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shall not stay to point out. We may here observe, however, that it is no disparagement to the divine writings, that they are not disposed according to the order of time, like the annals of modern History. The grand objects of the New Testament are to convince men that Christ was the promised Messiah, by recording his miracles, and his assumption of that office"; and to enlighten their minds and purify their characters, by promulgating his doctrines and precepts. Now, if we know that Jesus raised Lazarus to life, we must equally own his divine power, whether the miracle was performed in the first, second, or third year of his ministry. And if he tells us to love our enemies, we are equally bound to the performance of this duty, whether we know or not the day and hour when, the place where, and the persons to whom the precept was de livered. At the same time, we heartily approve of the application of learning and talent to the sacred writings, either in investigating the priority or subsequency of events, in explaining the local and temporary customs to which the writers sometimes allude, or illustrating the propriety, elegance, and force, of the expressions in which their thoughts are communicated. But although these particulars are not essential parts of divine knowledge, and are commonly beyond the reach of the understanding of the poor and uneducated, they furnish a very rational, useful, and entertaining employment for well informed minds, fond of dwelling upon the volume which instructs then in every thing connected with their dearest interests. If a poet, whose compositions are capa' le only of affording amusement, is followed by a retinue of Biographers and Commentators, who vie with each other in an. xiety to put their countrymen in full possession of every circumstance relating to the character and writings of their la. mented bard ; descending even to the fashion of his dress, the turn of his countenance, and the æras at which his pieces were respectively ushered into the world ; how much attention is due to the lives and writings of those who were employed as instruments for accomplishing the grandest and most interesting design which can come under the contemplation of men, no less than the 'redemption of a lost race from eternal ruin; whose characters and conduct were altogether a phenomenon in the moral world, not to be accounted for but through the immediate interference of omnipotent agency; and whose records, exclusively, convey to us, instructions respecting the Divine Being, our own immortal spirits, the means of our salvation, a future judgement, and our eternal destiny !

If the charge against the Quakers be true, that they are singularly ignorant as a sect of Theologians, Mr. B. is an honourable exception. He inculcates by precept, as well as

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example, the necessity of study, in order to enter into the full beauty and import of the Scripture.

There is one circumstance, useful to be kept in view, if we desire to enter into the historical parts of the New Testament with the same spirit, with which we can read and comprehend the histories of modern events. This circumstance is the political state of the countries which were the scenes of the recorded transactions. It should then be known, or adverted to, that scarcely a country mentioned in the following narrative, was not, at the time of Paul, subject to the Roman power, and governed either by deputies sent from Rome, or by native or other princes, who held their respective thrones at the will of the Roman emperor. The Herods and Agrippa were of the latter kind, if not 'Aretas the Arabian. The dominion of Rome being thus absolute and extensive, it is no wonder that the privilege of being a Roman citizen, or as we should say, free of Rome, should be so useful to Paul as we find it was. This privilege of citizenship, at first confined no doubt to the inhabitants of the city, had been gradually extended to those of other towns and countries : generally as a reward for some service done to the Roman state.

• But though Rome was thus the mistress of the most civilized parts of the world; she had not in overturning the former governments, over, turned or effaced their language. The Greeks, before the Romans, had overrun many of the same regions by force of arms. In many they had planted colonies. Instances of this latter mode of disseminating their customs and language are frequent in history; and Alexander, usually stiled the Great, is a notable example of a successful invader. His vast empire however did not survive its short lived master ; but, though it was divided, and the parts variously shifted from one chieftain to another, it was still divided among Greeks, and their admirable language gained ground in the regions and kingdoms of the East. When Rome, in turn, assumed the dominion of those countries, she admired the arts and the learning of the people whom she had subjected; their language was become a general one, not in Greece alone, but in Asia minor, in Syria, and even in Egypt; and the great men of Rome were obliged to study it, not only as an accomplishment, but to render then selves the more qualified to hold the foreign governments, after which so many of them aspired. And it is more than merely probable, that this general diffusion of the Greek tongue contributed, not a little, as a means, to facilitate the labours of our apostle and the spread of the gospel.

Nor did conquered Greece dictate to her conquerors in language only ; she was also their instructress in religion : if that name may be applied to almost childish superstition, and “ abominable idolatry.". It was indeed the practice of the Romans to enrol, in their long catalogue of gods, those of the conquered nations ; but with those of Greece they had long been familiar, and seem to have been particularly enamoured. But in this dismal state of Roman religion, there was not yet found that which completes the evil of bigotry and superstition ; and exhibits human pride, whatever may be the creed of the country, in its most malignant aspect. The Roman emperors had not yet, like Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus Epiphanes-had not yet begun to persecute men for their religion. This, I mention as another means, which tended to prevent

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obstructions to the religion of Christ, and allowed it time to take root and to be firmly established. In both cases the superintending care of its divine Author must be referred to as the cause.' pp. v.--viii.

Mr. B.'s notes display great variety of reading and information, and an acquaintance with the languages in which the Scriptures were originally written. His proposed emendations of the text in our translation, are for the most part judicious. He is free from the offensive failts sometimes obs rvable in those who usurp the critic's chair, and take unwarrantable liberties in mutilating our incomparable version of the Scripture. We have sometimes seen in them a fantastic desire of alteration without any just cause, a prurient propensity to accommodate the text to peculiar tenets, a choice of words and phraseology exceedingly inferior to those already employed, a deplorable ignorance of the principles of language, and a very superficial acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek tongues. With these faults, however, Mr. B. is not chargeable. He seldom blames the common translation, unless it be really defective. The new terms and phrases which he offers in the place of those which are now obsolete, or were formerly illchosen, are suitable, and well adapted to give English readers of every description a better notion of the sense. bound, however, to except his remarks on the force of the conjunction ivce, which in several places he considers to be expressive of the event instead of the final cause. One instance of this error occurs in a note on 1 Cor. i. 15, Lest

any should say that I had baptised in mine own name," uves un TIS urn, which Mr. B. would render " so that no man can say." The high authority of Chrysostom and Newcome, which he alduces in support of his proposed version of this Greek particle, cannot prevail upon us to acquiesce in it. In the spirit of that caution and reserve for which the Society of Friends are remarkable, he commonly passes over in silence such passages as have been the subject of great controversy. Still he is not so reserved, but that he occasionally discloses his views of some important doctrines of the gospel, although they have been perverted to the purposes of party rage or to secular designs. As we have reason to suppose the author speaks the sentiments of the body of the Friends at large, our readers may not be displeased with a few citations in which his opinions are discovered.

He shows his belief in the divinity of Christ in a note on 1 Cor.

Neither let us tempt Christ as some of them also tempted.”

• This (he observes) refers to Numbers xxi. 5. where it is said, “ And the people spake against God, and against Moses—and the Lord sent fiery serpents among them,” &c.Read the whole passage. This harmonizes with ver. f ; and it appears from both, that Paul esteemed Christ


X. 9.

v. 11.

to have been the guide of the Israelites in the wilderness. I acknowledge this is rather a doctrinal note ; but not having before seen this text brought forward, I could scarcely resist the inclination to deviate a little from my general plan. The reader is not likely to meet with many such 'remarks, in this selection.' p. 120. His belief in the atonement is seen in a remark. on Romans

“By whom we have now received the atonement.” • The same Greek word, xzgadzayn, which in all the other places where it occurs in the N. T. is translated reconciliation or reconciling; and why it should not, here, it is difficult to say. It might probably have prevented some error, and saved much contention. The other places are chap. xi. 15. “ The reconciling of the world," and 2 Cor. v. 18, 19.“ Ministry of reconciliation"_" word of reconciliation.” So also, is the corresponde ing verb, xatannábow, twice in the preceding verse of this chapter, at I Cor. vii. 11. and at 2 Cor. v. 18, 19, 20. I find Macknight agrees with this; and further remarks, the expression of our translators is inaccurate. Men, says he, do not receive the atonement. The atonement is made to God.' p. 223.

The necessity of regeneration appears also to form a part of his creed from the following notes ;

• 2 Cor. iji. 5. Not sufficient of ourselves, &c.] Purver quotes, on this passage, a' stanza of old Withers, a poet, whom more popular poets have ridiculed, or despised.

For of ourselves, we cannot leave

One pleasure, for thy sake ;
No, not one virtuous thought conceive,

Till us thou able make. • And he shows that the church of England adopts this sentiment in one of its collects. O Cod forasmuch as without thee, we are not able to please thee'-making this use of it-mercifully grant that thy Holy Spirit may in all things direct, and rule our hearts.' Protestants differ, in several things. Let them rejoice when they agree.'p. 172.

• 2 Cor. iii. 9. Ministration of righteousness.] So the ministry of the gospel is called, because by the gospel, a way is provided for the justification of those who have transgressed; but the law has nothing but rigid condemnation for all transgressors ; and therefore is the ministration of condemnation. Locke. This is informing : nevertheless, the spiritual traveller will perceive also a reference or analogy, in this passage, with his baptismal conflicts, and the peaceable fruits of righteousness which succeed them.'

PP 172, 173.

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The author departs a little from his usual plan of reserve in favour of the fiftb and sixth propositions of Barclay, concerning the doctrine of " universal and saving light.” We shall give one instance, out of many, of his partiality for this sentiment, from his note on Romans ii. 14. " having not the law, are a law unto themselves."

This is part of that preventing grace, which our adorable Redeemer merited for Adam and his posterity, and is communicated to every man at

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his first existence, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. Wilson. Preventing in the sense of coming before is almost obsolete., lo our Bibles it remains in Psalm lix. 10. lxxix. 8. lxxxviii. 13. xcv. 2. (margin) and cxix. 148. also, as has been noted, in 1 Thess. iv. 15. Milton has employed the word prevenient, in a similar sense.

Prevenient grace, descending, had remov'd
The stony, from their hearts; and made new flesh

Regen'rate grow instead. May we not call Bishop Wilson's a liberal comment on a liberal text?' pp. 212, 213.

Our extracts shall be concluded with one on the character of Gallio.

• Acts xviii. 12. Deputy) Proconsul. This Gallio was elder bro. ther of the famous Seneca : who says 'of him, Nemo omn um mortalium uni tam dulcis est, quam hic, omnibus, No mortal is so agreeable to one person, as this man is, to every body.

Acts xviii. 15. I will be no judge of such matters.] In which he acted worthily. How much mischief has the secular arm done, in preced. ing and succeeding times, by meddling in such matters ! p 69.

On the whole, we consider the present publication as ho. nourable to the piety and understanding of the author, and well adapted to accomplish his design of “affording entertainment and instruction to the devout mind, and throwing some light on that portion of scripture which it comprehends." Art. III. An Introduction to Physiological and Systematical Botany. By

James Edward Smith. M. D. F. R. S. &c. &c. President of the
Linnæan Society. 8vo. pp. 560. Price. 14s. bds. Longman and Co.
White. 1808.
THE observations of above half a century having fully demon-

strated the law of nature, that all organic beings are pro. pagated by means of distinct sexes, it is more than improbable, that any philosophical objections will ever be raised against this fundamental principle in the Linnean classification of plants. When it was first brought into public notice, a Siegesbeck might indeed excite a:tention, by attacking the language formed upon this newly urged analogy of plants with animals, as voluptuous or licentious; but when the truth of the analogy is proved, we are compelled to ackuowledge the system which it establishes, whatever may be the inconveniences of its language. We soon learn to understand terms, in the sense in which they are used; and however exceptionable botanical expressions might be, if applied to the animal kingdom in general, or immoral if alluding to the human species, in the mind of the Botanist they are neither, but merely in. dicate, that the description or definition into wich they enter, is deduced from the original proposition. Dr. Darwin, indeed, in his Botanic garden, by contracting the comparison, made

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