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firming the judgment of the ancient Christians, Justin, M. Irenæus, Tertullian, &c. who refer the first institution of the Sabbath to Moses, affirming (that which indeed the history by its total filence concerning the Sabbath before him sufficiently doth seem to confirm) that the Patriarchs were not obliged thereto, nor did practise iti.
And we may observe, that the law concerning the Sabbath is mentioned and infifted upon separately from the body of their laws, as being in nature different from the rest, and enacted upon a special design; as from the forecited passages appeareth; and farther may appear from considering how the condition of profelytes (those of the ftrieter fort, called profelytes of righteousness) is described in Isaiah ; The fons of the strangers, faith God in that Ifa. Ivi. 6, Prophet, that join themselves to the Lord, to serve him, 7: (4.) and to love the name of the Lord, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the Sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant ; even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer : where to undertake the observance of the Sabbath, and to lay hold of the Jewish covenant, are fignified to be coincident, or especially coherent.
All the other precepts indeed (one passage in the second commandment, as it may be understood to prohibit absolutely the making of any fimilitude, being liable to exception) are immediately grounded in the reason of the thing, and have a necessary obligation, even visible to natural light; they consequently have been acknowledged as reasonable and obliging by the general consent of men; or might be so propounded and asserted by argument, as easily to extort such confent: but this command, (although as to its general and remote matter it is most evidently reasonable, and requireth that which no man can deny to
* Kai gåg met zomerioavtis oi argowrouaouévou závtis díxenos tā secum iungis nour; &c. Juft. p. 236.
Από'Αβραάμ ήρξατο περιτομή και από Μωσέως Σάββατον, και θυσίαι, και προσο Posai, &c. 261.
Abraham fine circumcisione, et fine obfervatione Sabbatorum credidit Deo, &c. Iren. iv. 30.
Tertut, adv. Jud. Ü. 4.
be matter of necessary duty, yet,) as to the more immediate matter, as to the determinate measure and manner of performing those general duties, no reason can discern
an obligation distinct from, or antecedent to, the LawPl.cxliii. 5. giver's will, to practise according thereto : that we should xcii. 4. cvii.com 22. xxvi. : frequently with grateful and joyful sense reflect upon the cxlv. 10. glorious works of God; (especially that grand and funda
mental one, wherein God's wonderful excellencies of goodness, wisdom, and power, were so illustriously displayed, the creation of the world; wherein so great accommodations and benefits were generally dispensed to all the creatures, and to us eminently among them; remembering with deepest respect and most hearty thankfulness our bountiful Maker ;) that we should not be unmindful of the special favours by God's gracious providence vouchsafed to our country, our relations, ourselves; (especially such very lignal ones, as was that of the delivery from Egyptian Navery in a manner so remarkable and miraculous ;) that we should not spend ourselves and our time in perpetually carking and labouring about affairs touching our body and this prefent life; but should affign some competent time both for the relaxation of our mind, and for attendance to the concernments of our foul: that also we should allow fitting time of respite and refreshment to those of our brethren, whom Divine Providence hath difposed into a meaner condition and relation of servants to us; that their lives may not by inceffant care and toil be rendered overburdensome and grievous to them, but so that they may with some comfort serve us; that also they be not destituted of leisure and opportunity to serve God, our common Master; and to regard the welfare of their souls, no less precious than our own : that also we should shew some kindness and mercy even toward our beasts, allowing them some ease from their painful drudgeries in our behalf: these are all of them things which reason evidently dictates, which common sense must needs admit, as duties of piety, justice, and humanity: and to fecure the performance of them, both as to the substance, due measure, and fit manner of them, common prudence
fecure themes of piety, justice on jense mult ne
would suggest that set times should be appointed; in which they should be solemnly and notoriously discharged, under the public testimony and cognizance: and accordingly we find that, in all wise and civil societies, some provifion ever hath been made, by appointing festival times, for the practice of such duties, in some kind or degree; k The founders of laws, faith Seneca, did institute festival days, that men should publickly be constrained to cheerfulnefs; interpofing, as necesary, a temperament of their pains : Plato, with a more admirable sagacity, refers the invention, or first institution, of such times unto God himself; "The Gods (saith he; that is, the Divine Providence administer-, ing affairs here by the ministry of inferior invisible powers, according to his notion and manner of speaking) pitying mankind, born to painful labour, appointed, for an ease and cellation from their toils, the recourses of festival seasons obferved to the gods. Thus, I say, reason acknowledges the substance of these duties, and approves the securing their performance, as a good end, or fit matter of law, both divine and humán. But as to the circumstantial determination of measure and manner ; that a seventh day precisely should be assigned, that a total cessation from labour for man and beast should be prescribed; this is above reason to discern a necessity of, or a conveniency in comparison with other limitations in those respects devisable and practicable: nor can we assuredly resolve the obligation thereto into any other ground than the pleasure of the most wise Author of this law, who did see what was most fit to be prescribed to those whom this law concerned. Here is indeed mentioned a reason, why God especially did choose this day to bless, and fanctify it in this manner to such purposes"; namely, his resting upon the seventh day from his works of creation; the which yet doth not certainly import a natural conveniency, toward accomplishing those
* Legum conditores feftos inftituerunt dies, ut ad hilaritatem homines publice cogerentur, tanquam neceffarium laboribus interponentes temperamentum. Sen. de trang. An.
1 Θιοι δε οικτείραντες το των ανθρώπων επίπονον πεφυκός γίνος αναπαύλας το αυτούς των πόνων ετάξατο των εορτών αμοιβές τους θεούς. Ρlat. de Leg. ii. p. 787. VOL. V.
purposes, of this precise quantity of time, or in this way of observing it, in preference to any other that might have been appointed; it only seemeth to imply a fitness of these determinations, as containing somewhat of profitable fignificancy, that such a correspondency in circumstance of time, and manner of practice, might admonish us concerning the substance of our duty, or a principal part thereof, peculiarly designed in the sanction of this law, the grateful commemoration of God's most glorious work, (the foundation, as it were, of all other his acts of beneficence,) the creation of the world : for thus in all ceremonial inftitutions we may observe, that some fignificant circumstance is selected on purpose to instruct or excite us to practice, by representing to our fancy the nature and intention of the main duty required; as in circumcision, in the paffover, in baptism, and other ritual constitutions, it is not hard to perceive: so it being God's design to enforce the performance of that excellent duty, by appropriating a time thereto; we may conceive that he therefore especially selected that day, as inost apt to mind them, to whom this law was given, of the history of the creation; the reflecting upon and celebrating which was the main duty intended.
Seeing therefore the observation of the Sabbath is expressed to have a peculiar respect to the children of Israel, as a sign of the covenant made with them, when he led them out of Egypt; seeing in its own nature it differeth from the rest of the ten Laws, the obligation thereto being not, discernibly to natural light, grounded in the reason of the thing, we can nowise be afsured that an universal and perpetual obligation thereto was intended, or that its obligation did extend farther than to the Jews, to whom it was as a formal law delivered, and upon fpecial considerations severely inculcated; to whose humour,
condition, and circumstances, it might also perhaps be parJuft. Dial. ticularly suited : Juftin Martyr was of opinion that this cum Tryph. lav 5,80: law, as many others, was given to the Jews @ice si ávoular,
oxanpoxapôiev, for their iniquity, and hardness of heart, by way of concession and indulgence; for, because they
by their natural disposition were apt to forget their Maker; to neglect the state of their soul, being wholly intent on worldly affairs ; to exact intolerable pains from their brethren, who served them; fo use cruelly the poor beasts employed in tilling their ground, or bearing their burdens; therefore God (considering this incorrigible temper of theirs) did indulge fix days to them for the prosecution of those affairs to which they were so devoted, contenting himself to exact from them no more than this part of time for his own service, for the benefit of servants and ease of beasts : if he had required more of them, they could, it seems, or would hardly have endured it; the command would perhaps not only have been disobeyed itself, but the dislike thereof might have rendered them averse from all religion and service of God; as it happeneth, when commands very rigorous, and exceeding men's strength, are enjoined: for we see the Prophets complain of them, that they could hardly be induced to go thus far, or to afford God this so moderate share of time; but were impatient even for this one day in seven to abstain from their secular business, to relax themselves, or their fervants, or their cattle, from their daily labours : they impeach them for polluting, profaning, hiding their eyes Ifa. Iviii. from (that is, wholly overlooking, neglecting, and dif- ;, 13:
Ezek. XX. regarding) the Sabbath; for doing their own pleasure, and 13, 21. xxii. exacting their own labours upon it; for not delighting 26.3% therein, or not willingly observing it: Hear this, faith the Amos viii. prophet Amos, o ye that swallow up the needy, even to 4, 5. make the poor of the land to fail, saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the Sabbath, that we may set forth wheat ? This being the difpofition of that people, not bearing a greater strictness, they not being able to preserve within their hearts a perpetual remembrance of God's works and favours; not to moderate their pursuits of temporal good things ; not to bear a due regard and tenderness toward their brethren and their fellow-creatures ; (the performing which things in a con-,
Σαββατίζειν stant uninterrupted tenor, the said holy Father and blessed impeãs o servis Martyr supposeth to be the fabbatism which Christians voor de anav0 0 2