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SERM. itself affordeth good arguments against the principal errors XXXIV. aDout this matter. His being called the Spirit of God, may engage us to consider his nature and original; his being said to dwell in us, doth imply his personality; his divinity appears in that Christians are called the temple of God, because the Holy Ghost dwelleth in them; his sanctifying virtue may be inferred from his constituting us temples by his presence in us. I (hall then in order prosecute the points mentioned; and lastly (hall adjoin somewhat of practical application.

i. First, then, for the name of the Holy Spirit; whereby also his nature and origin are intimated.

Of those things which do not immediately incur our sight, but do by conspicuous effects discover their existence, there is scarce any thing in substance more pure and subtile, in motion more quick and nimble, in efficacy more strong and powerful, than wind, (or spirit.) Hence in common use of most languages the name of wind or spirit doth serve to express those things, which from the subtilty or tenuity of their nature being indiscernible to us, are yet conceived to be moved with great pernicity, and to be endued with great force; so naturalists, we (ee, are wont to name that which in any body is most abstruse, most agile, and most operative in spirit. Hence it comes that • this word is transferred to denote those substances which are free of matter, and removed from fense, but are endued (as with understanding, so) with a very powerful activity and virtue. Even among the Pagans these sort of beings were palled spirits: the souls of men are by them so termed; (anima hath its derivation from £vtfi&, wind.) Our life, faith Cicero, is contained by (or comprised in) body and spirita: and, We, faith he again, are at the same time received into the light, and endued with this heavenly Jpiritb, that is, with our soul. Particularly the Stoicks used to apply this name to our soul; / allege the Stoicks, faith Tertullian, who call ike foul a spirit, almost therein agreeing with us Christians0. They likewise frequently SERM. did attribute this appellation to God; XXXIV.

* Vita corpore et spiritu continetur. Cic. Or. pro Mar. h Eodera tempore suscipimur in lucera, et hoc coelesti spiritu augemur. Dt Arusf. rrsp.

—— Cœlum et terram camposque liquentes, Æn# v!_

Lucentemque globum terræ, Titaniaque astra
Spiritus intus agit——

said the prince of their poets: by the word spirit under-
standing (as Lactantius and Macrobius do interpret him) Laa. i. s.
God himself, that pierceth and acteth all things; yea he
so otherwhere expoundeth his own mind, when he to the
lame purpose sings,

—— Deum ire per omnes Gcorg. n.

Terralque tractusque maiis, cœlumque profundum.

And the Orator, in his Dialogues, maketh Balbus to speak
thus; These things truly could not, all ike parts of the
world so conspiring together, be so performed, if they were
not contained (or kept together) by one divine and conti-
nued Spirit d: and Seneca clearly; God, faith he, is nigh
lo thee, he is with thee, he is in thee: I tell thee, 0 Luci-
lius, a holy Spirit res deth within us, an observer and guar-
dian of our good and our bad things, (or doings,) who, as
he hath been dealt with by us, so he dealeth with us: there
is no good man (or no man is good) without Gode: and
Zeno defined God thus; God is a Spirit, pajfing through ,
the whole ivorld{: Posidonius also more largely; God is
an intellectual and. fiery Spirit, not having shape; but
changing into what things he will, and assimilated to all

c Stoicos allege, qui spiritum dicunt animam, pent nobiscum. Ten. dt A' 5.

i Hæc ita fieri omnibus inter fe continentibus mundi partibus profecto oon poffent, nisi ca uno, et divino continuato spiritu continerentur. Dr Nat, Dar. n. p. 60.

c Prope eft a te Deus, tecum est, intus est; ita dico, Lucili, facer intra nos spiritus sedet, malorumque bonorumque nostrorum observator, et hie prout anobia tractatus est, ita nos ipsc tractat; bonus vir fine Deo non est. Sen. Ep. 41.

©fit Vet vnvpLa, }ii}Kat ii eXu rw xierftv, Zeno.

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SERM. In like manner hence the holy Scriptures, with regard XXXIV. jQ our capacity and manner of conceiving, do with tho fame appellation adumbrate all thole kind of substances void of corporeal bulk and concretion; human fouls, all the angelical natures, and the incomprehensible Deity itself. And to God indeed this name is attributed to signify his most simple nature and his most powerful energy; but to other substances of this kind it seemeth also assigned to imply the manner of their origin, because God did by a kind of spiration produce them: for which cause likewise (at least in part) we may suppose that the holy Scripture doth more signally and in a peculiar manner assign that name to one Being, that most excellent Being, which is the subject of our present discourse: the which is called the Spirit of God; (that is, of God the Father, who by reason of his priority of nature is often called God, in a personal signification;) the good Spirit of God; the Spirit of Christ; the Holy Spirit; and often absolutely, in way of excellence, the Spirit.

The same is also called the power or virtue of God; about the reason of which appellation we may briefly observe, that whereas in every intellectual being there are conceived to be three principal faculties, will, understanding, efficacy; and correspondent to these three perfections, goodness, wisdom, power; a certain one of these (according to that mystical economy or husbandry of notions, whereby the manner and order of subsisting and operation proper to each person in the blessed Trinity is insinuated) is in a certain manner appropriated to each person; (so I now by anticipation speak, being to warrant these terms hereafter;) namely, to the Father it is ascribed, that he freely decreeth what things should be done; to the Son, that he disposeth them in a most wise method and order toward their effecting; to the Holy Ghost, that he with a powerful force doth execute and effect them: whence as God is said, according to his pleasure, to decree and determine things, [and to 3sA>j/xa, the will, is a name by some writers assigned to him; particularly Ignatius doth in his epistles frequently so style him; and s St. Paul may be understood, where he faith, xa) ynmrxeic rb SERM. SsAijfia, And thou knoweft the will; that is, knowest God XXXIV. the Father : and St. Peter, For it is Letter, that ye, (ei SeAa Rom.ii. is. n Mbpa QtS,) if the will of God pleafeth, dofufferforiVttA"Aiwell doing than for evil doing,} as the Son is called the wisdom of God, so the Holy Spirit is named the power q/*Luke i. 35. God; his substantial power, as we shall shew. To this"'*"49Being, whatever it is, it is manifest that properly and primarily the name of Holy Spirit is appropriated; but (which we sliould consider) from thence (as is usual in other cases and matters) by figurative deflection of speech, (or by metonymy,) the manner of that operation which that Holy Spirit doth exert, his influence and efficacy, and also any sort of effects proceeding from him, do commonly assume or partake of this name. So when from this Spirit, in a very conspicuous manner, an excellent virtue of performing miraculous works was liberally imparted to the Apostles, that virtue (or the manifest communication thereof, the manifestation of the Spirit, as St. Paul calleth 1 Cor. xii. it) is named the Holy Ghost: as when in St. John's7Gospel it is said, The Holy Spirit was not yet; that is, the John vii. Apostles had not yet received that excellent gift; or that39marvellous efficacy of the Holy Spirit had not yet discovered itself in them: as also when in the Acts some disciples are said not to have heard whether there were any Acts six. 3. Holy Spirit; that is, they were not acquainted concerning that peculiar efficacy thereof. When also there are mentioned the spirit of prophecy, the spirit of revelation, the Rom. viii. spirit of wisdom, (which sort of spirits are said to be in- g n . . creased, to be taken away, to be quenched,) it is plain, 2 Kings ii. that by those phrases, not the Holy Spirit of God itself, /xhess. v. (which in no sense is liable to such accidents,) but gifts, >»• fruits, or effects thereof are denoted; some of which some- Gal. v. aa. time are in the plural number called Tvi\>fj.aTa, spirits; as when St. Paul enjoineth the Corinthians to be zealous (or earnestly desirous) of spirits; that is, of spiritual gifts, or graces, or revelations: and when the discerning of spirits > Cor. xiv. (that is, of divine revelations, true or counterfeit) is said' to be granted to some, and where the spirits of prophets 1 Cor. xii.

SERM. are said to be subject or subordinate to prophets, (that is, XXXIV. one prophet had a right and ability to judge about the revelations made to another, or pretended to be so :) but these and the like figurative lenses being excluded, we discourse about the Holy Spirit in its most proper and primary fense; as it is in and from God.

Which things being premised concerning the name of the Holy Spirit; for explication of his nature, II. I. We do first assert, that it is a Being in some fense

truly distinct from the Father and the Son; hereby rejecting the opinion of Sabellius, Noetus, Hermogenes, and Praxeas; which confounding the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and destroying their substantial properties, did of them all make but one Person, under several names'1; affirming ev fwa wos-ao-s Tpa; ovofutclac, in one person three appellations, and making Tijv rpuxla (rwaXatpijv, the Trinity to be a coincidence, as Epiphanius speaks. [I said, truly distinct; for this word diftinclion is by the schoolmen conceived more commodiously applied to this mystery, than others of near signification; those of diversity and difference seeming to intimate somewhat prejudicial to the unity of essence; In divinis (in the mystery of the Trinity) we must, faith Aquinas, avoid the name of diversity and of difference, but we may use the name of diftinclion, because of the relative opposition*: which caution yet the ancient Fathers do not so precisely observe; for sometimes in them, ■srgoo-coTcov h-ipo-ry; and iiaipopa, (the diversity and difference of the persons,) sometimes also the word Swupwif, the division of them, do occur; although they seem more willingly to use the word Siaxgwif, diftinclion: that which we simply affirm is, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Toij JSicojxawj haxp'tYorrai, are distinguistied in properties, as

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Apud Aug. persons fepe diversæ dicuntur.

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