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the sea.

disease, or give it different and perhaps worse symptoms, but can never expel it. Cut off one head of the monster, and another will appear, Christianity herself, though she aimed at universal civilization, yet never meddled with existing institutions. She gives principles, with the assurance that laws will grow out of them, and that, if men once desire or dea serve instruction, they will not long remain without it.'p. 104.

As to a few of the most outrageous customs, however, we have no doubt that Mr. C. would approve their immediate suppression by civil authority, so far as it can be done with safety; and this actually was done by the British Government; a year or two back, in the case of the customs of exposing infants and drowning at the place where the Ganges opens to

He takes an external view of the Religion' of Hindostan, considered as to its general features, its sacred usages," and its chief philosophical opinions. But it is unnecessary to follow him over this ground. He easily proves the pernicious influence of polytheism, and idolatry, and of the ridiculous, and horrible penances and sacrifices which form the deserved and appropriate train of those detestable delusions, and he very sensibly argues the immoral effect of the doctrines of fatalism and immaterialism, as maintained in the principal philosophical school of India; which dogmas, at least in the most gross and mischievous of their inferences, have found their way to the minds of the most ignorant of the populace, in consequence of that instinct, by means of which the most stupid of wicked creatures are sure to become acquainted with whatever tenets are of a nature to justify or extenuate their immorality, even though those tenets originated so far off as in the schools of philosophers.

The latter portion of the Essay is on the Means and the Consequences of diffusing Christian knowledge in India. The first thing requisite here was, to consider the obstacles and accordingly, the author has examined the force of the resista ance to be expected in the opposition of the Brahmins, the obstinacy with which the Hindoos adhere to their customs and principles, the indifference of disposition attributed to themi by some of the objectors to the design of Christianizing them; and the influence of the bad conduct of European Christians. The discussion is conducted very acutely, especially on the subject of the opposition of the Brahmins, and the terror inspired by their power and promptitude to inflict the most for: midable of Hindoo punishments, the loss of caste ; but we do think the magnitude of this obstacle appears more fea duced in our author's argument, than it will be found in practia cal experiment; though certainly the experiment of the Bapa

VOL. IV.

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tist Missionaries has proved the obstacle to be much less fatal, than the enemies of missionary schemes have been pleased to represent, with as noisy and unreasoning a pertinacity as that of the very respectable gentlefolk who shouted out for two hours without intermission,' Great is Diana,' or that of the philanthropic senators from Liverpool, who repeated in ParJiament, year after year, the identical assertions, in the identical words, about the ruin which would follow the abolition of the slave-trade.

As opposed to the discouragement and intimidation arising from these obstacles, the author has enumerated, and in a very spirited manner illustrated, several circumstances, promising to operate as facilities, which may be found in the internal state of the country, the situation and character of the people, their quality of passiveness, and the political situation of India as a subjected province of our empire. In remarking on this last circumstance, he has thus stated the claims of Christianity and its advocates and teachers on any thing that should pretend to call itself a Christian government.

• Let the ægis of government be employed to shelter, as well the preachers as the converts, and the religion will thrive under it. Nor is this too much to ask. There is a wide difference between persecuting one party and protecting another;between beating down the arm of Brahminism, and staunching the wounds it inflicts. We may not have a right to overthrow shis superstitious tyranny, but we have the fullest to shelter the miserable subjects of it.'p. 129.

A brief view is taken of the past successes, and the present numbers, of the Christians in India. In considering the means of executing the design in question, the author treats briefly of the obvious and indispensable expedients of translating the bible, dispersing tracts, and forming schools; together with what appears to us the very strange proposal of gradually substituting the English language for the languages of India. But all these are considered as only particular and subordinate' means, to be employed under the grand comprehensive institution of an established church in India, the necessity and are rangements of which are extensively insisted on, Probably the author would have shortened his subject very much, if he had considered how unlikely it appears from the past history of our Indian states, that the government will ever be in a situation to deem it prudent, or even find it practicable, to afford the enormous expence of such an institution. Surely in such circumstances, and such times, all the proposed expedients for the pious work ought to be of the most simple, practicable, and unexpensive kind. It always injures a good cause to insist on exorbitant means for its service.

Beside the obvious impracticability of the scheme, we are

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not to slight any useful caution that may be suggested to us by the reasonings and denunciations of the alarmists. They have vehemently protested to us, that even the connivance and permission of the Asiatic government to private and obscure individuals to preach and distribute bibles and tracts among the natives will rouse, and incense, and arm all Hindostan against us; of this we do not believe one word. But they have still more vehemently protested, that a formal systematic system adopted by government, as a measure of authority, and as an absolute branch of its administration and even its constitution, would certainly and instantly set on fire the whole course of superstitious nature;' and here, though they vastly exaggerate, no doubt, we are by no means competent to say they are entirely mistaken. We plainly think it would be a dangerous and unavailing experiment. After such observations, it is of less importance to notice the mistaken argument on which the proposal is chiefly founded, that we must present to the fiindoos a coinplete uniformity of religious doctrine and worship. Mr. C. might easily have recollected, that no institution ever can secure an uniformity of opinion, among persons who are to think freely. This point, as applicable to this case, is most forcibly urged by Mr. Fuller, in his remarks on the sermon of Dr. Barrow, 'In the name of the extolled liberality of the nineteenth century, let all good men have full and equal liberty and scope to employ themselves in a work which needs more than all the zeal and abilities with which they can all coalesce to promote it.

We have not room to remark on the concluding section, which treats of the diffusion of Christianity in India ; except that amidst much truth and ingenious reasoning, we think Mr. C. is rather too sanguine and rapid in his calculations,

With such exceptions as we have binted, and perhaps one or two more, we must give our warm applause to this perfor

mance,

Art. XI. A Vocabulary, English and, Greek, arranged systematically, to

advance the Learner in scientific as well as verbal Knowledge. Designed for the Use of Schools. By Nathaniel Howard. 12mo,

pp. 164. Price 3s. 6d. Longman and Co. 1808. THE general plan of this work is highly useful, and we wonder it has

not been more frequently adopted by the instructors of youth. Vocabularies are constantly used with success in teaching French and Italian; why should they not be employed in teaching Greek : _They are more necessary in the latter than in the former languages.

For in the French and Italian there is such an abundance of words, similar to those of the same signification in English, that the learner need only see them to know their meaning. But it is quite otherwise with the Greek, which

sense.

contains few words similar both in sound and signification to the Latin
or English. For this reason, the learner is compelled to make repeated
references to his Lexicon, before a Greek word becomes his own by being
completely fixed in his mind. It appears to us that a vocabulary is pecu-
ļiarly useful in acquiring a language of this description. A word is
more easily retained when it has been carefully committed to memory,
than when a cursory notice hils been taken of it, merely sufficient to con-
strue the sentence in which it occurs. In a vocabulary, the learner may
have the advantage of knowing the most general meaning of a word ; but
în construing a common passage, such an unusual signification may be
required, as he may not have occasion for again, until he has entirely for-
gotter it, and he must therefore have the trouble of searching the Lexi-
con repeatedly for the same expression, employed in the same
If in the course of his reading, he finds a different meaning required,
than the one which he had learnt from the vocabulary, he has yet the
satisfaction of knowing which of the two significations is most usual, and
by dint of comparison and contrast forgets neither.

In drawing up a vocabulary, much care is requisite in order to realize all the advantages of the plan. In the first place, it should not contain very many words, or it defeats its own purpose, and becomes, like a · Memoria Technica,' so replete with barbarisms, that the memory sinks under the load, and instead of being invigorated and assisted, loses all its strength. The memory is not like the air, elastic to an infinite degree. In the next place, as a vocabulary is intended for the use of learners, such words should be chosen as are foun' in initiatory authors ; else they will be forgotten before they occur in rcadivg, and the time and pains employed in committing them to memory will be lost.We entirely disapprove of confining the selection to the original roets, both because there are some of these which are not called for, during the two or three first years of learaing Greek, and because the meaning of some derivatives is so peculiar and distinct that a knowledge of the root will not explain them.

There is much to commend in the execution of the performance before 128 ; though at the same time it would easily admit improvement. There are rather too many words in the selection, and some are not sufficiently common to warrant an introduction into a manual for youth. Such words as γαργαλιζω and αικιλλω should be onitted. . There are many roots in the vocabulary of verbs, which may be advantageonsly changed for derivatives of more frequent occurrence. The scientific instruction which this volume communicates is so trifling, that it might have been spared without any detriment to the Greek pupil

. Some of the observations are introduced in a manner so, unusual and abrupt, that they partake of the ludi. crous. The following extract will give the reader an idea of the work.

• A collection of waters is
The Ocean

NxEovos, 8. m.
The Sea

Θαλασσα, ης. f,
À river

Ποταμος, 8, m.
Wolga is the largest in Europe.
A stream

Pupov, 8. n.
A rivulet

Ρυαξ, ακος. m.
A brook

Χειμαρρος, , .

t 4

A pool or pond

Λιμνη, ης.

f. A lake

Λιμνη, ης. f.
The Lake Superior in North America is 1500 miles in circumference.
A marsh, or fen

Ελος, εος, 8ς. n.
A fountain, or spring

IInyn, ns. f.
A well

Φρεας, ατος. η.
A wave

Κυμα, ατος. η.
The tide

Κλυδων, ωνος. m. influenced by the attraction of the Moon.' p. 6. Art.XII.Four Sermons, preached in London,at the Fourteenth General Meet

ing of the Missionary Society, May. 11, 12, 13, 1808, by the Rev. John Campbell, D. D. Edinburgh : Rev. Richard Pearsall Ailen, Exeter : Rev. Robert Winter, London: and Rev. John Martyn Longmire, L.L. B. of Hargrave. Also the Report of the Directors and the List of Subscribers, &c. 8vo. pp. 142. price 2s. 6d. Williams and

Smith. 1808. IT T is a very consoling reflection, that amidst the ravages of war,

and the distractions which agitate the nations, that kingdom which is not of this world is extending its peaceful and bloodless conquests ; and that the methods adopted in order to attain this important object accord with those pure and benevolent principles which form the basis of its establishment. An association, founded on union of sentiment and design respecting the essential truths of Christianity, and combining the exertion of various talents and energies in one common cause, is an object sublimely engaging. It is ir spiring to all the Christian feelings of zeal and love and hpe and joy ; it is fitted to make us ashamed of our little controversies and differences, and to hide them in the blaze of its radiance. A volume which details the plans and operations of such a. society, and records the arguments and exhortations of its friends in its support, ought not to be subjected to the ordinary laws of criticism ; it deserves to be estimated only by those feelings which are genial with its own exalted spirit.

While there are degrees of glory in the constellations, we may expect diversities and gradations of talent in the Christian ministry It may therefore be presumed that we are not without our preferences in judging of the comparative merits of the discourses, before us. Each ad vocate of the cause seems devoutly impressed with its importance, though not equally capable of exhibiting distinctly and fervently that impression before others, so as to awaken a train of kindred emotions. Dr. Campbell's sermon is intitled “the Acclamation of the Redeemed,'(Rev.vii. 10.) and is characterised by peculiar energy of thought and expression. The arrangement of his subject, which is discussed in a series of observations, is methodical and perspicuous ; it presents a variety of interesting topics to our view, and these are illustrated in a very impressive manner ; we could only have wished, that the precise object for which he was pleading had been more strictly regarded, and the bearing of each remark toward the professed design rendered more obvious and direct. The next discourse, by Mr. Allen,' the certain accomplishment of the divine pur

con

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