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the A&ion, and was recir'd to the House of the Venetian Embaladour, they were in trouble and perplexity; dismiss'd their Coach, and return'd to their Lodging. Though they abhorr'd the Action that was committed, they forelaw, the presence of one of their own Servants in it, and even some passionate words they had used, in their expoftulation with Don Lewis, against the reception of such a Messenger, as if “the King “their Mafter had too many Subjects in hac place, for such a "fellow to appear there with any security, would make it be believ'd by many, that the attempt had not been made without their consent or privity. In this trouble of mind, they immediately wric a Letter to Don Lewis de Haro, to express the sense they had of this unfortunate rash Action; "of “which, they hoped, he did believe, if they had had any notice or suspicion, they would have prevented it. Don Lewis

The Embal return'd them a very dry Answer; “That he could not ima- sadurs corito "gine that they could have a hand in so foul an Assassina-10 Don “cion in the Court (for all Madrid is call’d, and look'd upon

Lewis a. as the Court ) “of a Person under the immediate Protection

Aition. “of the King: However, that it was an Action so unheard “of, and fo difhonourable to the King, that his Majesty was His Answer: "relolvd to have it examin'd to the bottom, and that exem“plary Justice should be done upon the Offenders: That his «own Embaffadour in England might be in great danger upon " this Murther; and that they would send an Express prefently “thither to fatisfy the Parliament how much his Catholick “Majesty detested, and was offended with it, and resolv'd to “ do Justice upon it, and if his Emballadour underwent any

inconvenience There, they were not to wonder, if his Ma“jesty were severe Here; and so left it to them to imagine that cheir own Persons might not be lafz.

But they knew the temper of the Court too well, to have the least apprehenfion of that: yet they were a little surprised, when they first saw the Multitude of People gather'd cogether about their House, upon the first News of the Action; insomuch that the street before their House, which was the broadeft in Madrid (the Calle de Alcala) was fo throng'd, that Men could hardly pass. But they were quickly out of that apprehenfion, being assured, that the jealousy that one of the English Embaladours had fúffer'd Violence, had brought that Multitude together; which they found to be true; for they no sooner hew'd chemselves in a Balcony to the People, Those that but they faluted them with great kindness, pray'd for the Kingfied to the their Master, cursed and reviled the Murtherers of his Father ; caken thence, and fo departed. They who had beraken themselves to the and Impria Chapel, were, the next day or the second, taken from thence Soned; the by a principal Officer after Examination, and fent to the Prisoner ofcapes

son : insa France.

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fon : the other was not inquir'd after ; but, having conceal'd himself for ten or cwelve days, he went out of the Town in the night; and, without any interruption or trouble, went into France

Of all the Courts in Christendoin Madrid is that where Embasladours, and Publick Ministers, receive the greatest Respect, which, besides the Honour and Punctuality of that People, bred up in the observation of distances and order, proceeds from the excellent method the Embassadeurs have of living with mutual respect towards each other, and in mutual concernment for each others Honour and Privileges : fo that, if any Embasladour, in Himself or his Servants, receive any Affront or Difrespect, all the other Embaffadours repair to him; and offer their Service, and Interpofition, by which means they are not only preserv'd from any Invasion by any private and particular Insolence, but even from some Acts of Power, which the Court it self bach some time thought fit to exercise, upon an extraordinary occasion, towards a Minister of whom they bad no regard. All are uniced on the behalf of the Character; and will not suffer that to be done towards one, which, by the conscquence, may reflect upon all.

It cannot be imagin'd, with what a general compassion all the Embassadours look'd upon these unhappy Gentlemen, who had involy'd themselves by their rashness in so much peril. They came to the English Embasfadours to Advise, and Consult what might be done to preserve them, every one offering his Afiftance. The Action could in no degree be justified; all that could be urged and insisted upon in their behalf, was the Privilege of Sanctuary, “They had becaken

themselves to the Church; and the taking them from thence,

by what Authority focver, was a violation of the Rights and “Immunities of the Church, which, by the Law of the King

dom, was ever defended with all tenderness. So thac be“fore the guilc of the Blood could be examin'd, the Pri“soners delir’d that their Privilege might be examin’d, and " that they might have Council assign'd them to that purpose; which was granted ; and several Arguments were made upon the matter of Law before the Judges; who were favourable enough to the Prisoners. The King's Council urged, “thac “in case of Allallination, the Privilege of Sanctuary was ne

ver allow'd (which is true ) and cited many Presidents of late years in Madrid it self, where, for lefs Crimes than of Blood, Men had been taken out of the Sanctuary, and tried, and executed. The English Emballadours thought not fit to appear on their behalf, and yet were not willing chac the new Republick should receive so much Countenance from that Court, as would have resulted from putting those Gentlemen


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to death as if they had kill'd a Publick Minister. The Pope's Nuntio, Julio Rospigliofi, who was afterwards Clement the The Nuntio Ninth, could not, according to the Style of the Roman Court, Rospiglioli eicber give or receive Vifies from the English Emballadours : required but they perform’d Civilities to each other by Messages, and deliver's passed mutual Salucarions, with all respect to each other, as back, they met abroad. and the Venetian Embaffadour brought chem frequent assurances, “chat the Nuncio had spoken very ef"fectually to the King, and to Don Lewis, for the redelivery “of the Prisoners to the Church, and pressed it so hard upon “the Conscience of the King, that he had tome promise that “they thould not suffer.

In the mean time, thundering Letters came from the Parliament, with great Menaces what they would do, it exemplary Juftice was not inflicted upon those who had Murther’d their Envoy; and Don Alonzo urged it, as if "he thoughc "himself in danger till full fatisfaction should be given in that particular; ali which for the present made deep impression, so that they knew not what to do, the King often declaring " that he would not infringe the Privilege of the Church, and "lo undergo the Censure of the Pope, for any advancage he “could receive with reference to any of his Dominions. In the end (that the discourse of this Affair may not be resum'd The Jue of

this business again hereafter) after a long Imprisonment (for during the Embaladours stay they would not bring them to any Trial, Embalfa

after the left they might seem to do any thing upon their follici- dours depar. tacion) the Prisoners were proceeded against affoon, or ture. shortly after the Embaffadours had lefc Madrid, and were all condemo'd to dye; and affoon as the Sentence was declar'd, all the Prisoners were again deliver’d inco che fame Church; where they remain'd many days, having Provisions of Victuals sent to them by many Persons of Quality, until they had all opportunity to make their Escape, which was very successfully done by all but one; who, being the only Protestant amongst them, was more maliciously looked after and watched, and was follow'd, and apprehended after he had made three days Journey from Madrid, and carried back thither, and put to deach: which was all the satisfaction the Parliament could obrain in that Affair; and is an instance, how far that People was from any Affection to those of England in their Hearts, how much soever they comply'd with them out of the necesfity of their Fortune.

When some weeks were passed after that unlucky accident, the Emballadours went to confer with Don Lewis upon some other occurence, with no purpose of mentioning any thing of the Prisoners. Don Lemis spoke of it in a manner they did not expect, one expression was “To tengo invidia de

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" estos Cavaleros doc. I envy those Gentlemen for having “done so noble an Action, how penal soever it may prove “ to them, to revenge the Blood of their King. Whereas, he said, "the King his Master wanted such resolute Subjects; “otherwise he would never have loft a Kingdom, as he had “done Portugal, for want of one brave Man; who, by taking “away the Life of the Usurper, might at any time, during the “first two years, have put an end to char Rebellion.

To return now to the Affairs of Scotland: whether when the Marquis of Argyle first knew that the King would venture himself into Scotland, he suspected his own itrength, and so sent for his Friend Cromwell co allift him; or whether it seem'd more reasonable to the Parliament, when it was affured of the King's being there, to Vific hin in that Kingdom, than to

expect a Vilic from him, is not enough clear at this time. Cromwell, But affoon as the King was in Scotland, Cromwell, being sent jene for buy for by the Parliament, left what remain’d to be done in Ire

land to Ireton ( who had Married his Daughter ) and made ment out of Ireland, bim Deputy; and Transported himself into England; where leave Ire. the Parliament, not without great opposition from all the ton bus De- Presbyterian Party, resolv'd to send an Army into Scotland. prilie Tarlie Many opposed it, as they thought it an unjust and unproThe ment refolv'a fitable War, and knew it must be a very expensive one; and to send an others, because it would keep up, and increase the Power and Army into Authority of the Army in England; which was already found

to be very grievous.

This Resolution produced another great Alteration : FairFairfax fax, who had hitherto worn the Name of General, declar'd gives bos positively that_he would not Command the Army against Commission. Scotland. The Presbyterians said, “it was because he thought

“the War unlawful, in regard it was against those of the same

“Religion; but his Friends would have it believ'd, that he Cromwell would not Fight against the King. Hereupon Cromwell was made Go- « chosen General ; which made no Alteration in the Army;

which he had modell’d to his own mind before, and Commanded as absolutely. But in all other places he grew more absolute and more imperious; he discountenanced, and fuppressed the Presbyterians in all places; who had been supported by Fairfax. The Independents had all Credit about him; and the Churches and Pulpits were open to all kind of People who would shew their Gifts there; and a general Distraction and Confusion in Religion cover'd the whole Kingdom; which raised as general a discontent in the minds of the People, who, finding no ease from the Burthens they had so long futtain'd, but an increase of the Taxes and Impositions every day, grew weary of their new Government; and heartily pray'd, that their General might never return from Scot



ne: al.


land, but that, he being destroy'd there, the King might returd' Victorious into London. The bitterness and prosecution against their Brethren in England, and the old Animosity they tal long borne against the Person of Cromwell, made chose in Authority in that Kingdom resolve to defend themselves against his Invasion, and to draw together a very numerous The Scors Body of Men well provided, and supplied with all things ne- taife and ceflary but Courage and Conduct. They were so careful in my again the modelling this Army, that they suffer'd few or no Officers, or Soldiers, who had been in the Engagement of Duke Hamilton, or who gave the least occasion to be suspected to with well to the King or to the Hamiltonian Party, to be lifted or receiv'd into their Service. So that they had only fome old discredited Officers, who, being formerly thought unworthy of Command, had stuck close to Argyle and to the Party of the Kirk. The truth is, the whole Army was under the Government of a Committee of the Kirk and the State ; in which the Ministers exercised the fole Authority, and prayed and preached against the Vices of the Court, and the Impiery. and Tyranny of Cromwell, equally; and promised their Army Victory over the Enemy as positively, and in as confidenc terms, as if God himself had directed them to declare it. The King defir'd that he might Command this Army, at least run the Fortune of it. But they were hardly prevail'd with to give him leave once to see it; and, after he had been in it three or four hours, upon the observation that the Common Soldiers seem'd to be much pleas'd to see him, they caused him to recurn, and the next day carried him to a place at a greater distance from the Army; declaring, “that they found athe Soldiers too much inclin'd to put their Confidence in the Arm of Flesh ; whereas their hope and dependence was to “ be only in God; and they were most affur'd of Victory by “the Prayers, and Piety of the Kirk.

In July Cromwell enter'd Scotland, and march'd without Cromwell any opposition till he came within less than a days Journey ente Scolof Edenborough, where he found the Scotish Army encamped land. upon a very advantageous ground; and he made his Quarters as near as he could conveniently, and yet with disadvantages enough. For the Country was so destroyed behind him, and the Paffes lo guarded before, chat he was compelled to send for all his ProviGon for Horse and Foot from England by Sea ; insomuch as the Army was reduced to great streights ; and the Scots really believ'd, that they had them all ac their Mercy, except such as would Embark on board their Ships. But alfoon as Cromwell had recover'd some Provisions, his Army begun to remove, and seem'd to provide for their March. Whether that March was to retire out of so barren

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