jesus wrought His miracles by magic, and not

by divine power—chap. xxxviii. Scoffs of Celsus regarding the

mother of Jesus not deserving of answer-chap. xxxix. Celsus

charges the narrative in Matthew regarding the dove which alighted

upon the Saviour at His baptism with being fictitious ; shows great

want of method and order in the manner in which he brings his

charges-chap. xl. Answer-chaps. xli. xlviii. Celsus sets aside

the fact that the coming of Jesus was predicted by the Jewish

prophets, perhaps because he was not acquainted with the prophecies

relating to Christ: Inconsistency of representing the Jew as saying,

“My prophet once declared in Jerusalem that the Son of God will

come as the judge of the righteous and the punisher of the

wicked”-chaps. xlix., 1. Detailed evidence from prophecy respecting

the birth of Christ-chaps. li.-liji. Answer to objection of Celsus

regarding the sufferings of Christ-chaps. liv.-lvi. Celsus asserts

that every man, born according to the decree of divine Providence,

is a son of God : Answer-chap. lvii. The Jew of Celsus goes on

to misrepresent the Gospel account of the visit of the Magi, and of
the slaughter of the innocents by Herod : Answer-chaps. lviii.-Ixi.


Calumnies of Celsus regarding the number and character and con-
duct of the disciples of Jesus : Answer-chaps. lxii.-Ixv. The
absurdity of the story of our Lord's removal when an infant, is,
according to Celsus, a proof that He was not divine: Answer-chap.
lxvi. Celsus denies that the works of Jesus were at all remarkable as
compared with those attributed to Perseus and Amphion, and other
mythological personages, but admits afterwards that some of them
were remarkable,—such as His cures, and His resurrection, and the
feeding of the multitude,-although he immediately afterwards com- 1
pares them to the tricks of jugglers, and denies that they can fur- .
nish any proof of His being “Son of God :" Answer-chaps. lxvii.,
lxviii. Objection of Celsus that the body of Jesus could not have
been that of a god, nor could be nourished with such food as
Jesus partook of: Answer-chaps. lxix., lxx. Declares that opinions
of Jesus were those of a wicked and God-hated sorcerer: Answer
chap. lxxi.


BOOK II., . . . . . . . . . . . 1-84

This book contains Origen's answers to the charges which Celsus,
in the person of a Jew, brings against the converts from Judaism
to Christianity. Main charge is, that "they have forsaken the law
of their fathers, in consequence of their minds being led captive by
Jesus ; that they have been most ridiculously deceived; and that
they have become deserters to another name and to another mode of
life.” Answer to these charges—chap. i. Digression upon certain
declarations of Jesus in the Gospels-chap. ii. Ignorance of Celsus
evinced by the manner in which he represents the Jew as addressing
the Israelitish converts-chap. iii. Objection of Jew, that Chris-
tianity takes its origin from Judaism, and that after a certain point
it discards Judaism : Answer-chap. iv. Assertion of Celsus, that
Jesus was punished by the Jews for His crimes, already answered-
chap. v. Observance by Jesus of Jewish usages and sacrificial ob-
servances, no argument against His recognition as the Son of God

-chap. vi. Language of Jesus furnishes not the slightest evi-
dence, but the reverse, of arrogance : Quotations—chap. vii. Alle-
gation, that when men are willing to be deceived, many persons like
Jesus would find a friendly reception ; inconsistency of this ; various
other charges disposed of—chap. viii. Assertion of Celsus, that
Jesus could not be deemed a god because he was currently reported
to have performed none of his promises, and, after conviction and
sentence, was found attempting to conceal himself and endeavouring
to escape, and was then betrayed by his disciples ; impossibility of
such things, according to Celsus, happening to a god: Answer to
these calumnies and objections—chaps. ix.-xi. Assertion of Celsus,


that Jesus was inferior to a brigand chief, because He was betrayed
by His disciples : Answer-chap. xii. Celsus asserts that he omits
mention of many things in the life of Christ which he could state to
His disadvantage ; challenged to produce such : Several predictions
of Jesus quoted and commented on-chap. xiii. Celsus makes light
of the admission that future events were predicted by Jesus : Re-
marks of Origen in answer—chap. xiv. Assertion of Celsus, that
the disciples of Jesus devised the fiction that He foreknew everything
before it happened: Answer-chap. xv. Asserts that the disciples
wrote the accounts they have given by way of extenuating the
charges against Him: Answer-chap. xvi. Celsus alleges that a
prudent man-much more a god or spirit-would have tried to
escape dangers that were foreseen, whereas Jesus did the reverse :
Answer—chap. xvii. Objection of Celsus, that the announcements
which Jesus made regarding those disciples who were to betray and
deny Him had not the effect of deterring them from their treason
and perjury, shown to be self-contradictory-chap. xviii. Further
statement of Celsus, that in such cases intending criminals abandon
their intentions, shown to be untrue-chap. xix. Objection, that if
Jesus had been a God, His predictions must infallibly have come to

pass; and assertion, that He plotted against the members of His own

table : Refuted-chaps. xx.-xxii. Assertion, that the things which He

suffered could have been neither painful nor distressing, because He

submitted to them voluntarily and as a God-chap. xxiii. Misre-

presentation of Celsus as to the language employed by Jesus during

His sufferings—chaps. xxiv., xxv. Celsus charges the disciples with

having invented statements : Answer-chap. xxvi. Alleges that

Christian believers have corrupted the gospel in order to be able to

reply to objections : Answer-chap. xxvii. The Jew of Celsus re-

proaches Christians with making use of the prophets : Answer-

chap. xxviii. Assertion of Celsus, that from such signs and misin-

terpretations, and from proofs so mean, no one could prove Jesus to

be God and the Son of God: Answer-chap. xxx. Charges Chris-

tians with sophistical reasoning in saying that the Son of God is the

Logos Himself : Refutation-chap. xxxi. Objection of Celsus to our

Lord's genealogy: Refutation-chap. xxxii. Celsus ridicules the

actions of Jesus as unworthy of a God: Refutation-chap. xxxiii.

Inconsistency of Celsus in representing the Jew as conversant with

Greek literature; various remarks of Celsus answered—chap. xxxiv.

Question of Celsus, why Jesus does not give some manifestation of

His divinity by taking vengeance upon those who insult Him and

His Father: Answered-chap. XXXV. Celsus scoffingly inquires,

What was the nature of the ichor in the body of Jesus ? and asserts

that Jesus rushed with open mouth to drink of the vinegar and gall:

Answer-chaps. xxxvi., xxxvii. Sneer of the Jew, that Christians

find fault with Jews for not recognising Jesus as God: Answer-

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