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ture, an honourable and comfortable success to his enter- SERM. prise; that he would accept his performances, and that XXVII. the design mould prosper in his hand: he did willingly embrace the proposal, and applied himself to the performance: JVhen thou slialt make thy soul an offering for Jin, isa. liii. 9, thou Jhalt see thy seed, and prolong thy days, and the pleasure os the Lord shall prosper in thy hand: thou foalt see of the travail os thy soul, and Jhalt le satisfied; that, in the Prophet's language, was God's proposition: and, Lo, I Heb. 1.7,8. come to do thy will, 0 God; that was our Saviour's reply in correspondence and consent thereto. God, in consideration of what our Lord would obediently suffer, did, as our Saviour telleth us, Siar/Sso-Sai (3u<rt\siav, covenant to Luke xxii. him a kingdom; committing a sovereign authority, assign- 29' ing an universal dominion to him; in virtue of which transaction it was that Jesus, for the suffering of death, Heb. ii. 9. was crowned with glory and honour; that because he pouredlh. liii. 12. out his soul unto death, God divided him a portion with the great; that he being obedient to the death, God exalted Phil. ii. s, 9. him, and gave him a name above all names. In this re- Rom*lv-9gard are God's elect and faithful people said to be given unto him as a retribution to him, who gave himself for them; (Thine they were, faith our Lord to his Father,Johnxvii.6. and thou gavesi them me ;) hence are we said to be bought with a price; hence is the Church purchased by his blood: Gal. Hi. 13. there was therefore a covenant and bargain driven be- J0 Vl' tween God and his Son concerning this affair; and of 1 Pet. i. 19. huge consideration surely must that affair be, wherein xx,fl8, such persons do so deeply interest themselves, trafficking, and, as it were, standing upon terms with one another.
3. That the great excellency and efficacy of our Saviour's death and passion might appear, it was by manifold types foreshadowed, and in divers prophecies foretold. Indeed most of the famous passages of providence (especially the signal afflictions of eminent persons representing our Saviour) do seem to have been prefigurations of, or preludes to, his passion. The blood of the righteous protomartyr Abel, shed by an envious brother, forp*"- 'V0SERM. acceptable obedience performed by him to God's will, XXVII. and crying to heaven, might prefigure that blood, which Heb.xii.a4. cried also, although with another voice, Jpeaking better *'••*■ things than the blood of Abel; not fad complaints, and suits for vengeance, but sweet entreaties and intercessions Heb. xi. 7, for mercy. Isaac, the only son, the son of promise, his l9- oblation in purpose, or death in parable, as the Apostle to
the Hebrews speaketh, did plainly represent our Saviour, the promised seed, his being really offered, and afterward miraculously restored to life. Joseph's being sold, and put into slavery by his envious brethren, being slanderFsal.cr. is.ously accused, and (hut in prison, (whose feet they hurt with fetters; the iron entered into his foul;) and this by God's disposal, in order to his exaltation; and that he Gen. xlv. 5. might be a means of preserving life, and preparing a convenient habitation for the children of Israel, doth well reLukexxiv. semble him, who by suffering entered into his glory; who Heb. v 9. thereby being perfe&ed, became author of salvation to his Johnxiv.a. brethren, all true Israelites; who went to prepare man/ions of rest and light, a heavenly Goslien, for them. David's persecutions foregoing his royal dignity and prosperous Psal. xviii. state; which he expreffeth in such strains as these; The *' sorrows of death compassed me, and the floods of ungodly
men made me afraid; the sorrows of hell compassed me about, and the snares of death prevented me; how they may adumbrate the more real extremities of our Lord's afflictions, previous to his glorious exaltation, I leave you to consider; as also the rest of such passages, having a mysterious importance accommodable to this purpose. However, all the sacrifices of old, instituted by God, we may with fuller confidence affirm to have been chiefly preparatory unto and prefigurative of this most true and Heb. ix. sa. perfect sacrifice; by virtue whereof indeed those wtoltiy\m. 5. para, an(j axiaii, umbratic representations (or insinuations) did obtain their substance, validity, and effect: if they did not signify this in design, they could signify nothing in Heb.ix.«a.effect; for as without shedding of blood there was no remission, (God's anger would not be appeased, nor his Levit. xvii. justice satisfied without it; it being blood, which, according to God's prescription, did make atonement for the SERM. foul,) as the appointment of those sacrifices did speak and XXVII. signify; so it was impossible that the blood of bulls and Heb. x. 4. goals should take away Jin; that those legal gifts andfa-1*'9'14,x' crifices should perfecl the conscience of him that did the service; that is, should entirely assure him of pardon and impunity, or raise in him a strong and clear hope of God's favour: the lives of beasts were not in value answerable, nor could fitly be subrogated instead of men's fouls, which had offended, and thence were liable to death; the effusion of their blood could not reasonably satisfy a man's conscience, sensible of guilt and fearful of God's displeasure, that by it God was fully appeased; they must therefore refer unto a xpelrriav Siw/a, a more wc-Heb.ix.M. cellent sacrifice; one more sufficient in itself, and more acceptable to God; in virtue of which, and in regard thereto, sin might be thoroughly expiated, God's wrath might be propitiated, divine vengeance might be removed, the mind of man therefore might be comforted and contented. The high priest's entrance once a year into the holy of holies, not without blood to atone for his own andtitb. ix. 7. the people's ignorances, (or miscarriages,) did imply, that1,94' our great High Priest should make one bloody atonement for the offences of mankind, and, pasting through the veil of mortal flesh, should enter into the truefan&um sanclorum of heaven, there to appear in the presence of God for us; exhibiting the virtue of his meritorious passion, together with his effectual intercession for mercy toward us. Especially the paschal lamb, in its substance, (as a lamb, meek and gentle,) in its quality, (as without blemish and spot, pure and innocent,) in its manner of preparation and dressing, (being killed by all the assembly, having its blood sprinkled upon the doors of every house, being roasted with fire, having bitter herbs for its sauce,) with other observable circumstances about it, was a most apposite emblem of Christ our pajsover; who not only by 1 Cor. T. 7, his death did signify, and mind us of, but did really achieve our deliverance from the mystical Egypt, our state of spiritual bondage. So did ancient types exhibit
27. xxvi. 32.
SERM. and represent; plain predictions also did express the fame XXVII. death and suffering of our Lord: Those things, faith St. Acts ijj. 18> Peter, which God before had Jhewed ly the mouth of all ne.MT.iy- his prophets, that Christ Jhouldsuffer, he hath so fulfilled; not one prophet only, not some few; but all, faith he, (that is, either plainly or covertly, either directly or by consequence,) have fore/hewed (or foretold) it: it is our negligence, or stupidity, if we do not discern it in them; as our Lord intimated, when he thus spake to his disciLuke xxiv. pies: 0 fools, and flow of heart to believe all that tlie xviii363i. ProPnets have spoken! ought not Christ (ought he not, acActs xiii. cording to their prefignisications and predictions) to have suffered these things, and so to enter into his glory? That David, an illustrious representative of the Meslias, doth often describe as belonging to himself, mortal agonies and Psal. xxii. sufferings^ not well applicable Koltcl Aefiv, or in direct historical meaning, to his own person, and therefore in reason, according to a more high and perfect sense, to be understood of the Meslias himself; that Daniel plainly foretelleth, that in a certain time the Meslias should be cut off; that Isaiah doth in several places insinuate, and in the famous 53d chapter of his prophecy doth clearly describe, the manner and kind of our Saviour's passion, is so evident, that even those of the Jewish doctors, who have been most earnest opposers of our Lord, have been forced to acknowledge, that there is to be as well one Messias to suffer, as another to prosper, and reign in glory; being so gross as not to apprehend, or so perverse as not to acknowledge, the consistency between antecedent suffering Luke xxii. and consequent glory; between a night of darkness and sorrow, and a day of light and joy breaking out from it j not being able or willing to distinguish between an external pomp in this world, and an external majesty in the future state. ■ But unto us God's so forward care, by the spirit of Christ in his prophets, rapofiapTupeo-Sai, to fore-wit1 Pet i. u.nefs (as St. Peter speaketh, or to testify before hand) the sufferings of our Saviour, and the glories succeeding, doth imply, with what diligence of attention we mould regard, with what firmness of faith we should embrace, with what satisfaction of heart we should entertain this great and SERM. admirable dispensation. XXVII.
4. We may consider, that this death was compassed by God's especial providence directing and disposing it, although not without the active concurrence of men: the treacherous disposition and covetous appetite of Judas; the envious humour and blind zeal of the scribes and priests; the wanton fickleness and wild rudeness of the people; the fearful and selfish temper of the governor, were but instruments, whereby God's own hand did inflict Acts iv. as. this sore chastisement upon his Son for us: it was the Isa. liii. e, Lord that laid upon him the iniquities of us all; by God*' he was Jlricken, smitten, and affiiSted; Pilate, it is said, had no power to do what he did, but what was given him John xix. from above; the Jews with their rulers proceeded rashly x Qot iu g and ignorantly; otherwise, as St. Paul affirmeth, they Acts iii. 17. would not have crucified the Lord of glory; but God ad- Rom? viii visedly, as St. Peter told them, did accomplish it; He didaa. not/pare his own Son, but delivered him up for us: he, as it were, suspended his bowels of pity toward him, he withdrew his face of kindness from him, out of compassion and benignity toward us; he used him severely, that he might deal favourably with us.
Yet did man actively concur therein; all mankind in a fort, by its representatives, was involved, as principally in the guilt for which, so in the guilt by which he suffered; there was a general conspiracy of Jew and Gentile prac- . used against the life of their common Saviour. Of a truth, Acts iv. 37. faith St. Peter, again/I thy holy child Jesus, whom thou haft anointed, were gathered together both Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and with the people of Israel: in the Jews the horrid ingratitude of men, in the Gentiles their wretched infirmity did appear; the which, by their active efficacy toward our Lord's death, did signify the meritorious influence they also had upon it; that it was our iniquity and corruption which did cause it: so as a work of divine Providence, (the most admirable work ever accomplished by Providence,) as an act of human pravity, (the