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SERM. he will not impart his glory to another,) sliould be alXXXIV. ]owed to any creature, to march in even rank, to seem Isa. xlii. a. advanced to an equal pitch of dignity with himself, is nowise credible, or agreeable to reason. (What communion can there be between a creature and his Creator? Why Jhould that which is made be numbered together with his Maker, in the performing of all things? faith St. Athanafius well"1.) Moreover, what dignity belongs to the Holy Spirit, what reverence is due to him, appears clearly • from that the blasphemy against him is peculiarly unpardonable, whenas the faults committed against God the Father, and obloquy against the Son, are capable of remission: for the nature of things doth scarce bear, that to detract from a creature should be a crime so capital, or receive such aggravation; it cannot well be conceived that the honour of a creature should in such a manner be preferred to the honour of God himself. (How, faith St. Ambrose, can any one dare to reckon the Holy Gho/l among creatures? or who doth so render himself obnoxious, that if he dei ogate from a creature, he may not suppose it to be relaxable lo him by some pardon n? 5. Again, whereas Christ, even as a man, is elevated in Phil. ii. 9. dignity and eminence above all creatures, (above every Eph. 1. si. nametfar above all principality, authority, and power, as the Apostle teaches us,) he is yet in that respect inferior, and gives place to the Holy Spirit. ° For as such he did Matt. i. 20. receive his nature from the Holy Spirit; That which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost, faith the EvanHeb, iii. 3. gelist; and, More honour than the house hath he that made it, faith the Apostle to the Hebrews. Christ was sent by the Holy Spirit; The Lord God, faith the Prophet of him, SERAf. and his Spirit hath sent me. But, The Apostle, faith he XXXIV.

m Tleta yets netre/tim <ry mrttfiaTt *rj#f xrtrrtvi; Iii. rt ri riTtitiftitn rv»MiS(turett vtf Te1r.7a.vTi tig reiv rir veivretr nAi/wriv; Alh. Orat. in Ar.

Anfil »» Uti \lytit x-riirn, % T««rJ> rnu/ut TeS Bin, Inert -retret yfafii <tttX.rn.iet Ti xal xtun (writ •rtvrth tttti vlei rtirttpS(tiT ttM, Km 3»|"t£n. J J. *-i;l \ttirxni i-rif. torn. i. p. 600.

n QuomoJo inter creaturas audet quisquam Spiritum S. computare? aut quis sic fe obligat, ut si creaturam derogaverit, non putet sibi hoc aliqua venia rclaxandum? Ambros.

• Quomodo creatura dicitur, qui Domini Creator ex Maria comprobatui? Aug. Serm. vi. Matt. i. dt Temp.

himself, is not greater than he that sent him; the sent is isa. alviii. not greater, that is, (by a An-onjy, or jxeiWij, the figure of]6- ... diminution,) he is inferior to the sender. Christ was con- 16. secrated and inaugurated into his offices by the Holy Spirit; The Spirit os the Lord (foretold Isaiah of Christ, Isa. lxi. 1, as the Evangelists interpret) is upon me, because he hath j_*k . anointed me: but, Without controversy, the lesser is ble/sedHeb. vii. 7. by the greater, faith the Apostle. Christ was by the^""^3,4/ Holy Ghost endowed with excellent gifts abundantly and »■ «°> *9beyond measure; but, It is more blessed to give than <OMatt*x'ii. receive, is an aphorism out of our Lord's own mouth: in **• . fine, our Lord did by virtue of the Holy Spirit perform Rom. i. 4. miracles; by the eternal Spirit he offered himself tovmn' God; by the Spirit he was raised from the dead: which things are manifest arguments that the Holy Spirit doth excel Christ as man: wherefore seeing beside God only, nothing is in worth or dignity superior to Christ, it necessarily follows that the Holy Spirit is God.

6. I add, that whereas upon divers occasions the ranks and orders of creatures are mentioned in Scripture, (as where all the quire of them is summoned and cited to sing the praises of God; namely, the angels, the heavens, the Hal. cill. earth, men, beasts, plants; when catalogues are recited J4pc!t £ of things made by Christ, and subject to him, among99which angels, thrones, dominations, dignities, and powers Eph. i. ai. are mentioned,) it is strange, that this top of creatures, Romv,,u (if a creature he be,) this leader of the quire, should wholly be pretermitted. It is very probable, that if the Prophets had known, or the Apostles had thought this, they would have not been silent about it; they would, as reason had required, have set him in the head of all; which if they had done, they would have exempted us from these scruples and errors in so high a point: but they could not do it, because indeed the Holy Spirit is not in the order of creatures: the which we do seem sufficiently to have proved.

To all the premised points no small accession of weight

SERM. doth come from the authority of so many holy fathers XXXIV. and councils; and from the consent of the Church, run"~ning down through so many ages; to oppose which, without very weighty and manifest reasons, doth as much recede from prudence, as it is far from modesty. III. The next point we shall consider is the original of the

Holy Spirit; the which we do assert to be in way of procession jointly from God the Father and God the Son; meaning hereby, that to this divine Person in a peculiar manner (incomprehensible indeed, and ineffable, but which in some manner by this term proce/pon may be signified) the divine essence which he hath is communicated from the Father and the Son. » if' !«(.!■« That the Holy Spirit is not from himself, as the FaJohnxvi tner *s> *s P^a'n5 f°r ^lat being supposed, there would be 13. more first principles than one, and consequently more

Gods than one; which is contrary to the whole tenor of Scripture: neither did any ever affirm so much. Novat. de That he proceedeth from the Father, appeareth from that nn. ai. t^e patner js tjje fountain and first principle of all essence;

Johmv.i6.and by our Saviour the Spirit is said exxo§iue<r&cu, to go out from the Father; and he is called To IlveS/ua To ix Tou ©sou, 1C0r.ii.1a. The Spirit that is out of God (the Father) by St. Paul: and this is generally confessed.

That also he doth proceed from the Son (which is by

the modern Greeks denied) may be proved.

Matt. x.20. i. Because as he is called the Spirit of the Father, so

Rom.viii.9. he is also often styled the Spirit of the Son; which signi

I Pet.i. ii-fies he is in a like manner related to the Son as to the

rnil. i. 19

Father; and that both therefore in a like manner conspire to his production.

3. He is said to be sent, as from the Father, so also from the Son. But mission and procession do not seem to differ, except in manner of speech, (one more especially denoting the name whence, the other the act or effect of the same thing;) nor doth it agree to the Holy Spirit, who (as we have shewed) is God, to go out, or be sent, otherwise than by reception of essence.

3. The Son faith of the Holy Spirit, ex Tou e/*oS A^ra/, Hejhall take os mine, and shall shew it unto you; and, to SERM. the fame purpose, Whatsoever he shall hear, he shall speak; XXXIV. by which saying it is intimated that the Holy Spirit doth j0hn xvi. receive knowledge from the Son; the which, being God, ia»14, he cannot otherwise do, than by receiving his essence from the Son.

4. The Holy Spirit is a Person third in order: seeing then the Son before him in order (in order, I say, not in time) obtained) the divine nature, so that when the Holy Spirit doth proceed, it is common to both Father and Son, he cannot receive it from the Father separately, or without also deriving it from the Son. Thus our Lord himself seemeth to have argued, when he faith, All JohnxTi. things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that i'""'10' hejhall take os mine, and shall shew it unto you.

5. Lastly, our Saviour, as St. Augustine and Cyril conceive, did signify this procession from himself, when breathing on his disciples he said, Receive ye the Holy John ix.a2. Ghost.

6. To these arguments may be added the consentient Dens Pater authority of the Latin Fathers, Hilary, Ambrose, Austin, num "y and the restj which explicitly teach this doctrine. Also Ti*f* f*** the more ancient Greeks, Athanasius, Basil, both the mifmm.. Gregories, Epiphanius, Cyrillus Alexandrinus, do (al- ^JJJ**" though seldom expressly in terms, yet equipollently, and torn. i. p. according to sense) say the same.

We proceed now to the peculiar offices, functions, and IVoperations of the Holy Spirit: many such there are in an especial manner attributed or appropriated to him; which, as they respect God, seem reducible to two general ones; the declarations of God's mind, and the execution of his will: as they are referred to man, (for in regard to other beings, the Scripture doth not so much consider what he performs, it not concerning us to know it,) are especially the producing in us all qualities and dispositions, the guiding and aiding us in all actions requisite or conducible to our eternal happiness and salvation: to which may be added the intercession between God and man, which jointly respecteth both.

SERM. I. First, it is his especial work to declare God's mind XXXIV. t0 us. whence he is styled the Spirit of truth, the Spirit °fprophecy> the Spirit of revelation; for that all supernaEph. i. 17. tural light and wisdom have ever proceeded from him.

R (■' V TIX 10 ^^

Veritas ubi- He instructed all the prophets that have been since the cunque est, WQr]^ legan to know, he enabled them to speak, the mind Sancto est. of God concerning things present and future. Holy men Luke i. 70. ^tnat naye taUgnt men their duty, and led them in the

a Pet. i. 91. way to bliss) were but his instruments, speaking as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

By his inspiration the holy Scriptures (the most full and j Tim. iii. certain witness of God's mind, the law and testimony by which our life is to be directed and regulated) were conJohn xvi. ceived. He guided the Apostles into all truth, and by l3- them instructed the world in the knowledge of God's

gracious intentions toward mankind, and in all the holy Eph. iii. s. mysteries of the Gospel; That which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit: Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him: but God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit, faith St. Paul. All the knowledge we can pretend to in these things doth proceed merely from his revelation, doth wholly rely upon his authority.

a. To him it especially belongs to execute the will of

God, in matters transcending the ordinary power and

Luke i. 35. course of nature. Whence he is called the power of the

xxiv. 49. ][f0si High, (that is, the substantial power and virtue of

Luke God,) thesinger of God, (as by comparing the expressions

8- ' "" of St. Matthew and St. Luke may appear;) and whatever

Pftl. xxxiii. eminent God hath designed, he is said to perform by him.

Gen. i. i. By him he framed the world, and, as Job speaketh, gar~

Job xxvi. nisiied the heavens. By him he governeth the world, so

that all extraordinary works of providence, (when God

beside the common law and usual course of nature doth

interpose to do any thing,) all miraculous performances,

are attributed to his energy. By him our Saviour, by

him the Apostles, by him the Prophets are expressly

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