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SERM. itself affordeth good arguments against the principal errors XXXIV.about this matter. His being called the Spirit of God,
may engage us to consider his nature and original; bis being said to dwell in us, doth imply his personality ; his divinity appears in that Christians are called the temple of God, because the Holy Ghost dwelleth in them; his sanctifying virtue may be inferred from his constituting us temples by his presence in us. I shall then in order prosecute the points mentioned; and lastly shall adjoin somewhat of practical application.
1. First, then, for the name of the Holy Spirit; whereby also his nature and origin are intimated.
Of those things which do not immediately incur our sight, but do by conspicuous effects discover their existence, there is scarce any thing in substance more pure and subtile, in motion more quick and nimble, in efficacy more strong and powerful, than wind, (or spirit.) Hence in common use of most languages the name of wind or Spirit doth serve to express those things, which from the subtilty or tenuity of their nature being indiscernible to us, are yet conceived to be moved with great pernicity, and to be endued with great force; so naturalists, we fee, are wont to name that which in any body is most abstruse, most agile, and most operative in Spirit. Hence it comes that this word is transferred to denote those substances which are free of matter, and removed from sense, but are endued (as with understanding, so) with a very powerful activity and virtue. Even among the Pagans these sort of beings were called Spirits: the souls of men are by them so termed; (anima hath its derivation from äveu@, wind.) Our life, faith Cicero, is contained by (or comprised in) body and spirita : and, We, faith he again, are at the same lime received into the light, and endued with this heavenly Spirit b, that is, with our soul. Particularly the Stoicks used to apply this name to our soul; I allege the Stoicks, faith Tertullian, who call the foul a Spirit, almost therein
• Vita corpore et spiritu continetur. Cic. Or. pro Mar.
b Eodem tempore suscipimur in lucem, et hoc coelefti fpiritu augemur. De Arusp. resp.
agreeing with us Christians. They likewise frequently SERM. did attribute this appellation to God;
XXXIV. - Cælum et terram campofque liquentes,
Æn. vi. Lucentemque globum terræ, Titaniaque astra
Spiritus intus agita said the prince of their poets: by the word Spirit understanding (as Lactantius and Macrobius do interpret him) Lact. i. 5. God himself, that pierceth and acteth all things; yea he so otherwhere expoundeth his own mind, when he to the same purpose fings, - Deum ire per omnes
Georg. iv. Terrasque tractusque maris, cælumque profundum. And the Orator, in his Dialogues, maketh Balbus to speak thus; These things truly could not, all the parts of the world so conspiring together, be so performed, if they were not contained (or kept together) by one divine and continued Spiritd: and Seneca clearly; God, faith he, is nigh to thee, he is with thee, he is in thee : I tell thee, O Lucilius, a holy Spirit refdeth within us, an observer and guardian of our good and our bad things, (or doings,) who, as he hath been dealt with by us, so he dealeth with us: there is no good man (or no man is good) without Gode: and Zeno defined God thus; God is a Spirit, pasing through the whole worldf: Posidonius also more largely; God is an intellectual and fiery Spirit, not having shape; but changing into what things he will, and assimilated to all things,
Stoicos allego, qui spiritum dicunt animam, pene nobiscum. Tert, de Anim. 3.
+ Hæc ita fieri omnibus inter se continentibus mundi partibus profecto non poffent, nifi ea uno, et divino continuato spiritu continerentur. De Nat, Deor. ñ. p. 60.
e Prope eft a te Deus, tecum eft, intus eft; ita dico, Lucili, facer intra nos fpiritus fedet, malorumque bonorumque noftrorum observator, et hic prout a nobis tractatus eft, ita nos ipse tractat; bonus vir fine Deo non eft, Sen. Ep. 41.
ferós isi trüma, dimxay di 628 të xóope. Zeno. & Osés isi trūka vargós, si supados, óx ixoy magpino, festacándor di sis á Búrilene s opciój svay rãour, Pofid. apud Stob.
SERM. In like manner hence the holy Scriptures, with regard XXIV. to our capacity and manner of conceiving, do with the
same appellation adumbrate all those kind of substances void of corporeal bulk and concretion ; human souls, all the angelical natures, and the incomprehensible Deity itself. And to God indeed this name is attributed to signify his most simple nature and his most powerful energy; but to other substances of this kind it seemeth also assigned to imply the manner of their origin, because God did by a kind of spiration produce them : for which cause likewise (at least in part) we may suppose that the holy Scripture doth more signally and in a peculiar manner assign that name to one Being, that most excellent Being, which is the subject of our present discourse : the which is called the Spirit of God; (that is, of God the Father, who by reason of his priority of nature is often called God, in a personal signification ;) the good Spirit of God; the Spirit of Christ; the Holy Spirit ; and often abfolutely, in way of excellence, the Spirit.
The same is also called the power or virtue of God: about the reason of which appellation we may briefly observe, that whereas in every intellectual being there are conceived to be three principal faculties, will, understanding, efficacy; and correspondent to these three perfections, goodness, wisdom, power; a certain one of these (according to that mystical economy or husbandry of notions, whereby the manner and order of subsisting and operation proper to each person in the blessed Trinity is infinuated) is in a certain manner appropriated to each person; (so I now by anticipation speak, being to warrant these terms hereafter;) namely, to the Father it is ascribed, that he freely decreeth what things should be done; to the Son, that he disposeth them in a most wise method and order toward their effecting; to the Holy Ghost, that he with a powerful force doth execute and effect them : whence as God is said, according to his pleasure, to decree and determine things, [and to Séamuace, the will, is a name by some writers assigned to him; particularly Ignatius doth in his epistles frequently so style him; and I St. Paul may be understood, where he faith, xal yovcoxalç TÒ SERM. Seaqua, And thou knowest the will ; that is, knowest God XXXIV. the Father : and St. Peter, For it is better, that ye, (ei Dénes Rom. ii. 18. Tò Séamuce tó ©€8,) if the will of God pleaseth, do fuffer for 1 Pet. iii.17. well doing than for evil doing,] as the Son is called the wisdom of God, so the Holy Spirit is named the power of Luke i. 85, God; bis substantial power, as we shall shew. To this sxix. 49. Being, whatever it is, it is manifest that properly and primarily the name of Holy Spirit is appropriated; but (which we should consider) from thence (as is usual in other cases and matters) by figurative deflection of speech, (or by metonymy,) the manner of that operation which that Holy Spirit doth exert, his influence and efficacy, and also any sort of effects proceeding from him, do commonly affume or partake of this name. So when from this Spirit, in a very conspicuous manner, an excellent virtue of performing miraculous works was liberally imparted to the Apostles, that virtue (or the manifest communication thereof, the manifestation of the Spirit, as St. Paul calleth 1 Cor. xii. it) is named the Holy Ghost : as when in St. John's 7. Gospel it is said, The Holy Spirit was not yet ; that is, the John vii. Apostles had not yet received that excellent gift; or that 39. marvellous efficacy of the Holy Spirit had not yet difcovered itself in them: as also when in the Acts some difciples are said not to have heard whether there were any AAs xix, 2. Holy Spirit ; that is, they were not acquainted concerning that peculiar efficacy thereof. When also there are mentioned the spirit of prophecy, the spirit of revelation, the Rom. viii. spirit of wisdom, (which sort of fpirits are said to be in-Eph. i. creased, to be taken away, to be quenched,) it is plain, 2 Kings ii. that by those phrases, not the Holy Spirit of God itself, i Theff. v. (which in no sense is liable to such accidents, but gifts, 19.
i Cor. xii. fruits, or effects thereof are denoted; some of which fome- Gal. v. 22. time are in the plural number called tvebuata, spirits ; as when St. Paul enjoineth the Corinthians to be zealous (or earnestly desirous) of Spirits ; that is, of spiritual gifts, or graces, or revelations : and when the discerning of Spirits 1 Cor. xiv. (that is, of divine revelations, true or counterfeit) is said "so to be granted to some, and where the Spirits of prophets 1 Cor. xii.
SERM. are said to be subject or subordinate to prophets, (that is, XXXIV. one prophet had a right and ability to judge about the
revelations made to another, or pretended to be so :) but these and the like figurative senses being excluded, we discourse about the Holy Spirit in its most proper and primary sense; as it is in and from God.
Which things being premised concerning the name of the Holy Spirit ; for explication of his nature,
I. We do first assert, that it is a Being in fome senfe truly distinct from the Father and the Son; hereby rejecting the opinion of Sabellius, Noetus, Hermogenes, and Praxeas; which confounding the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and destroying their substantial properties, did of them all make but one Person, under several names h; affirming εν μιά ύποςάσει τρεις ονομασίας, in one perfon three appellations, and making the spráda ouvachapiv, the Trinity to be a coincidence, as Epiphanius speaks. [I said, truly distinct; for this word distinction is by the schoolmen conceived more commodiously applied to this mystery, than others of near fignification; those of diversity and difference seeming to intimate somewhat prejudicial to the unity of essence; In divinis (in the mystery of the Trinity) we must, faith Aquinas, avoid the name of diverfty and of difference, but we may use the name of distinction, because of the relative oppoftioni: which caution yet the ancient Fathers do not so precisely observe ; for sometimes in them, προσώπων ετερότης and διαφορά, (the diverity and difference of the persons,) sometimes also the word draiperis, the division of them, do occur; although they seem more willingly to use the word Esáxgrois, distinction : that which we fimply affirm is, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, τους ιδιώμασι διακρίνονται, are diftinguilhed in properties, as
B'ns ueñas rào Laisaai vócov zápcev a obsīv, ruyxiopivan rão úrosáow, sisus Tão idlothTwv de vznemirav. Patres Conc. Conftant. Epift. ad Cone, Rom. Theod. V. 9.
In divinis vitare debemus nomen diversitatis, et differentiæ, poffumus autem uti nomine diftintionis, propter oppofitionem relativam. Thom.
Δίδασκε τοσύτον είδέναι μόνον, μονάδα εν τριάδι προσκυνημένην, παράδοξον έχασαν dj only docigroin, se ono šnweis. Naz. Or. 23.
Apud Aug. personæ fæpe diverfæ dicuntur.