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SE KM. to understand it; for it is by faith in his blood that we are X-XV11. ju/lified, and by knowing Chrijl crucified we shall be chiefly Rom. iii. edified; the word imparting this knowledge being the as- power of God to salvation. It therefore I mean now, by

1 Cor. ii. 2. .

Rom. i. i6. God's assistance, to explain and apply; the which I ihall Philip, in. Jjq generaUy anj absolutely; without any particular accommodation of my discourse to the words of this text; yet so as to comprehend all the particulars observable in them. The death of our Lord then is my subject, and about it I shall consider, i. Its nature, or wherein it did consist, a. Some peculiar adjuncts and respects thereof, which commend it to our regard, and render it considerable to us. 3. The principles and (impressive and meritorious) causes thereof. 4. The ends which it aimed at; together with the fruits and effects of it. 5. Some practical influences, which the consideration thereof may and should have upon us.

1. As for the nature of it we must affirm, and believe assuredly, that it was a true and proper death; in kind not different from that death, to the which all we mortal creatures are by the law and condition of our nature subPi. ixrxix. ject, and which we must all sometime undergo; for, What "man is he that liveth and Jhall not fee death; that Jhall

deliver his foul from the hand of the grave? that death, which is signified by cessation from vital operations; (of all motions natural or voluntary, of all fense and knowledge, appetite and passion;) that death, which is caused by violent disunion, or dislocation, by distempering, or however indisposing the parts, humours, spirits of the body, so that the soul can no longer in them and by them continue to exercise those functions, for which its conjunction thereto was intended, and cannot therefore fitly reside thereina; that death, which is supposed to consist in the dissolution of that vital band, whatever it be, whereby the soul is linked and united to the body; or in that which is thereupon consequent, the separation, department, and ab

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fence of the soul from the body; each of that couple, SERM. upon their divorce, returning home to their original prin- XXVII. ciples, as it were; the body to the earth from whence it Gen. m. 19. was taken, and the spirit unto God who gave it. Such Ecdes. *». causes antecedent are specified in the story; such signs ps. civ. 29. following are plainly implied, such a state is expressed in the very terms, whereby our death is commonly signified: the fame extremity of anguish, the fame dilaceration of parts, the fame effusion of blood, which would destroy our vital temper, quench our natural heat, stop our animal motions, exhaust our spirits, and force out our breath, did work upon him; necessarily producing the like effects on him, as who had assumed the common imperfections and infirmities of our nature; in regard to which violences inflicted upon him he is said, amxTeivio-Snu, to be killed or Acts iii. 15. Jlain; Jisc^sp/^eo-Sai, lo be dispatched; uvatpeiaSxt, to be made^'^ ix"i6^ away; oroteVdai, lo peri/Ii, or be destroyed; IfoXoSqtiwScu, !&• !'"• 8; to be cut off, as it is in Daniel; o-ifonleo-bou, to be Jlaugh- 4, x\, so.' tered; Sus<rSai, to be sacrificed; which words do all ofRev- v- 9them fully import a real and proper death to have ensued upon those violent usages toward him.

And by the ordinary signs of death, apparent to fense, the soldiers judged him dead; and therefore, coj sJSov ainlv ■fa Tidyijxrfra, seeing him already dead, they sorb are to brcaklohn xix. Aw legs: by the fame all the world was satisfied thereof; both his spiteful enemies, that stood with delight, waiting for this utmost success of their malicious endeavours to destroy him; and his loving friends, who with compas-Mark xiv. sionate respect attended upon him through the course ofmke xxiii.

his suffering; and those who were ready to perform their27

°' , . , ~ . . , . Johnnie,

last offices or kmdnels, in procuring a decent interment of as.

his body.

His transition also, and abiding in this state, are expressed by terms declaring the propriety of his death, and its agreement with our death. St. Mark telleth us, that e£rmoo-e, animam efflavit, he expired, breathed out his Mark xv. soul, or his last breath; St.Matthew, afijx: To isvsujjut, stnJ-^att-XXVii. mam egit, he let go his spirit, or gave up the ghofl;>o. St. John, wotpeSsoxe To mvevua. he delivered up his spirit into John xix.

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SERM. God's hand; the which St. Luke expresseth done with a XXVII. formal resignation; Father, said he, into thy hands I comtukexxiii. mend (°r I depose) my spirit; he doth also himself fre«6. quently express his dying by laying down his life, and

^f '* bestowing it as a ransom, which fheweth him really to JohnXTl3have parted with it.

»iii. 37. His death also (as ours is wont to be denoted by like

1Johniu-6-phrases) is termed efoSoj, excejsus e vivis, a going out of

life, or from the society of men; (for Moses and Elias are

LukeU.31.said lo tell, Tijv el-ohv eturS, his decease, which he should ac

"ACjfif.'' compli/h at Jerusalem;) and peTaSairts, a pasting over, or

Actsxx.29.tranflation from this into another world; {When, faith

John xiii.i.St. John, Jesus knew that his time was come, Iva. p.sTa6jj,

that heshould depart from this world.) His death also was

John H. 19. enigmatically described by the desiruclion or demolisliment

61att' xxv,'of his bodily temple, answerable to those circumlocu

a Cor. v. I. tions concerning our ordinary death; the dissolution of our

earthly house of tabernacle, or transitory abode, in St. Paul;

a Pet. i. a. the airoSici; T5 o-xrlv6>(t.a.Toe, laying down, or putting off our

tabernacle, in St. Peter.

It were also not hard to shew, how all other phrases and circumlocutions, by which human death is expressed, either in holy Scripture or in usual language, or among philosophers and more accurate^ speakers, are either expressly applied, or by consequence are plainly applicable to the death of our Saviour; such, for instance, as these i Tim. iv. in Scripture; avaAo<nj, being resolved into our principles, Phil i. a3 or tne returning of them thither whence they came; uiroLukeii. 29. Awns, a being freed, licensed, or dismissed hence; lx.fcifi.la a Cor. v. 8. ex. Tb o-cufiaTOf, a going, or abode abroad; a peregrination, or absentment from the body; an Exsuo-ij, putting off, or Acts xiii, being divested of the body; an ifavurpl;, disappearance, Gen xxv 8.or cen^auon m appearance to be; a going hence, and not xlix.33,4c. being seen; a falling on sleep, resting from our labours, 13. lii. s. J^eeP*nS w**h our fathers, being added, and gathered to our "*.'!'• '■ fathers; being taken, or cut off out of the land of the livlxxxTiii. ♦. ing ; going down into the pit; lying down, resting,sleeping j«. xi. 19. jn tfog dust, making our bed in darkness: these and the like phrases occurring in Scripture (which might be paralleled SERM. out of vulgar speech, and out of learned discourses) describ- XXVII. ing either the entrance into, or the abiding in the state of that death, to which all men are obnoxious, might easily be (hewed applicable to the death of our Saviour. His resurrection doth imply the reality of his death; for otherwise it had not been miraculous, it had not been a pledge of our resurrection. But I will not farther needlessly insist upon explicating or confirming a point so clear, and never misunderstood, or questioned, except by some wild and presumptuous heretics.

lK.xxvi.19. Ezek. xxvi. 20. Dan. xii. 12. Job vii. 21. xvii. 16. xx. 11. xxi. 26. xvii. 13.

Our Saviour's death then was a true, real, and proper death, suitable to that frail, passible, and mortal nature, which he vouchsafed to undergo for us; to the condition ofjinfuljie/h, in the likeness whereof he did appear; sever-Ron>'*»'-3ing his soul and body, and remitting them to their original sources; his passion was indeed ultimum fupplicium, an extreme capital punishment, the highest, in the last result, which in this world either the fiercest injustice or the severest justice could inflict: for, lo kill the body is, as Matt.*, as. our Lord himself taught, the utmost limit of all human Luke xu' *' power and malice; the most and worst that man can do; they have not vtfiKrtTorifov n, any thing beyond that which they can attempt upon us; and so far did they proceed with our Lord. Such was the nature of his death; such indeed as was requisite for the accomplistiment of the ends and effects designed thereby.

i. Let us now consider those peculiar adjuncts and respects of our Lord's death, (together with his whole passion, whereof his death was the chief part and final completion,) the which do commend it to our regard, and amplify the worth thereof: such are, 1. Its being a result of God's eternal resolution and decree, a. Its being a matter of free consent and compact between God the Father and his only Son. 3. Its being anciently prefigured and predicted. 4. Its being executed by God's hand and providence guiding and governing it; and by man's action concurring. 5. Its being the death of a person so holy SERM. and innocent, so high and excellent, of God's Son, of God XXVII. the Son.

i. It was a result of God's eternal counsel and decree; it was no casual event, no expedient suddenly devised, or slipt from providence, but a well-laid design, from all eternity contrived by divine wisdom, resolved upon by divine goodness. As God did (by the incomprehensible perfection of his nature) from thence foresee our lapse and misery, so he did as soon determine our remedy and means of salvation. As the whole of that mysterious dispensation concerning Christ, so especially did this main Ephes. Hi. part thereof proceed xaru o-po'Seo-iv ra>v altbvcov, according to n* an eternal purpose, as St. Paul speaketh; for our Saviour

Rev. xiii.e.was a Lamb Jlain (in designation irrevocable slain) from the foundation of the world; as it is said in the Revela1 Pet. i. 19-tion: and, We, faith St. Peter, were redeemed by the precious blood of Chrifl, as of a lamb without blemish, and without spot, ■erfteyvoxrii.svv /xev, foreordained indeed before Lukexxii. the foundation of the world: and our Saviour went, as he 9a- telleth us himself, to suffer, xa.ru To œpKr/xe'vov, according to

Acts ii. sa. what was determined: and, It was by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, faith St. Peter, that lie was delivered up into those wicked hands that slew him; nor did the conspiracy of Herod and Pilate, with the nation and people of the Jews, effect any thing about it, beActs iv. 28. yond oa-a % X"?> xa^ V &"**! ®e" vrpoipuri yevt&at, whatever the hand and counsel of God (or God's effectual purpose) had predetermined to come to pass. Such an especial care and providence of God, concerning this matter, so expressly and so frequently recommended to our observation, do argue the very great moment and high worth thereof. What God declareth himself to have had so early and earnest a care of, must be matter of highest consideration and importance.

2. It was a matter of free consent and compact between God and his Son. God did freely and graciously (out of merciful regard to our welfare) proffer, that if he would please to undertake to redeem his (lost and enslaved) crea

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